df dt df dt df ds df ds


 Collin Small
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Principles of Fluid Mechanics Fluid: Fluid is a substance that deforms or flows continuously under the action of a shear stress (force per unit area). In fluid mechanics the term fluid can refer to any liquid or gas. Incompressible and Compressible Fluid: When the density of a fluid does not change substantially (change in density is less than 3%) under the application of pressure then it is called incompressible fluid e.g. water. When the density of a fluid changes substantially (change in density is more than 3%) under the application of pressure then it is called compressible fluid e.g. air. Pressure Head: It is a term used in fluid mechanics to represent the energy of a static fluid due to the pressure exerted on its container. Mathematically it is represented as h= Here, h is the vertical height of the free surface above any point in a liquid at rest and P is the pressure exerted on the bottom of the container. Specific weight: It is the weight per unit volume of a fluid. Mathematically it is represented as Flow rate or Discharge: It is the quantity of fluid (mass or volume) flowing through any closed or open conduit in unit time. Steady Flow: It is the fluid flow in which all the fluid properties at any one point are constant with respect to time. If F is any fluid property, for steady flow Unsteady Flow: It is the fluid flow in which all the fluid properties at any one point are variable with respect to time. If F is any fluid property, for unsteady flow Uniform flow: It is the fluid flow in which all the fluid properties at any time are constant with respect to space variables. If F is any fluid property, for uniform flow P ρg γ = ρg df dt df dt df ds = 0 0 = 0 Non Uniform flow: It is the fluid flow in which all the fluid properties at any time are variable with respect to space variables. If F is any fluid property, for non uniform flow df ds 0
2 Bernoulli s Equation Assuming that, the fluid flow is steady and the fluid is modeled as incompressible, Newton s second law can be integrated along a streamline to give Bernoulli s Equation in the form: For steady flow, a streamline can be thought of as the path along which a fluid particle moves when traveling from one location in the flow to another location. Each term in the Bernoulli s equation has the unit of pressure. i.e. (Pa or N/m 2 ). This equation indicates that the total sum of the pressure is constant along a streamline although the value of the components can vary depending on the path of the fluid. But the total sum will always be constant. p = static pressure 1 / 2 ρv 2 = dynamic pressure γz = hydrostatic pressure An alternate equivalent to Bernoulli s Equation can be found by dividing both sides of the equation by the specific weight γ. The equation then becomes Each of the terms in this equation has the units of length and represents a certain type of head. The elevation term, z, is related to the potential energy of the particle and is called the elevation head. The pressure term, p/γ, is called the pressure head and represents the pressure energy of the fluid. The velocity term, V 2 /2g, is the velocity head and represents kinetic energy of the fluid. The Bernoulli equation states that the sum of the pressure head, the velocity head, and the elevation head is constant along a streamline. Application of Bernoulli s Principle The shape of the airplane wings is made in such a way that the shape induces the air flowing over its top surface to flow faster causing the pressure on the upper side of the wing to be lower than the pressure on the underside of the wing. This difference of pressure causes the airplane to achieve elevation. Other notable application of the Bernoulli s Principle is the reverse swing of the cricket ball.
3 Fluid Machinery Machines that either energize the fluid (pump, fan, blower and compressor) or extract energy from the fluids (turbines) are called fluid machinery. Turbine A turbine is a rotary machine that extracts energy from a liquid or air flow and converts it into useful work. Turbines are classified into the following types according to their principle of operation Impulse Turbine Reaction Turbine Impulse Turbines Fig.: Working Principle of (a) Impulse Turbine (b) Reaction Turbine Principle of Operation: Impulse turbines work on the principle that the high pressure, high velocity fluid is directed onto the moving blades transferring its kinetic energy to the blades. These turbines change the direction of flow of a high velocity fluid or gas jet. The resulting impulse spins the turbine and leaves the fluid flow with diminished kinetic energy. There is no pressure change of the fluid or gas in the turbine rotor blades (the moving blades). All the pressure drop takes place in the stationary blades (the nozzles). Before reaching the turbine, the fluid's pressure head is changed to velocity head by accelerating the fluid with a nozzle. Impulse turbines do not require a pressure casement around the rotor since the fluid jet is created by the nozzle prior to reaching the blading on the rotor. Newton's second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines. Reaction Turbines Principle of Operation: The principle of a pure reaction turbine is that all the energy contained within the fluid is converted to mechanical energy by reaction of the jet of the fluid as it flows over the blades of the rotor. The rotor is forced to rotate as the fluid exhausts the rotor blades according to Newton s 3 rd law of motion. In practice, it is impossible to achieve pure reaction effect as the incoming fluid to the turbine has velocity when it reaches the moving blades. Therefore the fluid on passing across the moving blades imparts some impulse to the blades. The force developed by impulse compared to the force developed by reaction will depend on the rotor speed/fluid flow velocity ratio.
4 Fig.: Fluid Flow, Pressure and Velocity distribution in Impulse and Reaction Turbines
5 Pelton Wheel Fig.: Schematic Diagram of Pelton Wheel and Bucket The Pelton wheel is among the most efficient types of water turbines. It is an impulse turbine, meaning that it uses the principle of Newton's second law to extract energy from a jet of fluid. Fig.: Cross Section of Pelton Wheel Bucket and Velocity Diagram of Working Fluid Principles of Operation: In a pelton wheel, nozzles direct forceful streams of water against a series of spoonshaped buckets mounted around the edge of a wheel. As water flows into the bucket, the direction of the water velocity changes to follow the contour of the bucket. When the waterjet contacts the bucket, the water exerts pressure on the bucket and the water is decelerated as it does a uturn and flows out the other side of the bucket at low velocity. In the process, the water's momentum is transferred to the turbine. This impulse does work on the turbine. A very small percentage of the water's original kinetic energy will still remain in the water which allows the bucket to be emptied at the same rate it is filled. Thus allowing the water flow to continue uninterrupted. Often two buckets are mounted sidebyside, thus splitting the water jet in half. This balances the sideload forces on the wheel, and helps to ensure smooth, efficient momentum transfer of the fluid jet to the turbine wheel.
6 Kaplan Turbine Fig.: Schematic Diagram of Kaplan Turbine The Kaplan turbine is a propeller type water turbine which has adjustable blades. Kaplan turbines are now widely used throughout the world in highflow, lowhead power production. Fig.: Cross Section of Kaplan Turbine Principles of Operation: The Kaplan turbine is an inward flow reaction turbine, which means that the working fluid changes pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its energy. The inlet is a scroll shaped tube that wraps around the turbine's wicket gate. Water is directed tangentially through the wicket gate and spirals on to a propeller shaped runner, causing it to spin. The outlet is a specially shaped draft tube that helps decelerate the water and recover kinetic energy.
7 Pumps A pump is a machine which, when interposed in a conduit, transfers energy from some external source to the liquid flowing through the conduit. Classification Pumps are primarily divided into the following categories Rotodynamic Pump Positive Displacement Pump Rotodynamic Pump Rotodynamic pumps (or dynamic pumps) are a type of pump in which kinetic energy is added to the fluid by increasing the flow velocity by using a revolving wheel or rotor or impeller. This increase in kinetic energy is converted to pressure energy (pressure) by utilizing the Bernoulli s Principle. Typical examples of Rotodynamic pumps include centrifugal pump, turbine pump and submersible pump. Centrifugal Pump A centrifugal pump is a rotodynamic pump that uses a rotating impeller to increase the pressure and flowrate of a fluid. Centrifugal pumps are the most common type of pump used to move liquids through a piping system. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis through a hole called impeller eye. Fluid is then accelerated by the impeller rotation. Fluid flows radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber, from where it exits into the downstream piping system. In the volute chamber the kinetic energy increased by the impeller is converted into pressure energy. Centrifugal pumps are typically used for large discharge through smaller heads. Fig.: Centrifugal Pump Fig.: Cross Section of Centrifugal Pump Fig.: Volute Casing and Impeller
8 Submersible Pump: A submersible pump is a device which has a hermetically sealed motor closecoupled to the pump body. The whole assembly is submerged in the fluid to be pumped. These types of pumps are used to collect water or crude oil from deep down below the ground level. Turbine Pump A turbine pump is a device which has a motor coupled to the pump body by a long shaft. The pump body is submerged into the fluid to be pumped but the motor stays over the ground. This type of pump is used for collecting high quantity of water from low depths. Fig.: Turbine Pump Fig.: Submersible Pump
9 Positive Displacement Pump A positive displacement pump causes a fluid to move by trapping a fixed amount of it then forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. The rate of fluid flow consequently depends almost wholly on the speed of rotation. Positive Displacement Pumps can be further classified into the following two types Rotary Type: Gear Pump, Lobe Pump Reciprocating Type: Piston Pump, Diaphram Pump Rotary Type Positive displacement rotary pumps are pumps that move fluid using the principles of rotation. The vacuum created by the rotation of the pump captures and draws in the liquid. The fluid is then squeezed out to the delivery side. Fig.: Gear Pump Gear Pump: Gear pumps are the simplest type of rotary pumps, consisting of two gears laid out sidebyside with their teeth enmeshed. The gears turn away from each other, creating a current that traps fluid between the teeth on the gears and the outer casing, eventually releasing the fluid on the discharge side of the pump as the teeth mesh and go around again. Fig.: Lobe Pump Lobe Pump: A lobe pump works in the same principle as the gear pump using shapes called lobes instead of gears.
10 Reciprocating Type Fig.: Piston Pump A reciprocating pump consists of a cylinder with a reciprocating plunger in it. The suction and discharge valves are mounted in the head of the cylinder. In the suction stroke the plunger retracts and the suction valves open causing suction of fluid into the cylinder. In the forward stroke the plunger pushes the liquid out of the discharge valve. Packed gland is a seal to prevent leakage. Comparison between Rotodynamic Pump and Positive Displacement Pump Rotodynamic Pumps Positive Displacement Pumps Runs at very high speed Cannot run at high speeds Continuous delivery Pulsating delivery (Reciprocating) High Flow Rate Low Flow Rate Low Pressure Developed at Discharge High Pressure Developed at Discharge Suitable for Domestic Water Supply Suitable for Chemical Dosing Started with discharge valve closed Started with discharge valve open Fan, Blower and Compressor Fan, blower and compressor are used for the purpose of energizing the gaseous fluids only. Fan increases the velocity of the fluid but it does not increase the pressure of the fluid by any significant amount. Blower increases the velocity of the fluid and also increases the pressure upto 2 atm. Compressor increases the velocity of the fluid and simultaneously increases the pressure greater than 2 atm. As for example a typical compressor used in 250 MW Gas Turbine power plant can increase the pressure of the air taken from the ambient from 1 atm upto 17 atm.
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OVERVIEW Presented by Matt Prosoli Of Pumps Plus Inc.
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OVERVIEW Presented by Matt Prosoli Of Pumps Plus Inc. 1 Centrifugal Pump Definition Centrifugal Pump can be defined as a mechanical device used to transfer liquid of various types. As
More informationUnit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics
Unit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics Unit code: J/601/1496 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 2 TUTORIAL 3 HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC MOTORS The material needed for outcome 2 is very extensive
More informationPump ED 101. Positive Displacement Pumps. Part I Reciprocating Pumps
Pump ED 101 Positive Displacement Pumps Part I Reciprocating Pumps Joe Evans, Ph.D http://www.pumped101.com There are many pump designs that fall into the positive displacement category but, for the most
More informationINTERNATIONAL FIRE TRAINING CENTRE FIREFIGHTER INITIAL PUMPS AND PRIMERS. Throughout this note he means he/she and his means his/hers.
INTERNATIONAL FIRE TRAINING CENTRE FIREFIGHTER INITIAL PUMPS AND PRIMERS Throughout this note he means he/she and his means his/hers. Areas of bold type are considered to be of prime importance. INTRODUCTION
More informationChapter 5 MASS, BERNOULLI AND ENERGY EQUATIONS
Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala McGrawHill, 2010 Chapter 5 MASS, BERNOULLI AND ENERGY EQUATIONS Lecture slides by Hasan Hacışevki Copyright
More informationMass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes
MAE 320Chapter 5 Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes Objectives Develop the conservation of mass principle. Apply the conservation of mass principle to various systems including steady and unsteadyflow
More informationFluid Mechanics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Fluid Mechanics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture  20 Conservation Equations in Fluid Flow Part VIII Good morning. I welcome you all
More informationChapter 2 Pump Types and Performance Data
Chapter 2 Pump Types and Performance Data Abstract Centrifugal pumps are used for transporting liquids by raising a specified volume flow to a specified pressure level. Pump performance at a given rotor
More informationCO 2 41.2 MPa (abs) 20 C
comp_02 A CO 2 cartridge is used to propel a small rocket cart. Compressed CO 2, stored at a pressure of 41.2 MPa (abs) and a temperature of 20 C, is expanded through a smoothly contoured converging nozzle
More informationUnit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics
Unit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics Unit code: J/601/1496 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 2 TUTORIAL 1 HYDRAULIC PUMPS The material needed for outcome 2 is very extensive so there
More informationFLUID MECHANICS. TUTORIAL No.7 FLUID FORCES. When you have completed this tutorial you should be able to. Solve forces due to pressure difference.
FLUID MECHANICS TUTORIAL No.7 FLUID FORCES When you have completed this tutorial you should be able to Solve forces due to pressure difference. Solve problems due to momentum changes. Solve problems involving
More informationUCCS ENSC/PES 2500: Renewable Energy Spring 2011 Test 3 name:
UCCS ENSC/PES 2500: Renewable Energy Spring 2011 Test 3 name: 1. These waves travel through the body of the Earth and are called S waves. a. Transverse b. Longitudinal c. Amplitude d. Trough 2. These waves
More informationCENTRIFUGAL PUMP SELECTION, SIZING, AND INTERPRETATION OF PERFORMANCE CURVES
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP SELECTION, SIZING, AND INTERPRETATION OF PERFORMANCE CURVES 4.0 PUMP CLASSES Pumps may be classified in two general types, dynamic and positive displacement. Positive displacement pumps
More informationdu u U 0 U dy y b 0 b
BASIC CONCEPTS/DEFINITIONS OF FLUID MECHANICS (by Marios M. Fyrillas) 1. Density (πυκνότητα) Symbol: 3 Units of measure: kg / m Equation: m ( m mass, V volume) V. Pressure (πίεση) Alternative definition:
More informationThis chapter deals with three equations commonly used in fluid mechanics:
MASS, BERNOULLI, AND ENERGY EQUATIONS CHAPTER 5 This chapter deals with three equations commonly used in fluid mechanics: the mass, Bernoulli, and energy equations. The mass equation is an expression of
More informationChapter 3.5: Fans and Blowers
Part I: Objective type questions and answers Chapter 3.5: Fans and Blowers 1. The parameter used by ASME to define fans, blowers and compressors is a) Fan ration b) Specific ratio c) Blade ratio d) Twist
More informationPump Selection and Sizing (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINE)
Guidelines for Processing Plant Page : 1 of 51 Rev 01 Feb 2007 Rev 02 Feb 2009 Rev 03 KLM Technology #0312 Block Aronia, Jalan Sri Perkasa 2 Taman Tampoi Utama 81200 Johor Bahru. (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINE)
More information20 m neon m propane 20
Problems with solutions:. A m 3 tank is filled with a gas at room temperature 0 C and pressure 00 Kpa. How much mass is there if the gas is a) Air b) Neon, or c) Propane? Given: T73K; P00KPa; M air 9;
More informationUnit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics
Unit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics Unit code: J/601/1496 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 2 TUTORIAL 2 HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC CYLINDERS The material needed for outcome 2 is very extensive
More informationFUNDAMENTALS OF GAS TURBINE ENGINES
FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS TURBINE ENGINES INTRODUCTION The gas turbine is an internal combustion engine that uses air as the working fluid. The engine extracts chemical energy from fuel and converts it to mechanical
More informationINTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS
INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS SIXTH EDITION ROBERT W. FOX Purdue University ALAN T. MCDONALD Purdue University PHILIP J. PRITCHARD Manhattan College JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
More informationChapter 6 Energy Equation for a Control Volume
Chapter 6 Energy Equation for a Control Volume Conservation of Mass and the Control Volume Closed systems: The mass of the system remain constant during a process. Control volumes: Mass can cross the boundaries,
More informationDesign and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems ME 597/ABE 591 Lecture 5
Systems ME 597/ABE 591 Lecture 5 Dr. Monika Ivantysynova MAHA Professor Fluid Power Systems MAHA Fluid Power Research Center Purdue University Displacement Machines Study different design principles and
More informationTHERMAL POWER PLANTS Vol. III  Steam Turbine Impulse and Reaction Blading  R.A. Chaplin STEAM TURBINE IMPULSE AND REACTION BLADING
STEAM TURBINE IMPULSE AND REACTION BLADING R.A. Chaplin Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Canada Keywords: Steam Turbines, Turbine Blades, Velocity Diagrams, Impulse, Reaction,
More informationDifferential Relations for Fluid Flow. Acceleration field of a fluid. The differential equation of mass conservation
Differential Relations for Fluid Flow In this approach, we apply our four basic conservation laws to an infinitesimally small control volume. The differential approach provides point by point details of
More informationis the stagnation (or total) pressure, constant along a streamline.
70 Incompressible flow (page 60): Bernoulli s equation (steady, inviscid, incompressible): p 0 is the stagnation (or total) pressure, constant along a streamline. Pressure tapping in a wall parallel to
More informationPumps: Convert mechanical energy (often developed from electrical source) into hydraulic energy (position, pressure and kinetic energy).
HYDRAULIC MACHINES Used to convert between hydraulic and mechanical energies. Pumps: Convert mechanical energy (often developed from electrical source) into hydraulic energy (position, pressure and kinetic
More informationPumps SELECTION OF A PUMP
Pumps SELECTION OF A PUMP A water system needs to move the water produced from the source to its customers. In almost all cases in Minnesota, the source is at a lower elevation than the user so the water
More informationApplied Fluid Mechanics
Applied Fluid Mechanics Sixth Edition Robert L. Mott University of Dayton PEARSON Prentkv Pearson Education International CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE OF FLUIDS AND THE STUDY OF FLUID MECHANICS 1.1 The Big Picture
More informationMinor losses include head losses through/past hydrants, couplers, valves,
Lecture 10 Minor Losses & Pressure Requirements I. Minor Losses Minor (or fitting, or local ) hydraulic losses along pipes can often be estimated as a function of the velocity head of the water within
More informationChapter 13  Solutions
= Chapter 13  Solutions Description: Find the weight of a cylindrical iron rod given its area and length and the density of iron. Part A On a parttime job you are asked to bring a cylindrical iron rod
More informationHighly flexible couplings
Construction and operation 8.03.00 Instructions for installation 8.03.00 Types of stress 8.04.00 Diagrams for static deformation of the coupling ring 8.05.00 Coupling size 8.07.00 Examples of combinations
More informationChapter 7 Energy and Energy Balances
CBE14, Levicky Chapter 7 Energy and Energy Balances The concept of energy conservation as expressed by an energy balance equation is central to chemical engineering calculations. Similar to mass balances
More informationDesign of Lift Station and Wastewater Treatment Facility in Ascension Parish
Design of Lift Station and Wastewater Treatment Facility in Ascension Parish Christopher Banks Stephen Webster Brittany Williams Technical Advisors, MWH: Sparkle W. Noble Michael R. Johnston, P.E. Faculty
More informationForces. Definition Friction Falling Objects Projectiles Newton s Laws of Motion Momentum Universal Forces Fluid Pressure Hydraulics Buoyancy
Forces Definition Friction Falling Objects Projectiles Newton s Laws of Motion Momentum Universal Forces Fluid Pressure Hydraulics Buoyancy Definition of Force Force = a push or pull that causes a change
More informationFigure 1. Head losses in a pipe
53:071 Principles of Hydraulics Laboratory Experiment #1 ENERGY AND HYDRAULIC GRADE LINES IN WATER PIPE SYSTEMS Principle The energy of a real fluid decreases as it moves through a pipe. The energy budget
More informationWaste Collection Systems
Waste Collection Systems Lift Stations Lift Stations Training Objectives To gain an understanding of: Lift Station vocabulary Lift Station components and their function Lift Station operational requirements
More informationLecture 6  Boundary Conditions. Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics
Lecture 6  Boundary Conditions Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics Instructor: André Bakker http://www.bakker.org André Bakker (20022006) Fluent Inc. (2002) 1 Outline Overview. Inlet and outlet boundaries.
More informationExample. Fluid Power. Circuits
Example Fluid Power Circuits To Enhance Symbol Reading Skills To Work On Circuit Reading Skills With Answers HI LO Pump Circuit 18 A1 B1 17 16 15 13 Set 14 2,000 PSI PG2 Set 500 PSI 12 11 7 8 10 PG1 9
More informationBSM MOTOR DRIVEN CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION A hydraulically and dynamically balanced impeller with raised vane sections discharges liquid as a result of the centrifugal force developed in rotation. The head developed is entirely
More informationEXPERIMENT NO. 3. Aim: To study the construction and working of 4 stroke petrol / diesel engine.
EXPERIMENT NO. 3 Aim: To study the construction and working of 4 stroke petrol / diesel engine. Theory: A machine or device which derives heat from the combustion of fuel and converts part of this energy
More informationRules for Classification and Construction Additional Rules and Guidelines
VI Rules for Classification and Construction Additional Rules and Guidelines 5 Pumps 1 Guidelines for the Design, Construction and Testing of Pumps Edition 2007 The following Guidelines come into force
More informationFluent Software Training TRN Boundary Conditions. Fluent Inc. 2/20/01
Boundary Conditions C1 Overview Inlet and Outlet Boundaries Velocity Outline Profiles Turbulence Parameters Pressure Boundaries and others... Wall, Symmetry, Periodic and Axis Boundaries Internal Cell
More informationFundamentals of Fluid Mechanics
Sixth Edition. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics International Student Version BRUCE R. MUNSON DONALD F. YOUNG Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics THEODORE H. OKIISHI Department
More informationThe First Law of Thermodynamics: Closed Systems. Heat Transfer
The First Law of Thermodynamics: Closed Systems The first law of thermodynamics can be simply stated as follows: during an interaction between a system and its surroundings, the amount of energy gained
More informationoil liquid water water liquid Answer, Key Homework 2 David McIntyre 1
Answer, Key Homework 2 David McIntyre 1 This printout should have 14 questions, check that it is complete. Multiplechoice questions may continue on the next column or page: find all choices before making
More informationWhy and How we Use Capacity Control
Why and How we Use Capacity Control On refrigeration and air conditioning applications where the load may vary over a wide range, due to lighting, occupancy, product loading, ambient weather variations,
More informationTriBlender. Principles of Operation
BULLETIN TBPO97 TriBlender Principles of Operation Introduction The purpose of this booklet is to help those who apply and use the TriBlender understand its principles of operations. With these principles
More informationWhen the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid.
Fluid Statics When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid. Consider a small wedge of fluid at rest of size Δx, Δz, Δs
More informationPART 2 FORKLIFT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
PART 2 FORKLIFT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM Chapter 1 Description and Operation Component Locations & Circuit Layouts 1 Hydraulic Pump 11 Control Valve 14 Valve Section Oil Flows 15 AntiCavitation Valve 22 Velocity
More informationEE 206 Electric Energy Engineering
Chapter 1: Review Lecturer: Dr Ibrahim Rida Electrical Engineering Department University of Hail First Semester (112) 2011/12 1.2. ENERGY SOURCES Energy resources are the various materials that contain
More informationAutomatic Transmission Basics
Automatic Transmission Basics Lesson Objectives 1. Describe the function of the torque converter. 2. Identify the three major components of the torque converter that contribute to the multiplication of
More informationIntroduction. The following is an outline of the contents of this paper: Definition of Artificial Lift Page 2. How an Oil Well is Produced Page 2
Introduction Canadian Oilwell Systems Company and it s subsidiaries are suppliers of oil well Electric Submersible Pumping systems (ESPs). Such pumps are used to lift oil from oil wells so that the oil
More informationPerformance prediction of a centrifugal pump working in direct and reverse mode using Computational Fluid Dynamics
European Association for the Development of Renewable Energies, Environment and Power Quality (EA4EPQ) International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ 10) Granada (Spain), 23rd
More informationTHERMODYNAMICS NOTES  BOOK 2 OF 2
THERMODYNAMICS & FLUIDS (Thermodynamics level 1\Thermo & Fluids Module Thermo Book 2ContentsDecember 07.doc) UFMEQU201 THERMODYNAMICS NOTES  BOOK 2 OF 2 Students must read through these notes and
More informationChapter 8 Fluid Flow
Chapter 8 Fluid Flow GOALS When you have mastered the contents of this chapter, you will be able to achieve the following goals: Definitions Define each of the following terms, and use it in an operational
More informationPlatform Technology for Computational Fluid Dynamics Supporting Design of System Products
Hitachi Review Vol. 61 (2012), No. 6 244 Platform Technology for Computational Fluid Dynamics Supporting Design of System Products from Power Plants and Industrial Machinery to Home Appliances Shigehisa
More informationFLUID FLOW Introduction General Description
FLUID FLOW Introduction Fluid flow is an important part of many processes, including transporting materials from one point to another, mixing of materials, and chemical reactions. In this experiment, you
More informationKEYWORDS Micro hydro turbine, Turbine testing, Cross flow turbine
DEVELOPMENT OF COST EFFECTIVE TURBINE FOR HILLY AREAS [Blank line 11 pt] A. Tamil Chandran, Senior Research Engineer Fluid Control Research Institute, Kanjikode west, Plalakkad, Kerala, India tamilchandran@fcriindia.com
More informationCOMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) ANALYSIS OF INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE STEAM TURBINE
Research Paper ISSN 2278 0149 www.ijmerr.com Vol. 3, No. 4, October, 2014 2014 IJMERR. All Rights Reserved COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) ANALYSIS OF INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE STEAM TURBINE Shivakumar
More informationCH205: Fluid Dynamics
CH05: Fluid Dynamics nd Year, B.Tech. & Integrated Dual Degree (Chemical Engineering) Solutions of Mid Semester Examination Data Given: Density of water, ρ = 1000 kg/m 3, gravitational acceleration, g
More informationBasic Concepts of Thermodynamics
Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Every science has its own unique vocabulary associated with it. recise definition of basic concepts forms a sound foundation for development of a science and prevents possible
More informationProduct catalogue, pipe and sewer cleaning systems
Product catalogue, pipe and sewer cleaning systems Nozzles Rotorjet trolley Hose reels Cleaning devices www.hammelmann.com Contents (Navigation via Bookmarks) Rotorjet trolley Rotary joints, spray pipes
More informationUnit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics
Unit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics Unit code: J/601/1496 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 2 TUTORIAL 4 DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES The material needed for outcome 2 is very extensive
More informationh b b h Q u da u 1 1 dy dz u 1 dy 1 dz u b h b h
P3.18 An incompressible fluid flows steadily through the rectangular duct in the figure. The exit velocity profile is given by u umax(1 y /b )(1 z /h ). (a) Does this profile satisfy the correct boundary
More informationPhysics 1114: Unit 6 Homework: Answers
Physics 1114: Unit 6 Homework: Answers Problem set 1 1. A rod 4.2 m long and 0.50 cm 2 in crosssectional area is stretched 0.20 cm under a tension of 12,000 N. a) The stress is the Force (1.2 10 4 N)
More informationIdeal Jet Propulsion Cycle
Ideal Jet ropulsion Cycle Gasturbine engines are widely used to power aircrafts because of their lightweight, compactness, and high powertoweight ratio. Aircraft gas turbines operate on an open cycle
More informationUCCS PES/ENSC 2500: Renewable Energy Spring 2014 Test 3 name:
UCCS PES/ENSC 2500: Renewable Energy Spring 2014 Test 3 name: 1. When a wind turbine is positioned between radio, television or microwave transmitter and receiver it can sometime reflect some of the in
More informationCharacteristics of Centrifugal Blower and Its Effective Use in High Static Pressure Area
Characteristics of Centrifugal Blower and Its Effective Use in High Static Pressure Area Masayuki TAKAHASHI With small fans, selecting the right fan that most fits the purpose is extremely important from
More informationPS6.2 Explain the factors that determine potential and kinetic energy and the transformation of one to the other.
PS6.1 Explain how the law of conservation of energy applies to the transformation of various forms of energy (including mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, light energy, sound energy,
More informationA Practical Guide to Free Energy Devices
A Practical Guide to Free Energy Devices Part PatC1: Last updated: 22nd October 2005 Author: Patrick J. Kelly Please note that this is a reworded excerpt from this patent. If the content interests you,
More informationChapter 27 Static Fluids
Chapter 27 Static Fluids 27.1 Introduction... 1 27.2 Density... 1 27.3 Pressure in a Fluid... 2 27.4 Pascal s Law: Pressure as a Function of Depth in a Fluid of Uniform Density in a Uniform Gravitational
More information2.5 Newton s Third Law of Motion. SUMMARY Newton s Second Law of Motion. Section 2.4 Questions
SUMMARY Newton s Second Law of Motion Newton s second law of motion relates the acceleration of an object to the mass of the object and the net force acting on it. The equation is a = F net or F m net
More informationKinetic Theory. Bellringer. Kinetic Theory, continued. Visual Concept: Kinetic Molecular Theory. States of Matter, continued.
Bellringer You are already familiar with the most common states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. For example you can see solid ice and liquid water. You cannot see water vapor, but you can feel it in
More informationIndex 11.1. Page. Pumping Systems...11.211.4 Intensifiers...11.5 Gas Boosters...11.611.7 High Pressure Generators...11.811.9
Pumping Systems, Intensifiers, Gas Boosters and High Pressure Generators High Pressure Equipment Company produces a number of components and systems for general industrial, elevated pressure applications.
More informationFree Mechanical Reasoning/Aptitude/Comprehension Test Questions
Free Mechanical Reasoning/Aptitude/Comprehension Test Questions (With questions and answers) JobTestPrep invites you to a free practice session that represents only some of the materials offered in our
More informationProblem Set 1. Ans: a = 1.74 m/s 2, t = 4.80 s
Problem Set 1 1.1 A bicyclist starts from rest and after traveling along a straight path a distance of 20 m reaches a speed of 30 km/h. Determine her constant acceleration. How long does it take her to
More informationLecture 5 Hemodynamics. Description of fluid flow. The equation of continuity
1 Lecture 5 Hemodynamics Description of fluid flow Hydrodynamics is the part of physics, which studies the motion of fluids. It is based on the laws of mechanics. Hemodynamics studies the motion of blood
More informationTyphoon Haiyan 1. Force of wind blowing against vertical structure. 2. Destructive Pressure exerted on Buildings
Typhoon Haiyan 1. Force of wind blowing against vertical structure 2. Destructive Pressure exerted on Buildings 3. Atmospheric Pressure variation driving the Typhoon s winds 4. Energy of Typhoon 5. Height
More informationPower Recovery Turbines
Power Recovery Turbines Fixed and Variable Geometry Vertical Horizontal Bulletin PS901 (E) Pump Supplier To The World Flowserve is the driving force in the global industrial pump marketplace. No other
More informationLINEAR ACTUATORS. Linear Actuators. Linear Actuators. Linear Actuators are Actuators that creates motion in a straight line, as contrasted
LINEAR ACTUATORS Linear Actuators Linear Actuators Linear Actuators are Actuators that creates motion in a straight line, as contrasted with circular motion of a conventional electric motor. Linear actuators
More informationMechanical Balance of Fans and Blowers
AHRI Guideline G (SI) 2011 Guideline for Mechanical Balance of Fans and Blowers IMPORTANT SAFETY DISCLAIMER AHRI does not set safety standards and does not certify or guarantee the safety of any products,
More informationWet gas compressor capacity limits
Understanding Centrifugal Compressor Performance in a Connected Process System Scott Golden, Scott A. Fulton and Daryl W. Hanson Process Consulting Services Inc., Houston, Texas Wet gas compressor capacity
More informationChapter 3. Table of Contents. Chapter 3. Objectives. Chapter 3. Kinetic Theory. Section 1 Matter and Energy. Section 2 Fluids
States of Matter Table of Contents Objectives Summarize the main points of the kinetic theory of matter. Describe how temperature relates to kinetic energy. Describe four common states of matter. List
More informationFume Extraction: Guide to Safely Managing Solder Fumes in the Workplace
Fume Extraction: Guide to Safely Managing Solder Fumes in the Workplace Our thanks to OK International for allowing us to reprint the following. Why do we need fume extraction? Today s Electronics workplace
More informationSUBMERSIBLE PUMPS AFP 0831 to 2046
SUBMERSIBLE UMS AF 0831 to 046 DIN/EN 10501 Robust, reliable sewage pumps from 1.3 to kw for pumping wastewater and sewage from buildings and sites in private, commercial, industrial and communal areas.
More informationThese slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers to the problems are given in the last slide.
Fluid Mechanics FE Review Carrie (CJ) McClelland, P.E. cmcclell@mines.edu Fluid Mechanics FE Review These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers
More informationChapter 19  Common Rail High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems
Chapter 19  Common Rail High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems Diesel Engine Technology For Automotive Technicians Understanding & Servicing Contemporary Clean Diesel Technology What is Common Rail? Common
More informationBASIC HYDRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN
Hydronic Systems BASIC HYDRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN FCU FCU FCU FCU FCU FCU Terminal Units Fan Coils, Chilled Beams, Finned Tube, Radiant, etc. Distribution Piping AS1 Primary Pumps P1 & P2 P1 P2 ET1 PB1
More informationOUTCOME 1 STATIC FLUID SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 1  HYDROSTATICS
Unit 41: Fluid Mechanics Unit code: T/601/1445 QCF Level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 1 STATIC FLUID SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 1  HYDROSTATICS 1. Be able to determine the behavioural characteristics and parameters
More informationApplied Fluid Mechanics
Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 7. General Energy Equation
More informationFinite Element Analysis for Acoustic Behavior of a Refrigeration Compressor
Finite Element Analysis for Acoustic Behavior of a Refrigeration Compressor Swapan Kumar Nandi Tata Consultancy Services GEDC, 185 LR, Chennai 600086, India Abstract When structures in contact with a fluid
More informationRotary Compressor With The Stationary Crankshaft
Purdue University Purdue epubs International Compressor Engineering Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 2014 Rotary Compressor With The Stationary Crankshaft Nelik Dreiman Retiered.Tecumseh Products
More informationPneumatic control for robotics and industrial automation Author: Naresh Raghavan
Pneumatic control for robotics and industrial automation Author: Naresh Raghavan Introduction Pneumatic systems form the most primitive and distinct class of mechanical control engineering. They are classified
More informationMicro Turbines.
Micro Turbines www.gteam.cz G  Team G  Team Inc. is a company with a range of activity in the area of power and heating plant equipment. At present it is an important supplier of equipment for power
More informationChapter 28 Fluid Dynamics
Chapter 28 Fluid Dynamics 28.1 Ideal Fluids... 1 28.2 Velocity Vector Field... 1 28.3 Mass Continuity Equation... 3 28.4 Bernoulli s Principle... 4 28.5 Worked Examples: Bernoulli s Equation... 7 Example
More informationFLUID MECHANICS. TUTORIAL No.8A WATER TURBINES. When you have completed this tutorial you should be able to
FLUID MECHAICS TUTORIAL o.8a WATER TURBIES When you have completed this tutorial you should be able to Explain the significance of specific speed to turbine selection. Explain the general principles of
More informationCompressor and turbines
Compressor and turbines In this chapter, we will look at the compressor and the turbine. They are both turbomachinery: machines that transfer energy from a rotor to a fluid, or the other way around. The
More informationTurn off all electronic devices
Balloons 1 Balloons 2 Observations about Balloons Balloons Balloons are held taut by the gases inside Some balloon float in air while others don t Hotair balloons don t have to be sealed Helium balloons
More informationLECTURE 28 to 29 ACCUMULATORS FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
LECTURE 28 to 29 ACCUMULATORS FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS 1. Define an accumulator and explain its function A hydraulic accumulator is a device that stores the potential energy of an incompressible fluid
More information