Section 16.1 The Nature of Covalent Bonding. Chapter 16 Covalent Bonding. Covalent bonds. How does H 2 form? Covalent bonding

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1 Chapter 16 Covalent Bonding Adapted from notes by Stephen Cotton Section 16.1 The Nature of Covalent Bonding BJECTIVES: Use electron dot structures to show the formation of single, double, and triple covalent bonds. Describe and give examples of coordinate covalent bonding, resonance structures, and exceptions to the octet rule ow does 2 form? The nuclei But they are attracted to They the electrons Covalent bonds Nonmetals hold onto their electrons. They don t give away Still want configuration. Get it by with each other. Both atoms get to count the electrons toward a noble gas configuration (satisfies rule). 5 Covalent bonding Fluorine has valence electrons A second atom also has seven By electrons both end with full FF 6 A Single Covalent Bond is... Sharing of valence electrons. nly nonmetals and Different from an ionic bond because they actually form. 1

2 7 Double bond Triple bond Multiple Bonds T.16.1, p Know which elements are diatomic. 8 Examples Draw Lewis Structures for the following: 2 N 2 2 N 3 IBr Cl C 2 C 3 2- C 2 4 C 2 2 Bond Dissociation Energies... The total energy required to break the bond between bonded atoms igh dissociation energy usually means. Table 16.3, p448 Example: Calculate the amount of energy needed to dissociate all the bonds in 1.75 mol C 2-3 Resonance When valid Lewis Structure is possible. Example: zone ( 3 ) 9 10 Exceptions to ctet rule For some molecules, it is impossible to satisfy the octet rule and e BF 3 PCl 5 Magnetism diamagnetic- substance in which weakly by external magnetic field. paramagnetic- substances that contain to external magnetic field

3 Section 16.2 Bonding Theories BJECTIVES Describe the molecular orbital theory of covalent bonding, including orbital hybridization. Use VSEPR theory to predict the shapes of simple covalently bonded molecules. Molecular rbitals The overlap of atomic orbitals to produce orbitals that apply to the Molecular rbitals Sigma bond- when two atomic orbitals make a molecular orbital along the Pi bond- when two atomic orbitals make a molecular orbital along the Single bond = Double bond = Triple bond = p.454 and 455 ybrid rbitals A of two or more atomic orbitals. Three hybrid orbitals: sp mixing of an orbital. sp 2 mixing of an orbitals. sp 3 mixing of an orbitals. Example: C 4 Electron promotion of one electron to the level to make a hybrid VSEPR: stands for... elps predict dimensional geometry of molecules. Valence shell - electrons. Electron Pair repulsion - electron pairs try to get Determines the angles of bonds and the of a molecule. VSEPR Example: draw the regular Lewis Structure and then the 3-D Lewis Structure for C

4 19 4 atoms bonded Basic shape is A pyramid with a Same shape for everything with Bond angle is C 20 ther angles p.456 Know the shapes and bond angles in F.16.16, p.457 Draw 3-D Lewis Structures for: N 3 2 C 2 Ammonium Boron trichloride Nitrate Phosphorus pentafluoride C 2 4 Section 16.3 Polar Bonds and Molecules BJECTIVES: Use electronegativity values to classify a bond as nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, or ionic. Name and describe the weak attractive forces that hold groups of molecules together. Covalent bonding occurs when electrons are Electrons are not always shared Electrons are pulled between the atoms involved in the In equal sharing (such as diatomic molecules), the bond that results is called a When two different atoms bond covalently there is an the more electronegative atom will have a stronger attraction for e -, and will acquire a slightly charge. called a, or simply. 24 Refer to Table 14.2, p.405 Consider Cl = electronegativity of Cl = electronegativity of the bond is the chlorine acquires a slight charge, and the hydrogen a slight charge 4

5 nly partial charges, much less than a true 1+ or 1- as in ionic bond Written as: Cl Can also be shown: Cl The arrow points to the more atom. Table 16.4, p.462 shows how the electronegativity can also indicate the type of bond that tends to form Polar molecules The effect of polar bonds on the polarity of the entire molecule depends on the molecule carbon dioxide has two polar bonds, but is : Polar molecules The effect of polar bonds on the polarity of the entire molecule depends on the molecule water also has two polar bonds, but the highly electronegative oxygen Intermolecular Forces Attractions molecules (van der Waals forces). 3 types of intermolecular forces: London Dispersion Forces Due to the motion of, which set up temporary dipoles. ften occur in molecules the larger the molecule, the more electrons there will be, the the London dispersion forces will be. Is why chlorine is, bromine is, and iodine is

6 Dipole-dipole forces ccur when polar molecules are to each other. Slightly than dispersion forces. pposites attract but not completely hooked like in solid crystals. F F Dipole Interactions δ + δ ydrogen bonding Are the attractive forces caused by hydrogen bonded to F,, and N are very so it is a very strong form of dipoledipole interaction. The of the intermolecular forces. ydrogen Bonding ydrogen bonding Intramolecular Forces The forces a molecule. Are the that hold a molecule together

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