Technology in Action. Alan Evans Kendall Martin Mary Anne Poatsy. Tenth Edition. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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1 Technology in Action Alan Evans Kendall Martin Mary Anne Poatsy Tenth Edition Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

2 Technology in Action Chapter 2 Looking at Computers Understanding the Parts Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

3 Chapter Topics Understanding Your Computer Input Devices and Output Devices Processing, Memory, and Storage Ports and Power Controls Setting It All Up Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2

4 Understanding Your Computer Computers are Data Processing Devices Performs four major functions Input: Gathers data, allows users to enter data Process: Manipulates, calculates, or organizes data into information Output: Displays data and information for user Storage: Saves data and information for later use Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 3

5 Understanding Your Computer Computers are Data Processing Devices (cont.) Data: Representation of a fact, figure, or idea Information: Data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4

6 Understanding Your Computer Bits and Bytes: The Language of Computers The language of computers Bit Binary digit 0 or 1 Byte 8 bits Each letter, number, or character is a unique combination of 8 bits of 0s and 1s Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5

7 Understanding Your Computer Bits and Bytes: The Language of Computers (cont.) Name Abbreviation Number of Bytes Byte B 1 byte Kilobyte KB 1,024 bytes (2 10 ) Megabyte MB 1,048,576 bytes (2 20 bytes) Gigabyte GB 1,073,741,824 bytes (2 30 bytes) Terabyte TB 1,099,511,627,776 bytes (2 40 bytes) Petabyte PB 1,125,899,906,842,62 bytes (2 50 bytes) Exabyte EB 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes (2 60 bytes) Zettabyte ZB 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424 bytes (2 70 bytes) Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6

8 Understanding Your Computer Bits and Bytes: The Language of Computers (cont.) Computer uses combination of hardware and software to process data into information Hardware is any part of the computer you can physically touch Software is set of computer programs Application software System software Operating system (OS) Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7

9 Understanding Your Computer Types of Computers Two basic designs of computers Portable Laptop computers Netbooks Tablet PCs Tablet computer Ultrabooks Stationary Desktop computers Separate case plus peripheral devices All-in-one computers Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8

10 Understanding Your Computer Types of Computers (cont.) Mainframe Supports many users simultaneously Supercomputer Performs complex calculations extremely rapidly Embedded Self-contained computer devices performing dedicated functions Smartphone Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 9

11 Input Devices Devices used to enter data and instructions into the computer Most common input devices: Keyboards to enter typed data and commands Mouse to enter responses and commands Other input devices: Microphone to input sounds Scanner to input nondigital text Digital camera to input digital images Stylus to tap commands or draw on screen Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10

12 Input Devices Keyboards QWERTY layout is standard on most PCs Netbook and laptop keys are more compact and have fewer keys Wireless keyboards work via radio frequencies Alternative keyboards Flexible keyboards Virtual laser keyboard Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11

13 Input Devices Mice and Other Pointing Devices Optical mouse Internal sensor or laser detects movement Moves pointer on the screen Wireless mouse Optical and trackball Data sent by radio frequency (RF) or Bluetooth technology Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 12

14 Input Devices Mice and Other Pointing Devices (cont.) Touch pads and trackpoint devices Take place of mouse on laptops Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 13

15 Input Devices Mice and Other Pointing Devices (cont.) Game controllers send data to computer Joysticks Game pads Steering wheels Most game controllers are wireless to provide extra mobility Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 14

16 Input Devices Touch Screens Display screen that responds to commands by touch with finger or stylus Becoming popular on many computing devices Smartphones Tablet PCs Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 15

17 Input Devices Image Input Digital cameras, camcorders, cell phones Capture pictures and video Scanners Create digital image Webcams Capture and transmit live video Used for videoconferences Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16

18 Input Devices Sound Input A microphone (mic) captures sound waves and transfer them to digital format Sound input allows Video conferencing Audio conferencing Chatting with friends or family over the Internet instead of using a phone Recording podcasts Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 17

19 Input Devices Sound Input (cont.) Close talk microphones Omnidirectional Unidirectional Clip-on microphones Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 18

20 Output Devices Enable you to send processed data out of the computer in the form of text, pictures, sounds, or video Monitors Printers Speakers and earphones Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 19

21 Output Devices Monitors Liquid crystal display (LCD) Flat panel Light and energy efficient Light-emitting diode (LED) More energy efficient than LCD monitors Better color accuracy and thinner panels Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) Use organic compounds that produce light Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 20

22 Output Devices Monitors (cont.) How LCD Monitors work Screens are grids made up of millions of tiny dots called pixels Each pixel is composed of red, blue, and green subpixels (and sometimes yellow) Two or more sheets of material are filled with liquid crystal solution Crystals block or let light shine through to cause images to form on the screen Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 21

23 Output Devices Monitors (cont.) Choosing an LCD Monitor Aspect ratio width to height proportion Resolution number of pixels displayed on screen Contrast ratio difference in light intensity between brightest white and darkest black Viewing angle distance in degrees from which you can move to the side of (or above or below) a monitor Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 22

24 Output Devices Monitors (cont.) Choosing an LCD Monitor (cont.) Brightness greatest amount of light showing when the monitor is displaying pure white Response time time it takes for a pixel to change color Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 23

25 Output Devices Monitors (cont.) The bigger the monitor, the more you can display 27-inch monitor pixels 21.5-inch monitor pixels Blu-ray movies Require at least pixels Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 24

26 Inkjet printers Output Devices Printers Spray tiny drops of ink onto page Laser printers Use laser beams and static electricity to deliver toner to page Nonimpact printers have replaced impact printers almost entirely Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 25

27 Inkjet Affordable High-quality color printouts Quick and quiet Output Devices Printers (cont.) Laser Faster printing speed Higher quality printouts More expensive Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 26

28 Wireless printer No wires Output Devices Printers (cont.) Several people can print to same printer from different places Two types WiFi and Bluetooth Range of up to approx. 300 feet WiFi sends data more quickly Allows you to print from portable devices Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 27

29 All-in-one printer Output Devices Printers (cont.) Functions as printer, scanner, copier, and fax Plotter Used to print oversize images Thermal printer Emerging as popular technology for mobile and portable printing Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 28

30 Selecting a Printer Output Devices Printers (cont.) Decide your primary printing need first Speed (pages per minute) Resolution (dots per inch) Color output Cost of consumables Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 29

31 Sound Output Speaker is output device for sound Inexpensive speakers come with computers Surround-sound speakers Wireless speaker systems Headphones or earbuds avoid distracting others Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 30

32 Processing and Memory on the Motherboard Motherboard: Main circuit board containing central electronic components of the computer CPU ROM, RAM, and cache Slots for expansion cards Network interface card (NIC) Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 31

33 Processing and Memory on the Motherboard Memory RAM Random access memory Stores instructions and data Series of several memory cards or modules Temporary (volatile) storage ROM Read-only memory Stores startup instructions Permanent (nonvolatile) storage Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 32

34 Processing and Memory on the Motherboard Processing Central Processing Unit Also called CPU or processor Referred to as the brains of the computer Controls all functions performed by the computer s other components Processes all commands and instructions Can perform billions of tasks per second Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 33

35 Processing and Memory on the Motherboard Processing (cont.) CPU Performance Measures Processor speed measured in hertz (Hz) Megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz) Number of cores Single Dual Quad Eight Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 34

36 Storing Data and Information Hard Drives Primary device for permanent storage Holds stored programs and data Internal hard drive Inside the system Holds all permanently stored programs and data Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 35

37 Storing Data and Information Hard Drives (cont.) External hard drive Resides outside the system Connects via USB or FireWire port Solid-State Drive (SSD) No moving parts Runs with no noise Emits little heat Requires little power Less likely to fail Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 36

38 Storing Data and Information Internal drive bays Hard Drives (cont.) Reserved for internal hard drives External drive bays House CD or DVD drives Notebook expansion attaches external drive via USB port Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 37

39 Storing Data and Information External hard drives Large portable storage needs Flash Storage Small and lightweight Attach to computer via USB port Care must be taken when transporting Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 38

40 Storing Data and Information Flash Storage (cont.) Flash drive (jump drive, USB drive, thumb drive) Use solid-state flash memory No moving parts Significant storage capacity Plug into USB ports Appears as another disk drive Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 39

41 Storing Data and Information Flash Memory (cont.) Flash memory card Convenience means of portable storage Uses solid-state flash memory Allows you to transfer digital data between computer and devices Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 40

42 Storing Data and Information Optical Storage Compact discs (CDs) Initially used to store audio files Digital video discs (DVDs) Store more data than CDs Blu-ray discs (BDs) Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 41

43 Connecting Peripherals to the Computer A port is a place through which a peripheral device attaches to computer Many ports are located on the back of the computer Some commonly used ports are placed on the front and sides for easier access Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 42

44 Connecting Peripherals to the Computer High-Speed and Data Transfer Ports Universal serial bus (USB) is the most common port type used to connect input and output devices to a computer USB 2.0 port is current standard Transfer data at 480 megabits per second New USB 3.0 standard provides transfer speeds that are 10 times faster Should quickly become the port of choice Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 43

45 Connecting Peripherals to the Computer High-Speed and Data Transfer Ports (cont.) FireWire 400 Moves data at 400 Mbps FireWire 800 Doubles rate to 800 Mbps FireWire 3200 Has been ratified Yet to reach market Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 44

46 Connecting Peripherals to the Computer Connectivity and Multimedia Ports Connectivity port can give access to networks and the Internet Ethernet port Modem port Audio ports Connect headphones, microphones, speakers Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 45

47 Connecting Peripherals to the Computer Connectivity and Multimedia Ports Video ports Connect monitors and multimedia devices Video graphics array (VGA) - port to connect older LCD monitors Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 46

48 Connecting Peripherals to the Computer Connectivity and Multimedia Ports (cont.) Digital video interface (DVI): Ports used to connect newer LCD monitors and other multimedia devices High-definition multimedia interface (HDMI) Digital connector for use in HD home theater environments Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 47

49 Connecting Peripherals to the Computer Adding Ports: Expansion Cards and Hubs Expansion cards New port standards Expansion hubs Enable several devices to be connected to a port Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 48

50 Power Controls Power supply transforms wall voltage to voltages required by computer chips Cold boot: Powering on your computer from a completely turned-off state Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 49

51 Power Controls (cont.) Sleep Mode Main method of power management in Windows 8 Documents, applications, data remain in RAM Hibernate Similar to Sleep All data is stored on hard drive Computer is powered off Warm boot Restarting the system while it s powered on Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 50

52 Setting It All Up Ergonomics refers to how you set up your computer to minimize risk of injury, discomfort, or eyestrain Guidelines to follow Position monitor correctly Use adjustable chair Assume proper position while typing Take breaks from computer Ensure that lighting is adequate Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 51

53 Setting It All Up (cont.) Mobile computing devices present challenges to injury prevention Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 52

54 Setting It All Up (cont.) Devices for People with Disabilities Voice recognition Keyboards with larger keys Keyboards that display on touch screens Specialized input consoles Keyboards designed for one hand Special trackballs Head-mounted pointing devices Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 53

55 Chapter 2 Summary Questions 1. What exactly is a computer, and what are its four main functions? Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 54

56 Chapter 2 Summary Questions 2. What is the difference between data and information? Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 55

57 Chapter 2 Summary Questions 3. What are bits and bytes, and how are they measured? Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 56

58 Chapter 2 Summary Questions 4. What devices can I use to get data into the computer? Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 57

59 Chapter 2 Summary Questions 5. What devices can I use to get information out of the computer? Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 58

60 Chapter 2 Summary Questions 6. What s on the motherboard? Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 59

61 Chapter 2 Summary Questions 7. Where are information and programs stored? Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 60

62 Chapter 2 Summary Questions 8. How are devices connected to the computer? Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 61

63 Chapter 2 Summary Questions 9. What s the best way to turn my computer on and off and when should it be done? Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 62

64 Chapter 2 Summary Questions 10. How do I set up my computer to avoid strain and injury? Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 63

65 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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