Grades K6. Correlated to the Common Core State Standards


 Muriel Lynch
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1 Grades K6 Correlated to the Common Core State Standards
2 Kindergarten Standards for Mathematical Practice Common Core State Standards Standards for Mathematical Practice Kindergarten The Standards for Mathematical Practice are an important part of the Common Core State Standards. They describe varieties of proficiency that teachers should focus on helping in their students develop. These practices draw from the NCTM process standards of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation, and connections and the strands of mathematical proficiency specified in the National Research Council s report Adding It Up: adaptive reasoning, strategic competence, conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, and productive disposition. For each of the Standards for Mathematical Practice is a explanation of the different features and elements of Scott Foresman Addison Wesley envisionmath that help students develop mathematical proficiency. 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Older students might, depending on the context of the problem, transform algebraic expressions or change the viewing window on their graphing calculator to get the information they need. Mathematically proficient students can explain correspondences between equations, verbal descriptions, tables, and graphs or draw diagrams of important features and relationships, graph data, and search for regularity or trends. Younger students might rely on using concrete objects or pictures to help conceptualize and solve a problem. Mathematically proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, Does this make sense? They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches. Scott Foresman Addison Wesley envisionmath is built on a foundation of problembased instruction that helps students develop strong problemsolving skills. Every lesson begins with Problembased Interactive Learning in which children work their classmates and teachers to make sense of problems and to develop a plan to solve the problem presented. With the problem solving lessons in every topic, children focus on the problemsolving process and strengthen their sensemaking skills. The Quick Check provides daily opportunities for children to demonstrate problemsolving skills and strategies. Throughout the program; for examples, see envisionmath Kindergarten Lessons 15, 26, 35, 410, 511, 65, 79, 83, 86, 95, 910, 107, 117, 1210, 136, 147, 157,
3 Kindergarten Standards for Mathematical Practice 2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Mathematically proficient students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. They bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects. Reasoning is another important theme of the Scott Foresman Addison Wesley envisionmath Program. In most lessons, the Visual Learning Bridge presents a situation and students are shown how the situation can be represented numerically or algebraically. Later in a lesson, students have opportunities to work on their own to represent situations symbolically. Through the solving process, students are encouraged to think about their solutions and determine whether the solutions they found are reasonable. Often, the Do You Understand questions focus on helping children begin to reason abstractly. Throughout the program; for examples, see Lessons 15, 52, 54, 55, 57, 58, 125, Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and if there is a flaw in an argument explain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments. Consistent with a focus on reasoning and sensemaking is a focus on critical reasoning argumentation and critique of arguments. In Pearson s Scott Foresman Addison Wesley envisionmath, the ProblemBased Interactive Learning affords students opportunities to share with classmates their thinking about problems, their solutions, and their reasoning about the solutions. Articulating clearly an explanation for a process is a stepping stone to critical analysis and reasoning of both their own processes and those of others. Throughout the program; for examples, see Lessons 13, 22, 36, 72, 83, 99, 141,
4 Kindergarten Standards for Mathematical Practice 4 Model with mathematics. Mathematically proficient students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. In early grades, this might be as simple as writing an addition equation to describe a situation. In middle grades, a student might apply proportional reasoning to plan a school event or analyze a problem in the community. By high school, a student might use geometry to solve a design problem or use a function to describe how one quantity of interest depends on another. Mathematically proficient students who can apply what they know are comfortable making assumptions and approximations to simplify a complicated situation, realizing that these may need revision later. They are able to identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships using such tools as diagrams, twoway tables, graphs, flowcharts and formulas. They can analyze those relationships mathematically to draw conclusions. They routinely interpret their mathematical results in the context of the situation and reflect on whether the results make sense, possibly improving the model if it has not served its purpose. Students in Pearson s Scott Foresman Addison Wesley envisionmath, are introduced to mathematical modeling in the early grades. They first use manipulatives and drawings and then equations to model addition and subtraction situations. The Visual Learning Bridge and Visual Learning Animation often present realworld situations and students are shown how these can be modeled mathematically. In later years, students expand their modeling skills to include other graphical representations such as tables, graphs, as well as equations. Throughout the program; for examples, see Lessons 47, 57, 64, 78, 81, 103, 115, Use appropriate tools strategically. Mathematically proficient students consider the available tools when solving a mathematical problem. These tools might include pencil and paper, concrete models, a ruler, a protractor, a calculator, a spreadsheet, a computer algebra system, a statistical package, or dynamic geometry software. Proficient students are sufficiently familiar with tools appropriate for their grade or course to make sound decisions about when each of these tools might be helpful, recognizing both the insight to be gained and their limitations. For example, mathematically proficient high school students analyze graphs of functions and solutions generated using a graphing calculator. They detect possible errors by strategically using estimation and other mathematical knowledge. When making mathematical models, they know that technology can enable them to visualize the results of varying assumptions, explore consequences, and compare predictions with data. Mathematically proficient students at various grade levels are able to identify relevant external mathematical resources, such as digital content located on a website, and use them to pose or solve problems. They are able to use technological tools to explore and deepen their understanding of concepts. Students become fluent in the use of a wide assortment of tools ranging from physical objects, including manipulatives, rulers, protractors, and even pencil and paper, to technological tools, such as etools, calculators and computers. As students become more familiar with the tools available to them, they are able to begin making decisions about which tools are more appropriate to solve different kinds of problems. Throughout the program; for examples, see Lessons 45, 61, 98, 105, 116, 128, 145,
5 Kindergarten Standards for Mathematical Practice 6 Attend to precision. Mathematically proficient students try to communicate precisely to others. They try to use clear definitions in discussion with others and in their own reasoning. They state the meaning of the symbols they choose, including using the equal sign consistently and appropriately. They are careful about specifying units of measure, and labeling axes to clarify the correspondence with quantities in a problem. They calculate accurately and efficiently, express numerical answers with a degree of precision appropriate for the problem context. In the elementary grades, students give carefully formulated explanations to each other. By the time they reach high school they have learned to examine claims and make explicit use of definitions. Students are expected to use mathematical terms and symbols with precision. In the early years, as children develop their mathematical vocabulary, they are encouraged to use terms accurately. In later years, key terms and concepts are highlighted in each lesson. In the Do You Understand feature, students often revisit these key terms and provide explicit definitions or explanations of the terms. For the Writing to Explain and Think About a Process Exercises, students are to provide clear explanations of terms, concepts, or processes and to use new terms accurately and precisely. Students are reminded to use appropriate units of measure when working through solutions and accurate labels on axes when making graphs to represent solutions. Throughout the program; for examples, see Lessons 12, 79, 85, 95, 141, 142, 147, Look for and make use of structure. Mathematically proficient students look closely to discern a pattern or structure.young students, for example, might notice that three and seven more is the same amount as seven and three more, or they may sort a collection of shapes according to how many sides the shapes have. Later, students will see 7 8 equals the well remembered , in preparation for learning about the distributive property. In the expression x 2 + 9x + 14, older students can see the 14 as 2 7 and the 9 as They recognize the significance of an existing line in a geometric figure and can use the strategy of drawing an auxiliary line for solving problems. They also can step back for an overview and shift perspective. They can see complicated things, such as some algebraic expressions, as single objects or as being composed of several objects. For example, they can see 5 3(x y) 2 as 5 minus a positive number times a square and use that to realize that its value cannot be more than 5 for any real numbers x and y. Throughout the program, students are encouraged to look for patterns and structure as they look to develop solution plans. In the Look for a Pattern ProblemSolving lessons, children in the early years develop a sense of patterning with visual and physical objects. As students mature in their mathematical thinking, they look for patterns in numerical operations by focusing on place value and properties of operations. From this focus on looking for and recognizing patterns, students become wellequip to draw from these patterns to formalize their thinking about the structure of operations. Throughout the program; for examples, see Lessons 33, 5 10, 71, 91, 106, 116, 128,
6 Kindergarten Standards for Mathematical Practice 8 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Mathematically proficient students notice if calculations are repeated, and look both for general methods and for shortcuts. Upper elementary students might notice when dividing 25 by 11 that they are repeating the same calculations over and over again, and conclude they have a repeating decimal. By paying attention to the calculation of slope as they repeatedly check whether points are on the line through (1, 2) with slope 3, middle school students might abstract the equation (y 2)/(x 1) = 3. Noticing the regularity in the way terms cancel when expanding (x 1)(x + 1), (x 1)(x 2 + x + 1), and (x 1)(x 3 + x 2 + x + 1) might lead them to the general formula for the sum of a geometric series. As they work to solve a problem, mathematically proficient students maintain oversight of the process, while attending to the details. They continually evaluate the reasonableness of their intermediate results. Once again, throughout the program as a whole, students are prompted to look for repetition in computations to look for shortcuts that can make the problemsolving process more efficient. Students are prompted to think about problems they encountered previously that may share features or processes. They are encouraged to draw on the solution plan developed for that problem, and as their mathematical thinking matures, to look for generalizations that can be applied to other problem situations. The ProblemBased Interactive Learning activities offer students opportunities to look for regularity in the way operations behave. Throughout the program; for examples, see Lessons 12, 47, 52, 85, 103, 112, 125,
7 Kindergarten Correlation of Standards for Math Content Correlation of Standards for Mathematical Content envisionmath Kindergarten The following shows the alignment of envisionmath Kindergarten 2009/2011 to the Common Core State Standards for Kindergarten. Included in this correlation are the supplemental lessons that will be available as part of the transitional support that Pearson is providing. These lessons will available in the summer Standards for Mathematical Content Kindergarten Know number names and the count sequence. Counting and Cardinality Where to find in envisionmath 2009/2011 K.CC.1 Count to 100 by ones and by tens. 126, 127, 128 K.CC.2 K.CC.3 Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1). Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0 20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects). Count to tell the number of objects. K.CC.4 K.CC.4.a K.CC.4.b K.CC.4.c K.CC.5 Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality. When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object. Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted. Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger. Count to answer how many? questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1 20, count out that many objects. 510, 126, , 44, 45, 53, 56, 59, 121, 122, 123, , 42, 43, 44, 45, 51, 53, 54, 56, 57, 59, 121, 122, 123, 124, , 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 51, 53, 54, 56, 57, 59, 121, 122, 123, 124, , 41, 42a, 42, 43, 44a, 44, 45, 410, 51, 53, 54, 56, 57, 59, 121, 122, 123, 124, , 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 51, 53, 54, 56, 57, 59, 121, 122, 123, 124, , 42a, 42, 43, 44a, 44, 45, 410, 51, 53, 54, 56, 57, 59, 121, 122, 123,
8 Kindergarten Correlation of Standards for Math Content Compare numbers. K.CC.6 K.CC.7 Standards for Mathematical Content Kindergarten Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies. (Include groups with up to ten objects.) Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals. Where to find in envisionmath 2009/ , 48, 49, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, , 62, 63,
9 Kindergarten Correlation of Standards for Math Content Standards for Mathematical Content Kindergarten Operations and Algebraic Thinking Where to find in envisionmath 2009/2011 Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from. K.OA.1 K.OA.2 K.OA.3 K.OA.4 Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations. (Drawings need not show details, but should show the mathematics in the problem. (This applies wherever drawings are mentioned in the Standards.)) Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem. Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = and 5 = 4 + 1). For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation. 26, 64, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, , 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, , 47a, 52, 54a, 55, 57a, 58, 510a K.OA.5 Fluently add and subtract within , 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116,
10 Kindergarten Correlation of Standards for Math Content Standards for Mathematical Content Kindergarten Number and Operations in Base Ten Work with numbers to gain foundations for place value. K.NBT.1 Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 18 = ); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. Where to find in envisionmath 2009/ a, 124a, 125a 125b, 125c, 125d, 125e Standards for Mathematical Content Kindergarten Describe and compare measurable attributes. K.MD.1 K.MD.2 Measurement and Data Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object. Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has more of / less of the attribute, and describe the difference. Classify objects and count the number of objects in each category. K.MD.3 Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count. (Limit category counts to be less than or equal to 10.) Where to find in envisionmath 2009/ , 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, , 92, 93, 95, 96, , 12, 13, 14, 15, 511, 163, 164, 165,
11 Kindergarten Correlation of Standards for Math Content Standards for Mathematical Content Kindergarten Geometry Where to find in envisionmath 2009/2011 Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres). K.G.1 K.G.2 K.G.3 Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to. [Note: Students do not use words to describe positions.] Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size. 3. Identify shapes as twodimensional (lying in a plane, flat ) or threedimensional ( solid ). Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes. K.G.4 K.G.5 K.G.6 Analyze and compare two and threedimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/ corners ) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length). Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes. Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle? 15, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 71, 72, , 72, 74, 76, 77a 71, 72, 76, , 72, 74a, 77a, 77, , 74a 16
12 Grade 1 Transition Kit 1.0 Standards for Mathematical Practices Common Core State Standards Standards for Mathematical Practices Grade 1 The Standards for Mathematical Practice are an important part of the Common Core State Standards. They describe varieties of proficiency that teachers should focus on developing in their students. These practices draw from the NCTM process standards of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation, and connections and the strands of mathematical proficiency specified in the National Research Council s report Adding It Up: adaptive reasoning, strategic competence, conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, and productive disposition. For each of the Standards for Mathematical Practices is an explanation of the different features and elements of Scott Foresman Addison Wesley envisionmath TM that help students develop mathematical proficiency. 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Older students might, depending on the context of the problem, transform algebraic expressions or change the viewing window on their graphing calculator to get the information they need. Mathematically proficient students can explain correspondences between equations, verbal descriptions, tables, and graphs or draw diagrams of important features and relationships, graph data, and search for regularity or trends. Younger students might rely on using concrete objects or pictures to help conceptualize and solve a problem. Mathematically proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, Does this make sense? They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches. Scott Foresman Addison Wesley envisionmath is built on a foundation of problembased instruction that has sensemaking at its heart. The structure of each lesson facilitates students implementation of this process. Every lesson begins with ProblemBased Interactive Learning, an activity in which students are presented a problem to solve. They interact with their peers and teachers to make sense of the problem presented and to look for a workable solution. A second feature of each lesson are the Problem Solving Exercises for which students persevere to find solutions for each exercise. In each topic is at least one Problem Solving lesson with a primary focus of honing students sensemaking and problemsolving skills. Throughout the program; for examples, see Lessons 19, 211, 35, 410, 67, 78, 86, 93, 115, 116, 127, 134, 147,
13 Grade 1 Transition Kit 1.0 Standards for Mathematical Practices 2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Mathematically proficient students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. They bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects. Reasoning is another important theme of the Scott Foresman Addison Wesley envisionmath Program. In most lessons, the Visual Learning Bridge presents a situation and students are shown how the situation can be represented numerically or algebraically. Later in a lesson, students have opportunities to work on their own to represent situations symbolically. Through the solving process, students become aware of the importance of checking problem solutions with the Reasonableness exercises. In the Do You Understand part of the Guided Practice, students are often asked to consider the meaning of different parts of an expression or equation. The Journal Exercises also help students to be thinking and reasoning abstractly and quantitatively. Throughout the program; for examples, see Lessons 23, 29, 33, 67, 73, 77, 83, 93, 127, 144,
14 Grade 1 Transition Kit 1.0 Standards for Mathematical Practices 3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and if there is a flaw in an argument explain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments. Consistent with a focus on reasoning and sensemaking is a focus on critical reasoning argumentation and critique of arguments. In Pearson s Scott Foresman Addison Wesley envisionmath, the ProblemBased Interactive Learning affords students opportunities to share with classmates their thinking about problems, their solutions, and their reasoning about the solutions. The Journal Exercises help students develop foundational critical reasoning skills by having them construct explanations for processes. Articulating clearly an explanation for a process is a stepping stone to critical analysis and reasoning of both their own processes and those of others. Throughout the program; for examples, see Lessons 23, 47, 74, 81, 87, 123,
15 Grade 1 Transition Kit 1.0 Standards for Mathematical Practices 4 Model with mathematics. Mathematically proficient students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. In early grades, this might be as simple as writing an addition equation to describe a situation. In middle grades, a student might apply proportional reasoning to plan a school event or analyze a problem in the community. By high school, a student might use geometry to solve a design problem or use a function to describe how one quantity of interest depends on another. Mathematically proficient students who can apply what they know are comfortable making assumptions and approximations to simplify a complicated situation, realizing that these may need revision later. They are able to identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships using such tools as diagrams, twoway tables, graphs, flowcharts and formulas. They can analyze those relationships mathematically to draw conclusions. They routinely interpret their mathematical results in the context of the situation and reflect on whether the results make sense, possibly improving the model if it has not served its purpose. Students in Pearson s Scott Foresman Addison Wesley envisionmath, are introduced to mathematical modeling in the early grades. They first use manipulatives and drawings and then equations to model addition and subtraction situations. The Visual Learning Bridge and Visual Learning Animation often present realworld situations and students are shown how these can be modeled mathematically. In later years, students expand their modeling skills to include other graphical representations such as tables, graphs, as well as equations. Throughout the program; for examples, see Lessons 15, 21, 19, 44, 52, 66, 74, 89, 92, 101, 114, 125, Use appropriate tools strategically. Mathematically proficient students consider the available tools when solving a mathematical problem. These tools might include pencil and paper, concrete models, a ruler, a protractor, a calculator, a spreadsheet, a computer algebra system, a statistical package, or dynamic geometry software. Proficient students are sufficiently familiar with tools appropriate for their grade or course to make sound decisions about when each of these tools might be helpful, recognizing both the insight to be gained and their limitations. For example, mathematically proficient high school students analyze graphs of functions and solutions generated using a graphing calculator. They detect possible errors by strategically using estimation and other mathematical knowledge. When making mathematical models, they know that technology can enable them to visualize the results of varying assumptions, explore consequences, and compare predictions with data. Mathematically proficient students at various grade levels are able to identify relevant external mathematical resources, such as digital content located on a website, and use them to pose or solve problems. They are able to use technological tools to explore and deepen their understanding of concepts. Students become fluent in the use of a wide assortment of tools ranging from physical objects, including manipulatives, rulers, protractors, and even pencil and paper, to technological tools, such as etools, calculators and computers. As students become more familiar with the tools available to them, they are able to begin making decisions about which tools are more appropriate to solve different kinds of problems. Throughout the program; for examples, see Lessons 86, 144, 145, 148, 1411,
16 Grade 1 Transition Kit 1.0 Standards for Mathematical Practices 6 Attend to precision. Mathematically proficient students try to communicate precisely to others. They try to use clear definitions in discussion with others and in their own reasoning. They state the meaning of the symbols they choose, including using the equal sign consistently and appropriately. They are careful about specifying units of measure, and labeling axes to clarify the correspondence with quantities in a problem. They calculate accurately and efficiently, express numerical answers with a degree of precision appropriate for the problem context. In the elementary grades, students give carefully formulated explanations to each other. By the time they reach high school they have learned to examine claims and make explicit use of definitions. Students are expected to use mathematical terms and symbols with precision. Key terms and concepts are highlighted in each lesson. In the Do You Understand feature, students often revisit these key terms and provide explicit definitions or explanations of the terms. For the Journal Exercises, students are to provide clear explanations of terms, concepts, or processes and to use new terms accurately and precisely. Throughout the program; for examples, see Lessons 13, 32, 73, 82, 111, 153, Look for and make use of structure. Mathematically proficient students look closely to discern a pattern or structure.young students, for example, might notice that three and seven more is the same amount as seven and three more, or they may sort a collection of shapes according to how many sides the shapes have. Later, students will see 7 8 equals the well remembered , in preparation for learning about the distributive property. In the expression x 2 + 9x + 14, older students can see the 14 as 2 7 and the 9 as They recognize the significance of an existing line in a geometric figure and can use the strategy of drawing an auxiliary line for solving problems. They also can step back for an overview and shift perspective. They can see complicated things, such as some algebraic expressions, as single objects or as being composed of several objects. For example, they can see 5 3(x y) 2 as 5 minus a positive number times a square and use that to realize that its value cannot be more than 5 for any real numbers x and y. Throughout the program, students are encouraged to look for patterns and structure as they look to develop solution plans. In the Look for a Pattern ProblemSolving lessons, children in the early years develop a sense of patterning with visual and physical objects. As students mature in their mathematical thinking, they look for patterns in numerical operations by focusing on place value and properties of operations. From this focus on looking for and recognizing patterns, students become wellequip to draw from these patterns to formalize their thinking about the structure of operations. Throughout the program; for examples, see Lessons 14, 51, 63, 74, 106, 123,
17 Grade 1 Transition Kit 1.0 Standards for Mathematical Practices 8 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Mathematically proficient students notice if calculations are repeated, and look both for general methods and for shortcuts. Upper elementary students might notice when dividing 25 by 11 that they are repeating the same calculations over and over again, and conclude they have a repeating decimal. By paying attention to the calculation of slope as they repeatedly check whether points are on the line through (1, 2) with slope 3, middle school students might abstract the equation (y 2)/(x 1) = 3. Noticing the regularity in the way terms cancel when expanding (x 1)(x + 1), (x 1)(x 2 + x + 1), and (x 1)(x 3 + x 2 + x + 1) might lead them to the general formula for the sum of a geometric series. As they work to solve a problem, mathematically proficient students maintain oversight of the process, while attending to the details. They continually evaluate the reasonableness of their intermediate results. Once again, throughout the program as a whole, students are prompted to look for repetition in computations to look for shortcuts that can make the problemsolving process more efficient. Students are prompted to think about problems they encountered previously that may share features or processes. They are encouraged to draw on the solution plan developed for that problem, and as their mathematical thinking matures, to look for generalizations that can be applied to other problem situations. The ProblemBased Interactive Learning activities offer students opportunities to look for regularity in the way operations behave. Throughout the program; for examples, see Lessons 36, 87, 135,
18 Grade 1 Transition Kit 1.0 Correlation of Standards for Math Content Correlation of Standards for Mathematical Content envisionmath Grade 1 The following shows the alignment of envisionmath Grade /2011 to the Common Core State Standards for Grade 1. Included in this correlation are the supplemental lessons that will be available as part of the transitional support that Pearson is providing. These lessons will be part of the Transition Kit 2.0, available in May Standards for Mathematical Content Grade 1 Where to find in envisionmath 2009/2011 Operations and Algebraic Thinking Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction. 1.OA.1 1.OA.2 Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 66, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 175, CC1, CC , CC8 Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction. 1.OA.3 1.OA.4 Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract. Examples: If = 11 is known, then = 11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.) To add , the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so = = 12. (Associative property of addition.) (Students need not use formal terms for these properties.) Understand subtraction as an unknownaddend problem. For example, subtract 10 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to , 61, 167, CC8 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 54, 72, 73, 74, 172, 173, 174, CC2 Add and subtract within OA.5 Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2). 61, OA.6 Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 13
19 Grade 1 Transition Kit 1.0 Correlation of Standards for Math Content Standards for Mathematical Content Grade 1 and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., = = = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 4 = = 10 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that = 12, one knows 12 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding by creating the known equivalent = = 13). Where to find in envisionmath 2009/ , 47, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 71, 72, 73, 74, 161, 162, 163, 165, 166, 171, 172, 173, 174 Work with addition and subtraction equations. 1.OA.7. 1.OA.8 Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 1, = 2 + 5, = Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation relating to three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 +? = 11, 5 = 3, =. 34, 44, 61, 114, CC 1, CC3 34, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 54, 62, 63, 64, 65, 72, 73, 74, 163, 165, 166, 172, 173, 174, CC3 14
20 Grade 1 Transition Kit 1.0 Correlation of Standards for Math Content Extend the counting sequence. 1.NBT.1 Understand place value. 1.NBT.2 Standards for Mathematical Content Grade 1 Number and Operations in Base Ten Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral. Understand that the two digits of a twodigit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases: Where to find in envisionmath 2009/ , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 103, 104, 105, 111, 112, 113, , 101, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, NBT.2.a 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones called a ten. 111, 112, 113, 115, NBT.2.b 1.NBT.2.c 1.NBT.3 The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones). Compare two twodigit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <. Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract. 1.NBT.4 1.NBT.5 Add within 100, including adding a twodigit number and a onedigit number, and adding a twodigit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Understand that in adding twodigit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten. Given a twodigit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count; explain the reasoning used. 1.NBT.6 Subtract multiples of 10 in the range from multiples of 10 in the range (positive or zero differences), using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. 13, 111, , 112, , 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, , 122, 201, 202, 203, 204, CC , 205, , 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, CC11, CC12 15
21 Grade 1 Transition Kit 1.0 Correlation of Standards for Math Content Standards for Mathematical Content Grade 1 Measurement and Data Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units. 1.MD.1 1.MD.2 Tell and write time. 1.MD.3 Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object. Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of samesize length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps. Tell and write time in hours and halfhours using analog and digital clocks. Represent and interpret data. 1.MD.4 Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. Where to find in envisionmath 2009/ , CC , 143, 144, 145, CC , 152, , 182, 183, 185, 186, 187,
22 Grade 1 Transition Kit 1.0 Correlation of Standards for Math Content Standards for Mathematical Content Grade 1 Reason with shapes and their attributes. 1.G.1 1.G.2 1.G.3 Geometry Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and threesided) versus nondefining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. Compose twodimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, halfcircles, and quartercircles) or threedimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape. (Students do not need to learn formal names such as right rectangular prism. ) Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. Where to find in envisionmath 2009/ , 82, 89, 810, , 84, CC4, CC , 192, 193, CC9 17
23 Grade 2 Standards of Mathematical Practice Common Core State Standards Standards for Mathematical Practice The Standards for Mathematical Practice are an important part of the Common Core State Standards. They describe varieties of proficiency that teachers should focus on developing in their students. These practices draw from the NCTM process standards of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation, and connections and the strands of mathematical proficiency specified in the National Research Council s report Adding It Up: adaptive reasoning, strategic competence, conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, and productive disposition. For each of the Standards for Mathematical Practice presented in the text that follows, is a explanation of the different features and elements of Pearson s Scott Foresman Addison Wesley envisionmath that help students develop mathematical proficiency. 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Older students might, depending on the context of the problem, transform algebraic expressions or change the viewing window on their graphing calculator to get the information they need. Mathematically proficient students can explain correspondences between equations, verbal descriptions, tables, and graphs or draw diagrams of important features and relationships, graph data, and search for regularity or trends. Younger students might rely on using concrete objects or pictures to help conceptualize and solve a problem. Mathematically proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, Does this make sense? They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches. Scott Foresman Addison Wesley envisionmath is built on a foundation of problembased instruction that has sensemaking at its heart. The structure of each lesson facilitates students implementation of this process. Every lesson begins with ProblemBased Interactive Learning, an activity in which students are presented a problem to solve. They interact with their peers and teachers to make sense of the problem presented and to look for a workable solution. A second feature of each lesson are the Problem Solving Exercises for which students persevere to find solutions for each exercise. In each topic is at least one Problem Solving lesson with a primary focus of honing students sensemaking and problemsolving skills. Throughout the program; for examples, see envisionmath Grade 2 Lessons 17, 27, 36, 48, 66, 76, 89, 99, 128,
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