1 REQUIRED MATERIALS Oils Large palette - larger than A3 size is good. An A2 sized glass palette is ideal. Brushes of any size. Painting medium for oils like Liquin or Chroma Archival Classic Medium. Palette Knife. Colors as recommended throughout the lesson. Acrylics Large stay-wet palette - A3 or bigger is good. Brushes of any size. Retarding Medium to slow the drying of your paints. Water spray bottle for keeping your paints wet. Palette Knife. Colors as recommended throughout the lesson. Get these art supplies discounted online - click here: Which Colors to Buy? In order to mix colors we have to have some to start with, but which colors do we buy? The range of available colors is pretty overwhelming. I've seen some artists use up to 30 different tubed colors on their palette with great success, whereas I often use only 3 colors and still manage to get confused sometimes. In the end your palette of colors is your personal choice as you will discover just what you are comfortable working with. To begin with however, a little guidance and knowledge will help you on your way to discovering color for yourself. Earlier I mentioned Munsell's color wheel and his system to describe color with hue, value and chroma. Although Munsell's color wheel is widely used today it's not actually very helpful when it comes to mixing color as the tubes that we buy in the shop aren't normally labeled using the Munsell system - instead of Munsell's 5B we have Ultramarine Blue instead of 5YR we have Cadmium Orange - you see the problem. So far, American Artist Stephen Quiller has produced the most useful artist's color wheel available in that it lists the names of actual paint colors on it and places them correctly on the wheel so that each color is directly opposite it's mixing complement. Remember that if you mix two complementary colors together you get a grayish color. Munsell's color wheel
2 2 There are still a lot of colors on Quillers Wheel though, it doesn't suggest a palette of colors for you - it just shows you all the colors. Here's a more simple version so it's not so confusing CADMIUM YELLOW LIGHT CADMIUM ORANGE PERMANENT GREEN LIGHT CADMIUM SCARLET PHTHALO GREEN CADMIUM RED MEDIUM PHTHALO TURQUOISE ALIZARINE CRIMSON PHTHALO BLUE MAGENTA ULTRAMARINE BLUE ULTRAMARINE VIOLET Primary Color Secondary Color Tertiary Color You could use all these colors on your palette or just one. Obviously the colors that you use will determine the coloring of your painting. When you are starting out I think it's best to keep it simple with three colors and then add new colors as you feel yourself getting comfortable with those and wanting to try new mixtures. The obvious three colors to choose from this color wheel would be Phthalo Blue, Permanent Alizarine and Cadmium Yellow Light. These three colors will give you a wide range of color mixtures. However, I've seen several sources quote these 3 colors as the best possible primary colors: Phthalo Blue, Magenta and Cadmium Yellow Light. So that's another palette you can try out.
3 3 Richard Robinson's In this painting I've used a palette of Ultramarine Blue, Permanent Alizarine, Cadmium Yellow Mid and Titanium White. Trying out different palettes is like trying out different tinted glasses - it lets you express what you are seeing within a certain color range. Using a simple 3 color (Primary) palette for quick outdoor sketches.
4 4 Here's another way to choose a palette; we could just use the six colors which make up the star pattern - 3 primaries and 3 secondaries. That would give us a palette of: CADMIUM YELLOW LIGHT Cadmium Yellow Light Permanent Green Deep/Phthalo Green Phthalo Blue Ultramarine Violet/Purple Alizarine Crimson Cadmium Red Light Zinc White/Tinting White Carbon Black/Lamp Black/Ivory Black CADMIUM ORANGE CADMIUM SCARLET CADMIUM RED MEDIUM ALIZARINE CRIMSON MAGENTA PERMANENT GREEN LIGHT PHTHALO GREEN PHTHALO TURQUOISE PHTHALO BLUE ULTRAMARINE BLUE ULTRAMARINE VIOLET So those are just a handful of options for color palettes but there are literally hundreds of possible palette combinations which can yield beautiful mixtures to paint with so it's a good idea to play around with a few so you can find out what suits you best. The palette I have been working with up until now has been a warm/cool primary palette consisting of a warm and cool version of blue, red and yellow. I tend to use Ultramarine Blue and Phthalo Blue, Cadmium Red Mid and Alizarine Crimson, Cadmium Yellow Mid and Cadmium Yellow Light. Depending on the subject I'll often include Cadmium Orange, Yellow Ochre, and Burnt Sienna. I have an aversion to green so I don't often use a tubed green on my palette. That's something I intend to remedy though in going through this course with you. I've been using Titanium White exclusively, though I'm going to have a play with something like a zinc/mixing white now too. The best way I've found to try out different palettes is to just choose a few colors you're interested in and make a few little paintings with those colors - this keeps it fun and interesting without having to struggle through a big painting when you might not be feeling comfortable with the new mixtures. Color Charts By far the most comprehensive way to learn about color mixing is to make your own color charts. This practice comes highly recommended by American artist Richard Schmid, who is a living master. It can however be a very dull and time consuming exercise for most people who simply don't have the patience to go through the whole process. However, for the sake of those who do have the tenacity to do this I'll show you how to build your own color charts. Color charts are about discovering what your colors can do when lightened with white, and when each color is mixed with every other color. Here's how to make the first chart: 1. Choose a surface like canvas board, masonite panel or illustration board coated with gesso. 2. Count the tube colors you would like to use in your charts. Lets say you have 6. Measure out a grid of 1" squares 5 high x 6 wide with a quarter inch space in between each square. Lay this out using ¼" masking tape. 3. Take your lightest color (eg. Cad yellow light) and paint that into the top left square, making sure the paint is thick enough to cover the canvas. 4. Using a palette knife to mix on your palette, mix enough white and yellow so that the mixture is nearly white, but still exhibits some yellow. Paint that into the bottom left square but leave a glob on your palette.
5 5 5. Make a yellow and white mixture which has a value half way between pure yellow and your previous mixture. Paint that into the third left square. 6. Now make mixtures who's values are in between squares 1 and 3, then 3 and 5. Paint in those squares. You should now have a 5 value scale from yellow to nearly white. 7. Choose your next darkest tube color and repeat this process for that color in the second column, and so on until you have completed the first chart. The next charts get a little bit trickier. They are designed to show what all your colors look like when mixed with every other color. If you have 6 six colors, that's how many charts there will be. Each chart takes one color as the predominant color, and mixes that with every other color. The predominant color for each mixture should be obvious, but not to the extend that you cannot tell which other color has been mixed with it. Making the Predominance Charts: 1. Lay up another 5x6 grid and using your lightest tube color again (eg. Cad yellow light), make a 5 value scale in the first column as in the previous chart. 2. Now mix your Cad yellow light with your next darkest tube color (eg. Cad yellow mid) so that Cad yellow light predominates - until you can see there's more Cad yellow light than Cad yellow mid in the mixture (this gets easier with darker colors). 3. Paint this color into the 2nd top square and then make a 5 value scale with it, adding white as before. 4. Repeat this process in the next column with the next darkest tube color, and so on across the columns until the chart is complete with every color being mixed with Cad yellow light predominating, and 5 value scales of each mixture. 5. Now lay out another grid, choose your next darkest tube color (eg. Cad yellow mid) and follow steps 1-4 until you have a completed Cad Yellow Mid Predominance Chart. Repeat with all your chosen tube colors. Building your own color charts will build your understanding of color mixing very quickly, and it can be a very rewarding experience - in fact Schmid himself says he does this exercise every few years because his color knowledge deepens considerably each time he does it. CYL CYM CRM A U PB CYL CYL+ CYM CYL+ CRM CYL+ A CYL+ U CYL+ PB Pure Tube Colors Cadmium Yellow Light First Color Chart First Predominance Color Chart
6 6 Mixing Methods There are 3 basic ways we can mix paint to make different colors: blending, glazing, and optical mixing. Each method affects color differently so it's important to have all three in your bag of tricks. Blending is the simplest method - just mixing two colors together creates another color. You can mix them on the palette or the canvas, but it's better to mix on the palette most of the time unless it's your intention to make your canvas look like a palette. Glazing is applying a thin transparent mixture of paint and medium over another, usually dry color. Slightly higher Chroma can be achieved by glazing than by blending or optical mixing. Glazing is best done with transparent paint - using opaque paint to glaze with will work but it looks a little chalky. Optical Mixing allows colors to mix within the eye by placing many small bits of a color next to another color. From a distance these colors join together in the eye creating a shimmering effect that's not possible with blending or glazing. There are a few different ways of achieving this optical mixing. The most common method is probably scumbling, where thick color is dragged over dry paint creating a broken surface which reveals both layers of paint. Another method is broken color, where many small different colored daubs or strokes are placed side by side. Dragging a palette knife loaded with wet paint over a previous layer is another common method. It's very easy to paint an entire painting using just one mixing technique, but if you can remember to use these 3 mixing methods within the one painting it can make for a much more dynamic and interesting work of art. Using multiple mixing techniques in a single painting adds interest and dynamism.
7 7 Transparency & Opacity Different paints have different opacities. Opaque paint tends to cover what is underneath it easily, whereas transparent paint tends to let the background show through. Semi-Transparent paint is obviously somewhere in between the two. The opacity of each color is written on it's tube. It's good to know this when it comes time to choose a color to glaze with. An interesting thing about transparent paint in relation to color is that when you add white to a transparent color it's chroma actually increases for a certain amount and then begins to decrease, whereas adding white to opaque color reduces its chroma steadily. Transparent colors yield slightly higher chroma in mixture with white. Color Relativity When we mix color as painters we are usually trying to match a color we are seeing or make a color that plays well with it's neighbors. Our first hurdle to mixing color well is seeing color and understanding it's relationships with it's neighbors. When you know how to do that, that's half the battle won already. We've already begun to learn how to do that in the previous chapters, so let's expand on that now. As we've already found out, color is relative, which means our perception of it changes depending on it's surroundings. This means that when we are mixing our colors for painting we don't need to worry about getting the colors exactly the same as the individual colors we are seeing in our subject, but we DO need to get the RELATIONSHIPS between the colors right. B is the same color as A.
8 8 For instance, if we're trying to paint this red cube, it doesn't matter if when I start out that I don't get the color for the top face exactly right, because the important thing is to make the next color in your painting have the same relationship with the first color as what you are seeing in your subject. So if in the subject the dark side is 2 steps darker than the top face, with slightly less chroma, and is a bit cooler, that RELATIONSHIP is what you should be trying to duplicate in your painting. You see it's not the right color that's important, it's the right relationship. Relationships are the key to excellent painting. Ever had muddy looking color in your painting? Ever not had it? Muddy color is just color that has the wrong relationship with it's neighbors. It's either the wrong value, hue or chroma. Ok, so we've got that - it's the relationship between colors that is important, but how do we get the first color close enough to what we are seeing? How do we match a color? Matching Color Here's how I match a color... Step 1: Examine your color. Examine your subject color closely using squinting and your color checker to determine its value, hue and saturation in comparison to other colors in the scene and the colors on your palette. Remember not to squint when examining hue though - better to use the fuzzy one-eye because squinting darkens the color. Step 2: Choose the closest tube color/s. Matching a Color Examine Choose closest tube Color Adjust Value Adjust Hue Adjust Chroma Decide which of your tube colors is closest to the subject color. If it is a secondary color, mix your primaries to achieve the secondary color. Tip: Use or mix a color with a higher chroma than your subject color. This is because as you adjust the value and hue next, your color will lose chroma, so you need it to be as high as possible to start with. To mix a color which has the highest possible chroma use colors which are closest together on the color wheel. The further apart your two colors are on the color wheel the grayer your mixture will become. For example, if you want to mix an intense orange you would mix cadmium scarlet and cadmium yellow light together because they are closer to each other on the color Mixing adjacent colors yields higher chroma.
9 9 wheel than say cadmium red mid and cadmium yellow light. Think of it like this, the furthest away a color can be from another color on the wheel is directly opposite it and if you add opposite (complementary) colors together you get gray, or gray brown, so the closer your colors are to each other on the color wheel, the less gray your mixture will be. Step 3: Adjust the Value. Check to see if the value of your color is the same as the value of your subject color. If it's different, you'll need to darken or lighten your mixture. Adjust Value Lightening a Color Darkening a Color The Problem with White and Black When some people think about 'lightening or darkening a color' they immediately reach for the white or black paint. There are a few problems associated with this practice though. When we add white or black to a color to lighten or darken it, it reduces the color's chroma. This is not a problem if you want dull darks and pastel or chalky lights, but if you want your color to retain a high chroma you need a better way to adjust it. You will find out how to do this through trial and error - and that's really the only way to cement this information in your brain, but if I give you some pointers to start with it will help speed up the process. To Lighten a color you will need to add white or yellow to raise the value. Adding either one or the other will create a hue change as well as a value change. Adding white will push the color towards the blue-violet side of the color wheel - cooling it. Adding yellow will push the color towards the yellow side of the wheel - warming it. Adding both will produce a more neutral color change. You need to decide whether your color needs to be warmer or cooler or neither as you lighten its value. Trial and error is going to be your best friend here, so my advice is to try little bits at a time, and not mix the whole pile - find out what will work first. Darkening a color is a trickier thing than lightening a color. You can just add black of course - that's the first assumption we make. But see what happens when you add black to yellow. You get olive green (which can be useful), but it's not a dark yellow. Adding black creates a color shift and lowers the chroma of most mixtures which is often unwanted so we need a smarter way to darken colors and unfortunately there is no system that works for all colors, so let's look at them individually. To Lighten a Color Adding Yellow pushes a color towards yellow - warming it. Adding White pushes a color towards blue/violet - cooling it. Adding black to change a VALUE will also change the HUE.
10 10 To Darken Yellow You could try adding yellow's complement (violet) but that will gray the yellow considerably. Let's look at yellow's neighbor, orange. Dark orange is brown, and that brown is right beside dark yellow on the wheel, so it makes sense that if we add yellow to that brown then we should be pretty close to a dark yellow. Yellow ochre is a good yellow-brown straight from the tube, so a good light to dark yellow gradation can be mixed simply from cad yellow to yellow ochre, and then to burnt umber. These browns can also be mixed by the primaries, which basically means adding red and blue and a little black to your yellow in increasing quantities, but it's easier to do with tubed colors and the fewer colors you add, the higher you can keep the chroma. Cad Yellow Light Yellow Ochre Burnt Umber To Darken Green This one's fairly simple. Green is made from a light color (yellow) and a dark color (blue), so to darken it you just need to add more of its own dark color, blue. This will change the hue towards blue though and away from yellow, so you may add alizarine or cad red to warm it again. My suggestion would be to add blue initially and then black as it gets darker. Phthalo Green Phthalo Blue Black
11 11 To Darken Blue Good news, blue is already pretty dark, so if you have a light blue mixture you need darkening just add blue. If you want to get your tube blue darker just add a dark red like alizarine or burnt sienna, then you could add a little black to get as dark as possible. There are of course tube blues like cerulean and cobalt blue which are relatively light to begin with, these can easily be darkened by adding one of the darker blues like ultramarine or phthalo. Phthalo Blue Alizarine Black To Darken Purple Again, purple is dark to begin with, so if you want it darker, just add it's darkest constituent color, be that red or blue, and you can add black for your darkest possible value. To Darken Red To darken cadmium red, try adding alizarine or burnt sienna. To make it darker again, add ultramarine, and then black if needed. Ultramarine Violet Phthalo Blue + Alizarine Black To Darken Orange Dark orange is brown, so a simple gradation might be orange, add a little red, yellow ochre with some red, burnt sienna, and then adding black if required. Cad Red Medium Which White to Use? Zinc white, sometimes called Mixing White is best for color mixing as it is more transparent than Titanium White, which is good for strong opaque highlights but tends to overpower colors in mixture making them appear chalky at times. Alizarine Black Which Black to Use? Ivory Black or Lamp Black are both more transparent that Mars Black and are better to use when darkening a color (when required) as they darken colors without overwhelming them. Cad Orange Obviously these are just general guidelines and you will find through your own experience with your own paint which mixtures work best for darkening or lightening colors. Okay, let's get back to the process of matching a color. Yellow Ochre + Cad Red Medium Burnt Sienna Step 4: Adjust the Hue.
12 12 Now that you have the right value you can compare the hue of your mixture with your subject color. Ask yourself the question 'is my mixture warmer or cooler than my subject?' For instance if your purple is too warm (heading towards red) you can cool it by adding a touch of blue to it. It pushes the color towards blue. Some artist's call this 'bending' or 'nudging' the color. Note that if you add a color which is lighter or darker than your mixture you will need to readjust the value by going back to step 3. If you can't seem to get the color just right at this point, just get it as close as you can because what's more important is to get the correct value. Adjust the HUE: is my mixture too warm or cool? Goal Color My Mixture Warm Mixture too warm. Leans red. 2 Add blue + white. White restores Value. Correct HUE. Cool Step 5: Adjust the Chroma. Now that you have the value right and hue right, look to see if the chroma is the same as the goal color. The question to ask is 'How close is the color to gray?' If the chroma is too low you will find it very difficult to increase the chroma at this point. You are likely to add more and more paint and end up with a big pile of lower chroma color which is the wrong hue as well. This is why you need to begin your mixture with the highest chroma possible. If you think you can do better, scrape it off and return to step 2. If the chroma is too high, there are two ways to subdue it; one is to add a neutral gray of the same value as your mixture. Mix a neutral gray with 50% black, 50% burnt umber and white. Another way is to add the color's mixing complement - opposite on the color wheel. This is a very inaccurate way to do it but can produce some pleasing results due to the opposite nature of the colors which creates a sort of visual vibration. Either way, the color you add should be of the same value before you mix it so that you don't have to adjust the value again. Ok, so here it is again - to match a color Adjust the CHROMA: is my chroma too high or low? A Goal Color B My Mixture A How close is my mixture to gray compared to my goal color? B Chroma too high. Add gray or Add complement. Correct CHROMA.
13 13 we do this: 1. Examine the subject color. 2. Choose the nearest tube color or secondary color. 3. Adjust the Value, keeping the Chroma high. 4. Adjust the Hue. 5. Adjust the Chroma. These are the 5 steps to matching a color, but looking at it as a whole process like this it looks pretty cumbersome - I mean, can't we just throw some colors together and get it close enough? Sure you can do that - you can do that easily when you've been painting for a long time and this whole process has become intuitive, but for the beginner it's just not possible to get it right every time by mixing haphazardly - we all do a lot better when we have a process to follow. Let's get our paints out now and try using this process to match some colors... Matching a Color Examine Choose closest tube Color Adjust Value Adjust Hue Adjust Chroma Exercise #1 - Color Matching Make these colors by following through the color matching instructions word for word. Place your color in the blank boxes. Sometimes you won't have to go through the whole 5 steps to reach your goal color - sometimes you might have everything right by the time you get to step 3 or 4. Remember this process is meant to train your brain to think about color in a methodical way and when that starts to happen this process will become second nature, like riding a bike. Exercise #2 - Red Cube Study Okay, now that your paints are out and you're all warmed up, let's try using our new color mixing knowledge to paint a study of the red cube. Try and set it up in exactly the same position and lighting as you had it for your value studies in chapter 4 - that way you'll already know what the value relationships are like.
14 14 Richard Robinson's Here's the palette I would use for this: Cadmium Yellow Light Permanent Green Deep/Phthalo Green Ultramarine Blue Alizarine Crimson Cadmium Red Light Cadmium Scarlet Cadmium Orange Zinc White/Tinting White Carbon Black/Lamp Black/Ivory Black 1 Maybe I won't use all those colors, but at least they're there if I need them. I've included all my warm colors on my palette for the red cube because I'm not sure which colors will work best at this point. Here's the process you should follow: 1. Draw the cube out on your canvas Use the 5 step color matching process you've just looked at to try and get the first color right. Start with the face which has the highest chroma. (You will find that the red cube is a relatively easy one to start out with because for the highest chroma face you will probably use just pure Cadmium Scarlet, or Cadmium Red Mid and you might not have to adjust it very much at all. Then you compare your next mixtures to that. Things get trickier when the local color isn't a primary color, eg. a purple cube.) 3 3. Use the color comparison techniques you've learned to analyze and mix the second color in correct relationship to the first. What I finally decided on for my dark color (and this will be different than yours), was a mixture of Cadmium Red Medium, Alizarine Crimson and a little bit of black. You'll notice that my painting is slightly different than the photograph and that's because I was painting from life and not from a photograph. In the photograph the darks are slightly darker than they were and the lights are slightly lighter. That's a pretty typical example of what photography does with light and color Continue in the same fashion with the third face of the cube, remembering soft and sharp edges. 5. When you've got the cube as good as you can make it, it's time to paint the surroundings. Getting these colors right is another challenge altogether... 5
15 15 Low chroma colors like the cast shadows from the cube can be really tricky to figure out. My rule of thumb is that if I can't decide what the main color is, it's probably a gray - which is another way of saying that it has really low chroma. Sometimes it's just helpful to restate something in a different way like that. Now that I know it's a gray I just ask myself is it warm or cool compared to something else in the scene I've already painted. So I use my color checker and the fuzzy one eye and start making comparisons like that. It's tricky making comparisons against something so different though, so what I'll often do if I can't figure out the hue relationship is to just mix a gray of the correct value and place that on the painting. Once it's on the canvas it's much easier to compare your painting to your subject and adjust your gray until it's the right temperature. I've used the 2 complementaries of Ultramarine Blue and Cadmium Orange to mix this warm gray, and as it gets lighter and cooler I just add more and more white, and a touch of blue in the lightest areas. Again, that's due to the cool bluish light coming in the window. If you are using a light bulb to light your scene it's likely to be a very warm yellowish light, which would mean adding yellow to the mixture as it got lighter. It would also give you cool shadows instead of warm ones like these. So that's another good rule of thumb, but one which also has its exceptions: Warm light makes cool and cool light makes warm shadows. You can usually see that contrast in temperature in any scene. With landscape painting our warm light is from direct sunlight on a clear day and our cool light is from an overcast day. Exercise #3: Complementary Grays Most colors we see in nature are at least a little gray. Unless you are very close to a flower or some other intensely colored thing, light and atmosphere combine to lower the chroma of most things we are seeing, so as a painter it's very important to know how to mix grays. There are 2 ways to mix a gray: 1. Mix black and white together. (You can add a bit of burnt umber to make a more neutral gray.) 2. Mix 2 complementary colors together. The beauty of mixing complements together is that they make it very easy to control the temperature. Too cold? - add a bit of the warm color. Too warm? - add a bit of the cool color. Nice and simple - just the way I like it. To find out about your complementary grays just mix a few of them together as shown in the lesson notes. Some of them are quite dark so you'll need to add white to be able to see what sort of gray it is. Some of my paintings are done using just 2 complements plus one other color. It's an interesting challenge to see what range of colors this small palette can produce. You might like to try a few complementary paintings of your own.
16 16 Richard Robinson's Complementary Grays Exercise #4 - Purple Cube Study Print and construct the purple cube from the end of these notes on photo paper. Complete a color study of it as in exercise #2. Use the following palette of colors: Cadmium Yellow Light Ultramarine Blue Ultramarine Violet/Purple Alizarine Crimson Cadmium Red Light Zinc White/Tinting White Carbon Black/Lamp Black/Ivory Black
17 17 Advanced Exercise #5: Transposing This exercise will really reinforce the concept of color relationships. What I want you to do is use the red cube setup, but paint it as a blue cube. By doing this you have to think purely in terms of relationships, so that instead of trying to copy the colors in front of you, you are copying the relationships. Good luck with that one! Seeing and mixing color is obviously a lot trickier than it looks at first. There don't appear to be enough hours within a lifetime to master color, and you may feel, like I do that you never really 'arrive', that it's an infinite series of stepping stones. The joy of this is found then, in the doing, in each moment of discovery - knowing that you are a step further along, and with each step whole new vistas open up for you to explore and play in. I love what Emerson said about this, "Unless you try to do something beyond what you have already mastered, you will never grow." So I hope you will grow along with me and do these painting exercises with me. See you in the next chapter.
18 [Chapter 4] Value 18 Sources: 'Alla Prima' by Richard Schmid 'Color' by Barry John Raybould 2002 'Color Mixing' by Winsor & Newton 1997 'Gouache For Illustration' by Rob Howard 'Hensche on Painting' by John W. Robichaux '' by Vick Murry 2006 "Painting the Impressionist Landscape" by Lois Griffel 1994 Stephen Quiller's Color Wheel: 'Sergei Bongart' by Patricia LeGrande Bongart 2000 Join my Painter's Club! For good company and good painting sign up at: (Once you've signed up, visit the forum for more about.)
19 Painter's Cube Print in high quality mode on photo paper for best results. 1. Use a ruler and blade. 2. Cut around the outside. 3. Score (very lightly cut) dotted lines. 4. Fold on dotted lines. 5. Glue on tabs. 6. Assemble slowly. 7. Relax! Enjoy the therapy. 3 Nearest Matching Gray Cube
20 Painter's Cube Print in high quality mode on photo paper for best results. 1. Use a ruler and blade. 2. Cut around the outside. 3. Score (very lightly cut) dotted lines. 4. Fold on dotted lines. 5. Glue on tabs. 6. Assemble slowly. 7. Relax! Enjoy the therapy. 3 Nearest Matching Gray Cube
21 Painter's Cube Print in high quality mode on photo paper for best results. 1. Use a ruler and blade. 2. Cut around the outside. 3. Score (very lightly cut) dotted lines. 4. Fold on dotted lines. 5. Glue on tabs. 6. Assemble slowly. 7. Relax! Enjoy the therapy. 3 3
22 CADMIUM ORANGE CADMIUM SCARLET CADMIUM RED MEDIUM ALIZARINE CRIMSON MAGENTA CADMIUM YELLOW LIGHT ULTRAMARINE VIOLET PERMANENT GREEN LIGHT PHTHALO GREEN PHTHALO TURQUOISE PHTHALO BLUE ULTRAMARINE BLUE Primary Color Secondary Color Tertiary Color
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Brought to you by The Beading Emporium The most difficult part of creating, whether it is a beautiful painting or a lovely piece of jewelry, is coming up with the right color combinations. However, with
Drawing and Painting Vocabulary List 1)Abstract Art- a style of art that shows its subject matter in simplified shapes and colors 2)Acrylic type of synthetic resin used in making paint 3)Airbrush - Tool
Basic Color Theory Color theory encompasses a multitude of definitions, concepts and design applications - enough to fill several encyclopedias. However, there are three basic categories of color theory
This training and curriculum is created from the best and most effective traditional methods and techniques used in 19th-century European academies and private ateliers, the apprentice system of the renaissance.
COLOR THEORY WORKSHEET Use color pencils to complete the following exercises Name: Period Date PRIMARY COLORS cannot be made from any combination of colors. Fade intensity from top left to bottom right
Solving your Rubik's Revenge (4x4x4) 07/16/2007 12:59 AM Solving the Rubik's Revenge (4x4x4) Home Pre-Solution Stuff Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Solution Moves Lists Turn this... Into THIS! To solve the Rubik's
Painting by James Gurney www.jamesgurney.com/ 70 "Casein is a water-based paint medium with working properties that resemble gouache, cel vinyl and, in some respects, oil. I've used all of those latter
Appendix appendix E The Lighting Effects Filter The Lighting Effects filter is like a little program in itself. With this filter, you can create a wealth of different lighting effects, from making a particular
Contents The Three Dimensions of Color... 2 Using the Three Dimensions of Color... 2 Special Effects, Pearls and Metallics... 3 Color Shifts and Tri-Coats... 3 When Colors Flop... 4 Techniques for Adjusting
Materials for Drawing Workshops Drawing Supplies for All the Art Workshops 5 Drawing Pencils-3H, 2H, HB, and 2B and 4B artist quality such as Faber-Castelle 9000, Derwent Graphic, or Staedler Mars Lumograph
Big Red by Shirley Koenig Big Red By Shirley Koenig Palette: DecoArt Americana Acrylics Burnt Sienna #13063 Burnt Umber #13064 Cadmium Red #13015 Dioxazine Purple #13101 Lamp Black #13067 Napa Red #13165
1 Adobe Photoshop CS One sees differently with color photography than black and white...in short, visualization must be modified by the specific nature of the equipment and materials being used Ansel Adams
grades 6 1 2 Objective Build a simple, pocket-sized spectroscope from readily available materials and use it to examine different kinds of light sources in school, at home, and around the city. Introduction
Painting Chun-Li in Corel Painter 12 Mike Thompson Final painting Painting Chun-Li in Corel Painter 12 1 In this tutorial, I chose to paint Chun-Li from the popular Street Fighter video game series, which
1. Three-Color Light Chapter 1 Introduction to Three-Color Light Many of us were taught at a young age that the primary colors are red, yellow, and blue. Our early experiences with color mixing were blending
First Grade: April Lesson 6: Night Landscape Oil Pastel and Watercolor Objective: To create a resist painting showing a night landscape Technique: Drawing with oil pastels, adding a watercolor wash Set-up:
Acrylic Painting Techniques Preparing your Palette Your artist palette should be clean and dry before you begin Scoop a small amount of acrylic paint (red, blue, yellow, black & white) onto your palette
Trace Images with Art Media Tools With Paint Shop Pro 9 you can paint with a brush, sketch with a pencil or chalk, create pastel portraits, use markers to digitally ink cartoons, create impasto effects,
Color Correction/Grading Tips Ever wonder how some movies and tv shows look so good? While they are likely filming with very expensive cameras, a lot of it has to do with coloring the image during post
Additive and Subtractive (Reductive) Color Additive color is what we normally think of as RGB mode. The name comes from the fact that the colors are created from light, and when combined they become white.
PROFESSIONAL HAIR COLOR BASIC HAIR COLOR THEORY BASIC COLOR THEORY When Coloring the hair, remember the rules of complementarities Red is opposite Green Blue is opposite Orange Yellow is opposite Violet
Android Programming Family Fun Day using AppInventor Table of Contents A step-by-step guide to making a simple app...2 Getting your app running on the emulator...9 Getting your app onto your phone or tablet...10
GCSE Art Annotation Guide Writing about your work and the work of other artists is an important part of your GCSE. Use this guide to help you get used to the terminology. Don t be afraid to use your own
Presented by Chica and Jo www.chicaandjo.com INSTRUCTIONS FOR Magic Folding Photo Cube Hello! We re so excited that you want to make a folding photo cube! You can find more info on our website here: http://chicaandjo.com/photo-cube
This tutorial is presented to you by Maarten Beerten. www.maycodesign.nl email@example.com In this tutorial I am going to show you a couple of examples of how to make your drawing different. In my
Painting Softly The WOOD BEE CARVER applies a soft painted finish on his carvings using a combination of artist oil paint and boiled linseed oil. This painting method is adapted from a method developed
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Utrecht Studio Series Acrylic Paint MSDS 912.1 Date: June 7, 2010 Information: 800-223-9132 or: 609-409-8001 Section 1 Company and Product Identification Utrecht Art Supply 6
Most Expressive element of art Is powerful Can show emotion Color Properties of color Color- an element derived from reflected light If it were not for light, we would have no color White light from the
Graphic Communication Notes Name... Symbols 2 British Standards Institution (BSI) Dimensioning 3 A thick continuous line shows visible outlines and visible edges. A thin continuous line is used for projection
MOTION PICTURE COLOR THEORY COLOR THEORY This self-study workbook includes general material about color that you should know if you are involved in photography or photofinishing. You might ask, Can someone
Producing a realistic drawing with CorelDRAW Hugo Hansen In this tutorial, I show you some of the tools I used to create the many effects in the drawing of my son resting on a motorcycle. The idea to make
MASKS & CHANNELS WORKING WITH MASKS AND CHANNELS Masks let you isolate and protect parts of an image. When you create a mask from a selection, the area not selected is masked or protected from editing.
Rebecca Ahmed Mr. Riese Computer Graphics Technology ROY LITCHENSTEIN For our second Graphic Design project, we imitated Roy Lichtenstein s comics with our own photos. When I turned my photo into a comic,
Lesson 3: Albedo Time: approximately 40-50 minutes, plus 30 minutes for students to paint pop bottles Materials: Text: Albedo (from web site 1 per group) Small thermometers, at least 0ºC to 100ºC range
Basic Eyeshadow Eyes To me, the eyes are so important that I seem to always (or at least 99 percent of the time) make them the focus of the face. I think it is because I truly believe they are the windows
SCA Calligraphy 101 Marko Evanovich Panfilov September 26th, A.S. 37 (2002) These tips and guidelines are based purely on personal experience and should not be considered a complete discussion of the subject.
Contrast ratio what does it really mean? Introduction...1 High contrast vs. low contrast...2 Dynamic contrast ratio...4 Conclusion...5 Introduction Contrast, along with brightness, size, and "resolution"
COLLEGE OF THE CANYONS Fall 2014 ART 220-12002 WATERCOLOR PAINTING Tuesdays and Thursdays from 6:30 9:30PM in room 312. This class meets at the CANYON COUNTRY CAMPUS room 601 on Sierra Highway. Instructor:
Watercolor Impressionism Faces and Places Workshop Description Michael Holter This workshop will focus on the use of watercolor to paint exciting impressionistic paintings of people and places. You will
This tutorial is the third in a series of educational articles devoted to Corel Painter 8. 1 ILLUSTRATION: CHER THREINEN-PENDARVIS BY CHER THREINEN-PENDARVIS 2 The black-and-white pen-and-ink drawing For
Non-Stop Optical Illusions A Teacher s Guide to the Empire State Plaza Art Collection New York State Office of General Services Curatorial/Tour Services 29 th Floor, Corning Tower Albany, NY 12242 518.473.7521
BACKDROP PAINTING MADE EASY Lex A. Parker, MMR, CRC June 1, 2007 PAINTING BACKDROPS For my last layout, (Gazette July/Aug. 1990) I painted relatively simple backdrops, as they were short scenes separated
WINTER-SPRING 2016 SUPPLY LIST (SCROLL DOWN) CHAIN MAILLE JEWELRY CLASSES Chris Sorensen, Instructor Found at any craft store that sells jewelry making supplies: 1. Flat nose pliers 2. Chain nose pliers
This tutorial is the first in a series of educational articles devoted to Corel Painter 8. ILLUSTRATION: CHER THREINEN-PENDARVIS 1 BY CHER THREINEN-PENDARVIS For Favorite Green Pitcher 2, a study created
How to Paint like Rembrandt* Over about 15 weeks this winter and spring, Creative Workshop drawing and painting teacher Sarah Hart (after asking for permission and being granted the opportunity) embarked
TCS DIGITAL COLOR WHEEL VERSION 4.1 USER GUIDE We provide this TCS User Guide for our members as well as persons who would like to know more about the functionality before subscribing to TCS Color Match
COLOR THEORY Reference Book for the Serious Art Student: An Introduction to Art Techniques, by Ray Smith, Michael Wright, and James Horton; DK Publishing;1995 Drawing I Course 0104340 Instructor: Dr. Brown
Call Scenarios 1st Call Goals Introduce yourself and remind them they provided their phone number when they ordered their product. Identify yourself as a Team Beachbody Coach Explain that this is about
The Colour Wheel The colour wheel is designed so that virtually any colours you pick from it will look good together. Over the years, many variations of the basic design have been made, but the most common
Color Theory for Floral Design Essential Questions: Why would a floral designer need to have an understanding of color theory? How is color used to create floral designs? How can color be used for store
Written by Jonathan Sachs Copyright 2008 Digital Light & Color Introduction Picture Window s 2-Zone Adjustment and3-zone Adjustment transformations are powerful image enhancement tools designed for images
Digital Image Processing Prof. P.K. Biswas Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 27 Colour Image Processing II Hello, welcome
Android Programming Family Fun Day using AppInventor Table of Contents A step-by-step guide to making a simple app...2 Getting your app onto your phone or tablet...9 Getting your app running on the emulator...9
Day 1: Let There Be Light! 1 Lessons 1-15: Science in the First Day of the Creation Week Lesson 1: Let There Be Light! Note to the parent/teacher: To start this lesson, you should have Genesis 1:2-3 memorized
So, you want to make a photo-realistic rendering of the Earth from orbit, eh? And you want it to look just like what astronauts see from the shuttle or ISS (International Space Station). No problem. Just
Art 101.03 / 101.S1 Color and Design Class Schedule and Assignments 1.20.16 Introduction, get to know class, go over syllabus, show materials, talk about Design Principles and Elements including: Design
Behind the Color Wheel Using Color in Art & Design EDUCATOR S RESOURCE GUIDE Copyright 2013 Learning Seed Suite 301 641 West Lake Street Chicago, IL 60661 firstname.lastname@example.org www.learningseed.com What
10 Drawing Portraits: Fundamentals Table of Contents Introduction and how this book is organized 13 Section One: 15 Drawing fundamentals for the new artist. 15 Some introductory words for the newbie artist
1 This is an example of a fairly state of the art computer generated line drawing. It uses suggestive contours, slightly stylized strokes, and some visual emphasis effects, and its a pretty nice, effective
COLOR THEORY & DESIGN SYLLABUS SUMMER 2015 Cole Case ColeLCase@gmail.com colelcase.com @ColeLCase Mondays 7-10 PM XGRD1101 1 unit COURSE DESCRIPTION: An essential course for anyone pursuing a career or
Original Recipe Braided Irish Chain Quilt by Melissa Corry Hello all! I am so excited about this project. It happens to be the largest quilt I have made, as well as the largest quilt I have quilted. This
Torn Paper Collage For this project, you will be using TORN PAPER to create a COLLAGE! You can use virtually any kind of paper you can find. Magazines, newspapers, junk mail Artwork, sheet music, pages
"How to color stage lighting to enhance the color in scenery, costumes, and makeup" Content: DETERMINING THE EFFECT OF COLORED LIGHT ON SCENERY AND COSTUMES HOW TO EXPERIMENT WITH COLOR ON COLOR WHAT SHALL