# Unit 5 Geometry. Using imperial, metric and conversions when necessary. Maximum area for a given perimeter

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1 Unit 5 Geometry BIG PICTURE MAP 4C Foundations for College Mathematics Students will: Understand the relationships between imperial and metric units Consolidate understanding of perimeter, area, surface area, and volume through real-life problems Explore optimization of two-dimensional and three-dimensional figures Day Lesson Title Math Learning Goals Expectations 1 Exploring Relationships between Metric and Imperial Lesson Included *New Jan/08* Explore relationships that exist between inches and centimeters (measuring tools: string, both types of rulers, or tapes) Reading ruler, measuring tape (fraction) Create a scatter plot from the student s data Perform a linear regression and get the equation Connect to the actual conversion (inches <-> centimetres) GT1.1 Trundle wheel activity for perimeter Converting mixed imperial measurements <-> metric Example convert 5 1/8 to cm 3 Finding the area of rectangles, triangles, and circles, and of related composite shapes, in situations arising from realworld applications Using imperial, metric and conversions when necessary 4 Maximizing Area for a Given Perimeter Maximum area for a given perimeter Problem: Cagey Problem, Why are copper wires round? Lesson Included 5 Minimizing Minimum perimeter for a given area Perimeter Problem: Fencing Lesson Included *New Jan/08* 6 Jazz Day 7 Volume problems involving rectangular prisms, triangular prisms, cylinders, and composite figures Using imperial, metric and conversions when necessary Example: Volume of Concrete Pad in cubic meters with initial measurements in feet and inches. Example 8 x 4 x 4 8 Surface area problems involving rectangular prisms, triangular prisms, cylinders, and composite figures Using imperial, metric and conversions when necessary GT1.1 GT1. GT.,GT.1 GT.,GT.1 GT1.3 GT1.3 9 Maximum Volume of a Triangular Prism Lesson Included Maximum volume for a given surface area Using imperial, metric and conversions when necessary GT.3,GT.1 MAP 4C: Unit 5 Geometry (January January 008) 1

2 10 Minimum Surface Area of a Cylinder Minimum surface area for a given volume Using imperial, metric and conversions when necessary GT.3,GT Lesson Included Keeping the Kandies Summative Included M.O.* Summative Task Packaging Project MAP 4C: Unit 5 Geometry (January January 008)

3 Unit 5: Day 1: Exploring Relationships between Metric and Imperial Math Learning Goals: Minds On: 10 Explore relationships that exist between metric and imperial measuring systems Action: 35 Consolidate:30 Total=75 min Minds On Whole Class Discussion Put the titles Metric and Imperial on the board. Ask students to list several units of measure (for distance, weight or volume) and discuss whether the suggestions belong to the metric or imperial system. Determine if students are already aware of relationships between metric and imperial systems. (e.g. Some students may already know that there are.54 cm in an inch or that there are 1 inches in a foot.) Discuss where each system of measure is currently in use and the need to be able to convert between systems. Mathematical Process Focus: Reflecting Students reflect on prior knowledge of measurement units and conversions Action! Consolidate Debrief Exploration Skill Practice Pairs Investigation Explain to students that they will be measuring several objects around the classroom today in both metric and imperial units. They will then be required to perform a regression (as in unit of the course) to determine the relationship between the two units of measure. Distribute BLM to each pair to perform the investigation. Learning Skills/Observation/Mental Note: Assess teamwork skills as you circulate. Mathematical Process Focus: Connecting students connect prior knowledge of linear regression with finding a relationship between the lengths of inches and centimetres, yards and metres, etc. Whole Class Sharing Results For each activity, have students write their equation of the line of best fit on the board as shown in BLM Using the equations, decide on the appropriate conversion factor for each activity. Whole Class Board Note Using BLM as a guide, show students how to perform conversions of distances and areas. Whole Class Discussion Discuss other units of measure and their conversion factors. Give the example of the Gimli Glider incident to show the importance of proper/correct conversions (and to peak their interests). In particular, ask the students to determine how much fuel they were short for the flight (the plane needed,300kg of fuel, but was loaded with,300pounds instead) Home Activity or Further Classroom Consolidation Complete BLM 5.1. Assessment Opportunities Materials BLM BLM 5.1. BLM Measuring tapes with metric and imperial measures Graphing Calculators or statistics software When adding units to the list, question students whether they are distance, volume, mass, etc. When adding several measures of one type, ask students to order them by size (eg. If students say yards, inches and feet are all imperial distance measures, ask them which is biggest and which is smallest of the three given. Gimli Glider info can be found at: g/wiki/gimli_glider And the news report at: /IDC /that_was_then/life _society/gimli_glider MAP 4C: Unit 5 Geometry (January January 008) 3

4 5.1.1: Metric and Imperial: What s the Relationship? Exploring Centimetres and Inches Data Collection 1. Measure 5 objects of varying sizes around the classroom.. Measure each object two times: once in centimetres and once in inches. 3. Record your results in the table. Object Length in Inches Length in Centimetres Analyze the data 4. Enter your data into a spreadsheet or graphing calculator. 5. Perform a linear regression to obtain the equation of the line of best fit. Line of Best Fit: Interpret your findings 6. Measure another object in the classroom in inches. Object: Length in inches: 7. Use your line of best fit to calculate the length in centimetres. 8. Now measure the item in centimetres. How close was your calculation to your measurement? 9. How do you convert lengths given in inches to centimetres? 10. How do you convert lengths given in centimetres to inches? MAP 4C: Unit 5 Geometry (January January 008) 4

5 5.1.1: Metric and Imperial: What s the Relationship? (Continued) Exploring Centimetres and Inches You have determined a relationship between centimetres and inches, which can be used to convert lengths or distances. Now, you will determine a relationship to convert areas in inches and centimetres. Hypothesis 1. Do you think the relationship between inches and centimetres is the same as the relationship you found between centimetres and inches? Explain. (example: how would you convert 1 cm to inches?) Data Collection. Measure the area of 5 objects of varying sizes around the classroom. 3. Measure the area of each object two times: once in inches and once in centimetres. 4. Record your results in the table. Object Area in Inches Area in Centimetres Analyze the data 5. Enter your data into a spreadsheet or graphing calculator. 6. Perform a linear regression to obtain the equation of the line of best fit. Line of Best Fit: Interpret your findings 7. Do your findings agree or disagree with your hypothesis? Explain. 8. How do you convert areas given in inches to centimetres? 10. How do you convert areas given in centimetres to inches? MAP 4C: Unit 5 Geometry (January January 008) 5

6 5.1.1: Metric and Imperial: What s the Relationship? (Continued) Exploring Metres and Yards Data Collection 1. Measure 5 objects of varying sizes around the classroom.. Measure each object two times: once in metres and once in yards. 3. Record your results in the table. Object Length in Metres Length in Yards Analyze the data 4. Enter your data into a spreadsheet or graphing calculator. 5. Perform a linear regression to obtain the equation of the line of best fit. Line of Best Fit: Interpret your findings 6. Measure another object in the classroom in metres. Object: Length in metres: 7. Use your line of best fit to calculate the length in yards. 8. Now measure the item in yards. How close was your calculation to your measurement? 9. How do you convert lengths given in metres to yards? 10. How do you convert lengths given in yards to metres? MAP 4C: Unit 5 Geometry (January January 008) 6

7 5.1.: Metric and Imperial Conversions 1. Perform the following conversions using the relationships determined in class today. a) 15 cm = inches b) 0 inches = cm c) 7 3/8 inches = cm d) 10.4 cm = inches e) 6 yards = m f) 18 m = yards g) 4 yards feet = m h) 16 m 5 cm = yards. Another set of distance measurements commonly used are miles and kilometres. a) What unit of distance do you think is longer, a mile or a kilometre? b) There are 1760 yards in a mile. Convert this number to metres. c) How many metres are in a kilometre? d) Which unit of distance is longer, the mile or the kilometre? e) Determine the relationship between miles and kilometres based on your above calculations. 3. Converting areas is not the same as converting distances. Below is a different method you can use to convert areas in different units of measurement if you already know the appropriate conversions for lengths. Convert 16 miles to km by following the steps outlined below. a) Consider 1 mile. Convert the side lengths to kilometres. 1 mile 1 mile 1 mile? km? km? km b) Calculate the area in km. c) Use the information obtained in parts a) and b) to convert 16 miles to km. 4. Use any method to convert 30 inches 3 to cm 3. MAP 4C: Unit 5 Geometry (January January 008) 7

8 5.1.3: Metric and Imperial Conversions (Teacher Notes) Board Note (for Consolidation): Line of Best Fit Line of Best Fit Line of Best Fit (Inches Centimetres) (Inches Centimetres ) (Metres Yards) (Have students write their lines of best fit for each of these scenarios on the board.) There are approximately.54 cm in an inch. There are approximately 6.45 cm in an inch. There are approximately 1.09 yards in a metre. Performing Conversions 1. Perform the following conversions using the relationships determined in class today. a) 5 7/8 inches = cm b) 1. cm = inches inch inch 1 y = = cm 54. x cm = 54. x ( 1. )( 1) =. 54y 1x = ( 54. )( ) 1. = y 54. x 14. 9cm y 83. inches c) 3 yards 1 foot = m d) 14 m 33 cm = yards e) 4 cm = inches f) 15 inches = cm inch 1 z = cm ( 4)( 1) = (. 54) y 4 (. 54) = y y 65. inches. A Canadian Football League playing field is 110 yards by 65 yards. Determine the area of the football field in m. * Allow students to try this question as a think-pair-share. Hopefully you will see at least different solutions (determine the area, then convert to metric; convert the dimensions to metric then determine the area) Instead of,300 kg of fuel, they had,300 pounds on board MAP 4C: Unit 5 Geometry (January January 008) 8

9 Unit 5: Day 5: Minimizing Perimeter Math Learning Goals: Minds On: 10 Determine minimum perimeter for a given area. Compare minimizing perimeter for a set area with maximizing area for a set perimeter Action: 45 Materials Geometer s Sketchpad U5L5_GSP1 BLM BLM 5.5. Consolidate:0 Total=75 min Assessment Opportunities Minds On Think, Pair, Share Discussion Put two questions on the board: 1. Determine the dimensions of the right triangle with a maximum area where the perimeter must be 3 inches.. Determine the dimensions of the right triangle with a minimum perimeter where the area must be 40 inches. Have students discuss with a partner the similarities and differences between these two questions. During the discussion, prompt students to focus on what information is given, what is required to be found, and what process might you go through to solve the problems. Point out to students that the first question was from the previous day s lesson and the second question will be the focus of today s lesson. Action! Individual Investigation Distribute BLM to students and direct them to the GSP file that they should use as an aid in completing the investigation. Reasoning and Proving/Observation/Mental Note: Circulate and give students feedback on their work. Mathematical Process Focus: Reasoning and Proving students are required to investigate several different options and must argue why the option they chose is the best one. Students should have access to U5L5_GSP1 Consolidate Debrief Student Grouping Instructional Strategy Distribute BLM 5.5. and instruct students on how to manually find the dimensions now that we have determined some special relationships (Refer to BLM 5.5. (Teacher notes). (i.e. That the optimal dimensions for a rectangle must be a square and that the optimal dimensions for a right triangle is a right isosceles triangle.) Concept Practice Home Activity or Further Classroom Consolidation Complete questions 1 and at the bottom of BLM 5.5. MAP 4C: Unit 5 Geometry (January January 008) 9

10 5.5.1: Park Beautification A local park s officials have been given a grant to beautify its facilities. Along with new playground equipment and repainting of all the buildings, a garden is to be planted somewhere on the grounds. Three different locations have been chosen for the garden. However, the brick used to line the perimeter of the garden is quite expensive. You will examine the three different locations for a garden area of 0 m and decide which option will be cheapest to border with the chosen brick. Using Geometer s Sketchpad, open the provided file and examine the three different options. Option 1: A Circular Garden with Fountain The beautification committee has chosen the centre of the park as its first option. They would like to build a circular garden and place a fountain in the middle. In this case, there will only be one possible set of dimensions. Determine the radius and circumference of a circle with an area of 0m. Area = 0m Radius = Circumference = Option : A Rectangular Garden Surrounding the Park Sign The committee s second option is near the entrance of the park. Here, the garden would surround the welcome sign to the park. For this case, you must consider at least 8 different dimensions for the length and width of the garden. Remember, you would like an area of 0m and you are trying to minimize the perimeter of the garden. Length Width Area Perimeter Hypothesis: Based on your trials, what do you think are the best dimensions of the garden for this option? MAP 4C: Unit 5 Geometry (January January 008) 10

11 5.5.1: Park Beautification (Continued) Option 3: A Right Triangular Garden Near the Playground The committee s final option is in a corner of the park near the playground. For this case, you must consider at least 8 different dimensions for the height and base of the right triangle. Remember, you would like an area of 0m and you are trying to minimize the perimeter of the garden. Height Base Area Perimeter Hypothesis: Based on your trials, what do you think are the best dimensions of the garden for this option? Selecting the Best Option You have now had a chance to investigate several different options for the placement of a garden in the park. What recommendation would you make to the park beautification committee based on your research? Be sure to justify your recommendation. MAP 4C: Unit 5 Geometry (January January 008) 11

12 5.5.: Calculating Dimensions: Maximum Area / Minimum Perimeter 1. Determine the perimeter of a circle with an area of 144 inches.. Determine the minimum perimeter of a rectangle with an area of 18 mm. 3. Determine the minimum perimeter of a right-angled triangle with an area of 5 ft. Maximizing Area and Minimizing Perimeter: Practise Complete the following questions on lined paper. 1. Determine the maximum area for each of the following shapes. a) a circle with a circumference of 15 cm. b) a rectangle with a perimeter of 34 m. c) a right-angled triangle with a perimeter of 18 mm.. Determine the minimum perimeter for each of the following shapes. a) a circle with an area of 56 yards. b) a rectangle with an area of 9 inches. c) a right-angled triangle with an area of 13 dam. 3. Determine the minimum amount of fencing needed for each of the following: (Note: you will have to create a table for these ones) a) A rectangle garden to be fenced on all 4 sides, with an area of 9 yards. b) A rectangle garden only to be fenced on 3 sides, with an area of 18 yards. c) A rectangle garden only to be fenced on sides, with an area of 36 yards. d) What do you notice about your answers from a c? Why do you think this is the case? MAP 4C: Unit 5 Geometry (January January 008) 1

13 5.5.: Calculating Dimensions: Maximum Area / Minimum Perimeter (Teacher Notes) 1. Determine the perimeter of a circle with an area of 144 inches. A = πr C = π r 144 = πr C = π( 68.) 144 πr = π π C = 4. 7inches 144 π = r 144 π = r r = 68. inches. Determine the minimum perimeter of a rectangle with an area of 18 mm. To get optimal dimensions, we must have a square, so l=w A = l P = 4 l 18 = l P = 44 (.) 18 = l P = 168. mm l = 4. mm 3. Determine the minimum perimeter of a right-angled triangle with an area of 5 ft. A bh = We know from yesterday s work: 5 = bh P = b 104 = bh P = ( 10. ) P = feet but b=h since we have an isosceles triangle 104 = b 104 = b b = 10. feet MAP 4C: Unit 5 Geometry (January January 008) 13

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