# LESSON 7, VIDEO 1: SPELLING PATTERNS FOR COMMON LETTER COMBINATIONS

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1 LESSON 7, VIDEO 1: SPELLING PATTERNS FOR COMMON LETTER COMBINATIONS This video is intended to be used as a teacher resource. In this video, we are going to show you different ways to represent the same vowel sound. You should introduce new letter combinations and keywords to your students as they master each combination. Today, we will learn about sounds that vowels make when they are combined with other letters. We call these letter combinations because when vowels are combined with certain letters, they work together to make one sound. This is important because books you will need to read include many syllables with letter combinations, so understanding letter combinations will help you to read many more words. We are going to learn about different ways to spell the long a sound. Let s look at two ways it can be spelled. When a and i are next to each other in a word, they are a team, and they make the sound /ā/, as in main. You blend letter combinations with other sounds to make words, as we did with digraph and closed-syllable words. Another way to spell the long a sound is ay. When a and y are next to each other in a word, they are a team, and they make the sound /ā/, as in play. Now, we ll look at two ways of spelling the long e sound. When e and a are next to each other in a word, they are a team, and most of the time they make the sound /ē/, as in beach. Another way to write the long e sound is two e s. When e and e are next to each other in a word, they are a team, and they make the sound /ē/, as in wheel. Now, we ll look at two ways of spelling the long i sound. When i and e are next to each other in a word, they are a team, and most of the time they make the sound /ī/, as in pie. Another way to write the long i sound is igh. When i, g, and h are next to each other in a word, they are a team, and they make the sound /ī/, as in light. Now, we ll look at three ways of spelling the long o sound. When o and a are next to each other in a word, they are a team, and they make the sound /ō/, as in boat. Another way to write the long o sound is o and e. Most of the time, when o and e are

2 next to each other in a word, they are a team, and they make the sound /ō/, as in toe. When o and w are next to each other in a word, they are a team, and some of the time they make the sound /ō/, as in show. Now, we ll learn four ways to represent the long u sound. One way to write the long u sound is ew. When e and w are next to each other in a word, they are a team, and they often make the sound /ū/, as in few. Another common letter combination is oo. When o and o are next to each other in a word, they are a team, and most of the time they make the sound /ū/, as in boom. It is important to remember that this letter combination has more than one sound. For example, the letter combination of two o s in the word boom sounds different than the two o s in the word book. Another common pair of letters is ue. When u and e are next to each other in a word, they are a team, and most of the time they make the sound /ū/, as in due. When u and i are next to each other, although there are two letters, they make just one sound, /ū/, like in suit. Now, we ll learn some other vowel combinations that make one sound, /oi/. When o and i are next to each other in a word, they are a team, and they make the sound /oi/, as in oil. Another letter combination that makes one sound is oy. When o and y are next to each other in a word, they are a team, and they make the sound /oi/, as in toy. Now, we ll learn two ways to represent the sound /ow/. When o and u are next to each other in a word, they are a team, and most of the time they make the sound /ow/, as in loud. Another way to write the /ow/ sound is ow. When o and w are next to each other in a word, they are a team, and most of the time they make the sound /ow/, as in cow. One way to write the /ô/ sound is au. When a and u are next to each other in a word, they are a team, and they make the sound /ô/, as in haul. Another way to write the /ô/ sound is aw. When a and w are next to each other in a word, they are a team, and they make the sound /ô/, as in saw.

3 LESSON 7, VIDEO 2: READING WORDS WITH COMMON LETTER COMBINATIONS In this lesson, we are going to learn about vowel combinations. When certain vowels are combined, they work together to make one sound. For example, in reach, the e and the a work together to make one sound, /e /: reach. When you read a word, look for a letter combination. Use that sound when you read the word. I underline the letter combination oa because it helps me notice it and remember that it says /o /: /t/ /o / /s/ /t/, toast. What did I underline? Good. And what does oa say? Yes, /o /. Let s sound it out together as I slide my finger under the word. Then say the word quickly. /T/ /oa/ /s/ /t/, toast. Now, I ll underline the letter combination in the next word. I underline ea. What sound does it make? The ea sounds like /e /. Now, please read the word. Correct, the word is each. Now, let s underline the letter combination in the next word. What is the most common sound for ou? Correct, ou says /ow/, like in out. Perfect. The word is found. What is the vowel combination in the next word? Right, oo is the letter combination. Now, please read the word. Correct. The word is snoop. When spelling words, we segment the sounds and find the letters for each one. Some sounds have spelling options, which are different ways to spell the same sound. I ll

4 show you how to spell a word with spelling options. I ll think aloud to demonstrate how I figure out which spelling option to use for a letter-combination sound. The word is chain. I count the sounds I hear in the word: /ch/ /a / /n/: I hear three sounds. Next, I think about what letters make those sounds, and I write the letters. /ch/ ch, /ai/... I know that /ai/ can be spelled ai or ay. When long a is in the middle of the word, it s usually ai, so I m pretty sure it is spelled ai. And then /n/ n. I check the word by rereading it: chain. That looks right to me. I can also look it up in the dictionary if I m not sure. The word is soil. I count the sounds I hear in the word. /s/ /oi/ /l/: I hear three sounds. Next, I think about what letters make those sounds and I write the letters. /s/ s; /oi/... I know that /oi/ can be spelled oi or oy. When the /oi/ sound is in the middle of the word, it s usually oi, so I m pretty sure it is spelled oi. And then /l/ l. I check the word by rereading it: soil. I m not sure about that one. I ll look it up in the dictionary. Yes, it says here that soil is spelled s, o, i, l. The next word is greed. I count the sounds I hear in the word. /G/ /r/ /e / /d/: I hear four sounds. Next, I think about what letters make those sounds, and I write the letters. /g/ g; /r/ r. I know that gr is a blend because both letters make a sound. The next sound is /e /. I know that long e can be spelled several ways. The long e sound can be two e s together, or e and a, or it can be a VCe syllable with a silent e at the end, making the long vowel sound. I think this word is spelled with ea in the middle and then /d/ d at the end. I m going to look this up in the dictionary also. Oops, greed is spelled with two e s in the middle. I m going to add this word to my spelling notebook and practice reading and writing it later at home. Here s a strategy designed to help students spell words containing vowel combinations: Dictate a word. Have the students repeat the word. Have the students say each sound and count each sound. Have the students say the letters in the word.

5 Have the students say the letters again as [they write] them. Have the students check by reading the word. Let s practice spelling words that have the long a sound. So far, we ve learned three spelling options for /a /. On the board, you can see words using the different spellings. Who can tell me about one of the words and its /a / sound? Correct, lake has a silent e at the end, so the a is long. One spelling option is the VCe pattern, as in lake. Is there another spelling option for /a /? Yes, the letter combination ai, which is in train, makes the long a sound. And what is the third option we have learned? Correct, play has ay at the end. It says /a /. Remember, when you hear /a / at the end of a word, it is usually spelled ay. When you are spelling words, it is important to know which option goes with which word. It takes a lot of practice and memorization. We re going to practice right now. Each of you has a spelling support card for long a that has the different spelling options we reviewed. I will dictate a word. Your job is to spell the word, using the correct long a spelling pattern. The spelling support card gives you a way to practice with different options before you determine the correct spelling. When your answer is ready, hold it up and show me. I will demonstrate. The first word is paint. Next, I determine the spelling option. Let s see. I ll try ay. That s not right because ay comes at the end of a syllable, so I ll erase and try ai. Yes, paint is spelled with ai. Let s spell another word: spray, spraaaay. What is the last sound you hear? Correct, /a /. Right, the last sound is the long a, /a /. Which sample word also ends with a long a sound? Good job, play ends with the long a sound. Notice the spelling option when the last sound is a long vowel. Now, write the word with the spelling option you chose. Hold up your answer when you re done. Yes, when the last sound is /a /, often it is spelled ay, so try that option first. Understanding letter combinations will help students read and spell many more words. Remember, when vowels are combined with certain letters, they work together to make one sound.

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