Multiplying Fractions by a Whole Number


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1 Grade 4 Mathematics, Quarter 3, Unit 3.1 Multiplying Fractions by a Whole Number Overview Number of Instructional Days: 15 (1 day = minutes) Content to be Learned Apply understanding of operations of whole numbers to develop conceptual understanding of multiplying a fraction by a whole number. Multiply a fraction by a whole number using repeated addition. Understand a fraction is a multiple of a unit fraction. Use understanding of fractions as a multiple of a unit fraction to multiply fractions by whole numbers. Solve word problems involving multiplying a fraction by a whole number. Use visual models and equations to represent word problems. Essential Questions How can you use a visual fraction model to express a fraction as a multiple of a unit fraction? For example, 3 (2/5) as 6 (1/5)? How is repeated addition of fractions related to multiplication of fractions? How can you use a visual fraction model and/or equation to represent and solve problems involving multiplication of fractions by a whole number? Mathematical Practices to Be Integrated Make sense of problems and persevere to solve them. Make meaning of a problem and look for entry point to its solution. Use visual models to help conceptualize and solve a problem. Ask, Does this make sense? Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Identify calculations that repeat. (e.g., 1/3 + 1/3 + 1/3 + 1/3 = 4 1/3) Evaluate the reasonableness of an answer. How is multiplying whole numbers like multiplying fractions? How is it different? What is your strategy for solving this word problem? 29
2 Grade 4 Mathematics, Quarter 3, Unit 3.1 Multiplying Fractions by a Whole Number (15 days) Written Curriculum Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Content Number and Operations Fractions 3 4.NF 3 Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100. Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers. 4.NF.4 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number. a. Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. For example, use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product 5 (1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 (1/4). b. Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For example, use a visual fraction model to express 3 (2/5) as 6 (1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n (a/b) = (n a)/b.) c. Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, if each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie? Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practice 1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Older students might, depending on the context of the problem, transform algebraic expressions or change the viewing window on their graphing calculator to get the information they need. Mathematically proficient students can explain correspondences between equations, verbal descriptions, tables, and graphs or draw diagrams of important features and relationships, graph data, and search for regularity or trends. Younger students might rely on using concrete objects or pictures to help conceptualize and solve a problem. Mathematically proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, Does this make sense? They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches. 30
3 Grade 4 Mathematics, Quarter 3, Unit 3.1 Multiplying Fractions by a Whole Number (15 days) 8 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Mathematically proficient students notice if calculations are repeated, and look both for general methods and for shortcuts. Upper elementary students might notice when dividing 25 by 11 that they are repeating the same calculations over and over again, and conclude they have a repeating decimal. By paying attention to the calculation of slope as they repeatedly check whether points are on the line through (1, 2) with slope 3, middle school students might abstract the equation (y 2)/(x 1) = 3. Noticing the regularity in the way terms cancel when expanding (x 1)(x + 1), (x 1)(x 2 + x + 1), and (x 1)(x 3 + x 2 + x + 1) might lead them to the general formula for the sum of a geometric series. As they work to solve a problem, mathematically proficient students maintain oversight of the process, while attending to the details. They continually evaluate the reasonableness of their intermediate results. Clarifying the Standards Prior Learning In grade 3, students developed an understanding of the meaning and properties of multiplication of whole numbers in preparation for multiplication of fractions by a whole number. Also, they viewed fractions as being built out of unit fractions, or fractions where the numerator is one. Current Learning This is a critical area of instruction in grade 4. Students apply their understanding of multiplication to multiply fractions by whole numbers. Through the use of visual fraction models, they represent a fraction as a multiple of a unit fraction (e.g., 7/6 = 7 1/6). Furthermore, students solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number. Activities should start at the developmental level of instruction and then move to reinforcement activities. Future Learning In grade 5, students will apply their understanding of fractions and fraction models to add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators, including mixed numbers. Fifth graders will multiply fractions by whole numbers, whole numbers by fractions, and fractions by fractions. Students will work to develop fluency in this area, as they make reasonable estimates to assess their answers. As learners multiply fractions, they will see the connection to division of fractions. Additional Findings According to Progressions: 3 5 Number and Operations Fractions, Previously in grade 3, students learned that 3 7 can be represented as the number of objects in 3 groups of 7 objects, and write this as Grade 4 students apply this understanding to fractions, seeing 1/3 + 1/3 + 1/3 + 1/3 + 1/3 as 5 1/3. (p. 7) 31
4 Grade 4 Mathematics, Quarter 3, Unit 3.1 Multiplying Fractions by a Whole Number (15 days) 32
5 Grade 4 Mathematics, Quarter 3, Unit 3.2 Identifying Properties of 2D Figures Overview Number of Instructional Days: 10 (1 day = minutes) Content to be Learned Draw and identify lines, line segments, points, rays, and angles in twodimensional figures. Classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles. Recognize, identify, and draw a line of symmetry for 2D figures. Generate and identify the features of a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Draw and identify perpendicular and parallel lines in 2D figures. Identify and recognize right triangles. Essential Questions What is a distinguishing feature of this pattern? What would a pattern look like using this rule? How can you classify a 2D figure based on its lines and angle size? How are angles classified? How are points, lines, line segments, rays, and angles related? Mathematical Practices to Be Integrated Use appropriate tools strategically. Decide which tools are the most helpful. Consider available tools when solving problems. Identify relevant math resources (e.g., information located on a website) and use them to solve problems. Use technology to explore and deepen understanding of concepts. Look for and make use of structure. Look closely to determine a pattern or structure. Step back for an overview and shift perspective. See complicated things as being composed of single objects or several smaller objects. How are right triangles different from other triangles? How do you know if a shape has a line of symmetry? More than one line of symmetry? What is your strategy for identifying and drawing lines of symmetry? 33
6 Grade 4 Mathematics, Quarter 3, Unit 3.2 Identifying Properties of 2D Figures (10 days) Written Curriculum Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Content Geometry 4.G Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles. 4.G.1 4.G.2 4.G.3 Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in twodimensional figures. Classify twodimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles. Recognize a line of symmetry for a twodimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify linesymmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry. Operations and Algebraic Thinking 4.OA Generate and analyze patterns. 4.OA.5 Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule Add 3 and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way. Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practice 5 Use appropriate tools strategically. Mathematically proficient students consider the available tools when solving a mathematical problem. These tools might include pencil and paper, concrete models, a ruler, a protractor, a calculator, a spreadsheet, a computer algebra system, a statistical package, or dynamic geometry software. Proficient students are sufficiently familiar with tools appropriate for their grade or course to make sound decisions about when each of these tools might be helpful, recognizing both the insight to be gained and their limitations. For example, mathematically proficient high school students analyze graphs of functions and solutions generated using a graphing calculator. They detect possible errors by strategically using estimation and other mathematical knowledge. When making mathematical models, they know that technology can enable them to visualize the results of varying assumptions, explore consequences, and compare predictions with data. Mathematically proficient students at various grade levels are able to identify relevant external mathematical resources, such as digital content located on a website, and use them to pose or solve problems. They are able to use technological tools to explore and deepen their understanding of concepts. 34
7 Grade 4 Mathematics, Quarter 3, Unit 3.2 Identifying Properties of 2D Figures (10 days) 7 Look for and make use of structure. Mathematically proficient students look closely to discern a pattern or structure. Young students, for example, might notice that three and seven more is the same amount as seven and three more, or they may sort a collection of shapes according to how many sides the shapes have. Later, students will see 7 8 equals the well remembered , in preparation for learning about the distributive property. In the expression x 2 + 9x + 14, older students can see the 14 as 2 7 and the 9 as They recognize the significance of an existing line in a geometric figure and can use the strategy of drawing an auxiliary line for solving problems. They also can step back for an overview and shift perspective. They can see complicated things, such as some algebraic expressions, as single objects or as being composed of several objects. For example, they can see 5 3(x y) 2 as 5 minus a positive number times a square and use that to realize that its value cannot be more than 5 for any real numbers x and y. Clarifying the Standards Prior Learning In grade2, students drew and recognized 2D and 3D (cubes) shapes. In grade 3, students understood different categories of shapes by their attributes through describing, analyzing, and comparing the shapes. For example, when given a rhombus, square, and rectangle, students identified that they can be in the same category because of the number of sides and angles. Students also drew geometric figures and partitioned them into equal parts with equal areas. Learners connected this idea to fractions; as they partitioned a shape, they recognized that each part is a unit fraction of the whole. Current Learning This is an additional cluster. In grade 4, students draw and identify lines, line segments, points, rays, and angles in twodimensional figures. Learners also classify 2D shapes by properties of their lines (parallel and perpendicular) and angles. Additionally, they recognize right triangles. Students can recognize, identify, and draw a line of symmetry in a 2D shape. Activities for symmetry should start at the developmental level. In addition, students generate a number or shape pattern that follows a rule, identifying features that are not explicit in the rule itself. Future Learning In grade 5, students will classify twodimensional figures into categories based on their properties. They will begin to understand that there are subcategories within a category. For example, all rectangles have four right angles and squares are rectangles, so all squares have four right angles. Students will use two numerical patterns using two rules. For example, given the rules add 3 and add 6 to 0, what is the relationship between the two resulting number patterns? 35
8 Grade 4 Mathematics, Quarter 3, Unit 3.2 Identifying Properties of 2D Figures (10 days) Additional Findings According to Principals and Standards for School Mathematics, Study of geometry requires thinking and doing. As students sort, build, draw, model, trace, measure, and construct, their capacity to visualize geometric relationships will develop. This requires access to a variety of tools, such as graph paper, rulers, pattern blocks, geoboards, and geometric solids. (p. 165) Additionally, In grades 3 5, they (students) should develop more precise ways to describe shapes, focusing on identifying and describing the shape s properties and learning specialized vocabulary associated with these shapes and properties, (Principals and Standards for School Mathematics, p. 165). According to Principals and Standards for School Mathematics, As they (students) describe shapes, they should understand and use mathematical terms such as parallel, perpendicular, face, edge, vertex, angle, trapezoid, prism, and so forth, to communicate geometric ideas with greater precision. (p. 160) 36
9 Grade 4 Mathematics, Quarter 3, Unit 3.3 Using Measurements and Data to Solve Problems Overview Number of Instructional Days: 15 (1 day = minutes) Content to be Learned Solve problems involving measurement, including kilometers, meters, centimeters; kilograms, grams; pounds, ounces; milliliters; and hours, minutes, and seconds. Convert measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit. Record measurements in a twocolumn table. Represent measurement quantities using line diagrams. Express fractions with a denominator of 10 as an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 100. Add fractions with denominators of 10 and 100 by expressing both fractions with a common denominator of 100. Essential Questions How are units of measure within a standard system related? How do you choose the appropriate tool and unit when measuring? How can a twocolumn table be used to represent measurement conversions? What is your strategy for converting a larger unit to a smaller unit? How is this strategy the same for different types of measurement? (length, weight, time, etc.) Mathematical Practices to Be Integrated Model with mathematics. Apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life. Routinely interpret mathematical results in the context of the situation. Reflect on whether results make sense. Attend to precision. Communicate precisely to others. Calculate accurately and efficiently. Give carefully formulated explanations. When would it be important to determine how much time has passed between events in a single day? How are common decimal fractions (e.g., 3/10 and 30/100) alike and different? How can you add two decimal fractions with unlike denominators? 37
10 Grade 4 Mathematics, Quarter 3, Unit 3.3 Using Measurements and Data to Solve Problems (15 days) Written Curriculum Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Content Measurement and Data 4.MD Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit. 4.MD.1 4.MD.2 Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a twocolumn table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36),... Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale. Number and Operations Fractions 3 4.NF 3 Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100. Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions. 4.NF.5 Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and For example, express 3/10 as 30/100, and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/ Students who can generate equivalent fractions can develop strategies for adding fractions with unlike denominators in general. But addition and subtraction with unlike denominators in general is not a requirement at this grade. Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practice 4 Model with mathematics. Mathematically proficient students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. In early grades, this might be as simple as writing an addition equation to describe a situation. In middle grades, a student might apply proportional reasoning to plan a school event or analyze a problem in the community. By high school, a student might use geometry to solve a design problem or use a function to describe how one quantity of interest depends on another. Mathematically proficient students who can apply what they know are comfortable making assumptions and approximations to simplify a complicated situation, realizing that these may need revision later. They are able to identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships using such tools as diagrams, twoway tables, graphs, flowcharts and formulas. They can analyze those relationships mathematically to draw conclusions. They routinely interpret their mathematical results in the context of 38
11 Grade 4 Mathematics, Quarter 3, Unit 3.3 Using Measurements and Data to Solve Problems (15 days) the situation and reflect on whether the results make sense, possibly improving the model if it has not served its purpose. 6 Attend to precision. Mathematically proficient students try to communicate precisely to others. They try to use clear definitions in discussion with others and in their own reasoning. They state the meaning of the symbols they choose, including using the equal sign consistently and appropriately. They are careful about specifying units of measure, and labeling axes to clarify the correspondence with quantities in a problem. They calculate accurately and efficiently, express numerical answers with a degree of precision appropriate for the problem context. In the elementary grades, students give carefully formulated explanations to each other. By the time they reach high school they have learned to examine claims and make explicit use of definitions. Clarifying the Standards Prior Learning In grade 3, students developed an understanding of fractions as numbers using unit fractions. They recognized and generated simple equivalent fractions using visual fraction models. Students solved problems involving measurement of intervals of time in minutes. They measured, estimated, and solved onestep problems using liquid volume and mass of objects using grams, kilograms, and liters within the same unit. Current Learning In grade 4, students solve multistep problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit (e.g., feet to inches, meter to centimeters, dollars to cents). They solve problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects. The units of measure that have not been addressed in prior years are cups, pints, quarts, gallons, pounds, ounces, kilometers, milliliters, and seconds. Using measurement conversions, students express fractions with a denominator of 10 as an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 100. Although the term decimal fractions does not appear in the standards after grade 4, students are expected to apply this understanding to all decimal situations in future grades. This provides a solid foundation for decimal notation in the next unit. This is a good place to continue practicing addition and subtraction of whole numbers using the standard algorithm. Remember that students must be fluent by the end of the next quarter. Future Learning Using models and drawings as well as place value strategies, fifth graders will employ decimal notation to add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to the hundredths. Students will convert units and use these conversions to solve multistep word problems (e.g., 5 centimeters = 0.05 meter). They will learn that volume is an attribute of a geometric figure and a quantity in measurement. Students will relate this to multiplication and addition. 39
12 Grade 4 Mathematics, Quarter 3, Unit 3.3 Using Measurements and Data to Solve Problems (15 days) Additional Findings According to Principals and Standards for School Mathematics, Students should gain facility in expressing measurements in equivalent forms. They use their knowledge of relationships between units and their understanding of multiplicative situations to make conversions, such as expressing 150 centimeters and 1.5 meters or 3 feet as 36 inches, (p. 172) According to Progressions: 3 5 Number and Operations, Fractions with denominators of 10 and 100, called decimal fractions, arise naturally when students convert between dollars and cents, and have more fundamental importance, developed in grade 5, in the base 10 system. For example, because there are 10 dimes in a dollar, 3 dimes is 3/10 of a dollar, and it is also 30/100 of a dollar, because it is 30 cents, and there are 100 cents in a dollar. Such reasoning provides a concrete context for the fraction equivalence: 3/10 = 3 10/10 10 = 30/100 Students learn to add decimal fractions by converting them to fractions with the same denominator they can interpret this as saying that 3 dimes together with 27 cents make 57 cents: 3/ /100 = 30/ /100 = 57/100 (p. 8) 40
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