The System Unit. Chapter 5. Computing Essentials Edited/Modified by Nicole Tobias. The System Unit

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1 Chapter 5 Computing Essentials 2014 Edited/Modified by Nicole Tobias 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized authorized for sale for distribution sale or distribution in any manner. in any manner. This document This document may not may be copied, not be copied, scanned, scanned,

2 Competencies (1 of 2) Describe the four basic types of system units. Describe system boards, including sockets, slots, and bus lines. Discuss microprocessors, including microprocessor chips and specialty processors. Discuss memory including RAM, ROM, and flash memory. 2

3 Competencies (2 of 2) Discuss expansion slots and cards. Describe bus lines, bus widths, and expansion buses. Describe ports, including standard and specialized ports. Discuss power supply for desktop, notebook, tablet, and handheld computers. Discuss how a computer can represent numbers and encode characters electronically. 3

4 Introduction Speed, capacity, and flexibility determine the power of microcomputers. Knowledge of a computer s power allows you to make good buying decisions and to determine if your current system will run new applications. Competent end users need to understand the basic principles of how microcomputers are put together. 4

5 Also known as the system chassis A container that houses most of the electronic components that make up a computer system.

6 System Unit Types Desktops Tower Unit, All-in-one Notebooks Laptops Netbooks Tablets Handhelds 6

7 Desktops Most powerful type of microcomputer Most have the system unit in a separate case. I/O is outside Electronic components and secondary storage devices on inside The System unit is sometimes also called Tower Unit. All-in-one computers combine the monitor and system unit

8 Notebooks Not as powerful as Desktops. These are often called laptops. System unit is located with the keyboard and mouse. Monitor is attached by hinges. Netbooks Designed to support on-the-go web browsing and access.

9 Tablets Also known as Tablet Computers Newest and most popular type of computer. They are basically all monitor with the system unit behind. Less powerful than a notebook Some have special OS

10 Handhelds Smallest and designed to fit in the palm of your hand They contain the entire computer. Most popular: Smartphone = Cell phone + Computing Power Their System Unit is located behind the display screen and keypad.

11 Components Each has the same basic elements: (including) System Board Microprocessor Memory These can produce a significant amount of heat that can damage a computer.

12 Making IT Work for You ~ Keeping Your Computer Cool Computer components generate a significant amount of heat Can damage your system Notebooks present a special challenge 12

13 System Board Main board or motherboard Controls communications Components connect to the system board Acts as a Data path Traffic monitor 13

14 System Board Typically located at the bottom of the tower in desktops or on the side. Large flat circuit board Components Sockets Buses Slots 14

15 System Board Components (Page 1 of 2) Sockets Connection point for chips Chips Tiny circuit boards etched onto squares of silicon Also called silicon chip, semiconductor, or integrated circuit Mounted on carrier packages 15

16 System Board Components (Page 2 of 2) Slots Provide a connection point for specialized cards or circuit boards Provide extension capabilities Bus lines Ex. Networking card slots Provide pathways that support communication among the various electronic components 16

17 Microprocessor Central Processing Unit (CPU) Also known as a Processor Contained on the microprocessor chip Brains of the computer Two Basic Components Control unit Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) 17

18 CPU Parts Control Unit Tells the rest of the computer system how to carry out program instructions. Directs movement of electronic signals between memory Directs control signals between CPU and I/O devices Arithmetic-logic Unit Usually called the ALU Performs arithmetic and logical operations

19 Microprocessor Chips (Page 1 of 2) Chip capacities expressed in word size Word The number of bits that can be processed at one time 64-bit standard 8 bits = 1 byte Clock Speed Processing speed The number of times the CPU fetches and processes data or instructions in a second Clock speed should only be compared on processors that work the same way since some can handle multiple instructions per cycle. 19

20 Microprocessor Chips (Page 2 of 2) Multi-Core Chip Two or more separate and independent CPUs Parallel Processing Windows 8 and Mac OS X 20

21 Specialty Processors Coprocessors Designed to improve specific computing operations Most Widely used: Graphics coprocessors / Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) Designed to display 3-D images and encrypting data. Cars have more than 70 to control everything from fuel efficiency to satellite entertainment and tracking systems. 21

22 Memory A holding area for data, instructions, and information. Three Types of Memory: Random-access memory (RAM) Read-only memory (ROM) Flash memory

23 RAM Holds the program (sequence of instructions) and data that the CPU is currently processing Temporary/ volatile storage Everything is lost when power is gone Cache Memory Temp. high-speed holding area between memory and the CPU

24 ROM Have information stored on them by the manufacture. Not volatile and cannot be changed by the user. Read-only Computer can only read/retrieve data, it cannot write to it Flash has replaced ROM chips for many applications

25 Flash Offers a combination of RAM and ROM Can be updated (like RAM) and non-volatile (like ROM) Can store things like start-up programs Sometimes called the system BIOS BIOS = basic input/output system

26 Expansion Slots and Cards Advanced graphics cards Sound cards Network interface cards (NIC) Wireless network cards Plug and Play 26

27 Bus Lines Also known as a bus Connect parts of the CPU to each other Pathway for bits Bus width Number of bits that can travel at once Two basic categories System buses Expansion buses 27

28 Expansion Buses Connects the CPU to other components on the system board, including expansion slots Universal Serial Bus (USB) Connects external USB devices onto the USB bus Current Standard is USB 3.0 FireWire Audio and video equipment PCI Express (PCIe) Single dedicated path for each connected device 28

29 Ports A socket for external devices to connect to the system unit. Standard Ports VGA (Video Graphics Adapter) and DVI (Digital Video Interface) ports USB FireWire Ethernet

30 Ports A socket for external devices to connect to the system unit. Specialized Ports External Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (esata) High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) Mini DisplayPort (MiniDP or mdp) Musical instrument digital interface (MIDI) Sony/Philips Digital Interconnect Format (S/PDIF) = optical audio connections

31 Cables Used to connect external devices to the system unit via the ports One end of the cable is attached to the device and the other end has a connector that is attached to a matching connector on the port 31

32 Making IT Work for You ~ TV Tuners Using Windows Media System as a DVR Install TV Tuner 32

33 Power Supply Computers require direct current (DC) DC power can be provided by converting alternating current (AC) from wall outlets or batteries Desktop computers use power supply units Notebooks and handhelds use AC adapters 33

34 Electronic Data and Instructions Digital electronic signals Recognized by computers Analog signals Created by voices Conversion must take place from analog to digital before processing can occur 34

35 Numeric Representation Binary System only two digits called bits On = 1; positive charge Off = 0; no charge Byte = 8 bits grouped together Hexadecimal system 35

36 Character Encoding Character encoding standards ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange Microcomputers EBCDIC Extended Binary coded Decimal Interchange Code Mainframe Unicode Uses 16 bits Recognized by virtually all computer systems 36

37 Careers In IT Computer technicians repair and install computer components and systems Employers look for: Certification Communication skills Continued education is required Computer technicians can expect to earn an annual salary of $31K to $46K 37

38 A Look to the Future Wearable computers Send and receive while jogging Maintain your personal schedule book Remember the names of people at a party 38

39 Open-Ended Questions (Page 1 of 3) Describe the four basic types of microcomputers and microcomputer system units. Describe system boards including sockets, chips, carrier packages, slots, and bus lines. Discuss microprocessor components, chips, and specialty processors. 39

40 Open-Ended Questions (Page 2 of 3) Define computer memory including RAM, ROM, and flash memory. Define expansion slots, cards, Plug and Play, PC cards, PCMCIA slots, and Express- Card slots. Describe bus lines including bus width, system bus, and expansion bus. 40

41 Open-Ended Questions (Page 3 of 3) Define ports including standard and specialized ports. Give examples of each. Describe power supply including power supply units and AC adapters. Discuss electronic data and instructions. 41

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