SPELLING DOES MATTER

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1 Focus and content of the Session 1 Introduction Introduction to NSW syllabus objectives: A. Communicate through speaking, listening, reading, writing, viewing and representing B. Use language to shape and make meaning according to purpose, C. Think in ways that are imaginative, creative, interpretive and critical and Assessment (Reference: Board of Studies. (2012). NSW Syllabus for the Australian Curriculum: English K-6. Sydney, NSW: Author.) Activation of prior knowledge The role of spelling in a literacy program Spelling does matter. Not only does it matter, the weekly spelling list can form the core of a language/literacy program that provides students with a thorough understanding, not only of how words work, but also of word meanings in various contexts. Structuring literacy activities around a hierarchical spelling program will provide a cohesive program that leaves nothing to chance, and may well reduce the possibility of gaps appearing in students literacy knowledge as they progress through the grades. The word structure strand teaches students how to use their knowledge of how words work to spell and/or read unknown words. The underlying skills in this strand include syllabification rules, spelling rules, alternate sounds made by some consonants, vowels and digraphs, base words and affixes, and grammar. The word meaning strand has two parts: word meaning in isolation and word meaning in context. Word meaning in isolation includes dictionary and thesaurus exercises, the study of homonyms, synonyms, antonyms etc., morphemic analysis and the study of etymology. Word meaning in context includes idiomatic language (i.e. sayings and expressions, e.g., You re skating on thin ice! ), phrases, proverbs, general knowledge questions, and the use of context to support understanding when reading and the use of sentence/text structure to support writing Design and implement learning and teaching programs using knowledge of curriculum, assessment and reporting requirements Diagnostic Assessment

2 Focus and content of the Working memory Working memory is the term used by psychologists to refer to the ability we have to hold and manipulate information in the mind over short periods of time. It provides a mental workspace or jotting pad that is used to store important information. There is a limit to the amount of information that can be held in working memory for even a short period of time and if this limit is exceeded we will forget at least some of what we are trying to remember. Phonemes, graphemes and morphemes Phonemes A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in speech, e.g. the word 'rug' has three phonemes: /r/, /u/, /g/; the word 'beach' also has three phonemes: /b/, /ea/, /ch/; and the word 'box' has four phonemes: /b/, /o/, /k/, /s/. Graphemes A grapheme is a letter, or number of letters, that represent a phoneme. Morphemes Morphology is concerned with word structure. Morphemes are base words, prefixes and suffixes. Morphemes are the smallest units of meaning within words. Session 2 Phonememic Awareness and Spelling Pre-requisites a) Phonemic awareness Why is phonemic awareness important? How do I teach phonemic awareness? What kinds of resources and materials should I use to teach phonemic awareness? b) Pre-requisites for spelling Short and long vowel sounds ă ĕ ĭ ŏ ŭ (short smile) ā ē ī ō ū (long line) Apply knowledge of the content teaching area to develop engaging teaching activities Select and/or create and use a range of resources, including ICT, to engage students in their learning 'y' as a vowel (by position) The schwa Digraphs

3 Focus and content of the c) Phonics There are two main groups of words: regular words and irregular words. Regular words include c-v-c structures, common digraphs, e.g. -ea- saying the long /ē/ sound in the word tea, and words containing long vowel sounds. Irregular words include alternative digraph sounds, e.g. -ea- saying the short /ĕ/ sound in head, and the long /ā/ sound in great, less-used digraphs, e.g. -mb in comb, and very irregular words such as eye and iron. Regular words c-v-c (consonant-vowel-consonant): These words range from vowel-consonant words, e.g. it, up and on, to c- v-c words, e.g bet, cup and fox, right through to ccc-v-cc words, e.g. script. In these words every letter has an individual sound. Common digraphs: A digraph is a combination of two letters that go together to make one sound, e.g. sh- in shut' and -ou- in found. A trigraph has three letters making one sound, e.g. -ear- in pearl, and a tetragraph has four letters, e.g. -aigh- in straight. Irregular words What makes a word irregular? During the beginning reading stage, any word in which one or more letters does not represent its most common sound will be considered an irregular word. (Carnine, et al., (2004) Direct Instruction Reading. (4 th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, p. 46). Regular words are taught through a careful analysis of the sounds, and the sequence of sounds. However, learning to spell and read sight words requires: i) the recognition of the tricky bit of the word. ii) linking with other words of the same spelling pattern already learnt by the child, or linking with other words of the same spelling pattern, in groupings provided by the teacher. For example: 'full' "Do you know any other words that look and sound like this?" (full) "This word has the same spelling and sounding pattern as bull and pull." iii) knowing the meaning of the word and the word s part of speech (noun, verb, etc.) iv) the generation of memory cues to assist recall of the tricky bit. v) knowledge of spelling rules when appropriate.

4 Focus and content of the Session 3 Spelling Rules and Word Structure Some useful spelling rules Functions of the final 'e' The one-one-one Doubling Rule The doubling four 'c' followed by 'e', 'i' or 'y' 'g' followed by 'e', 'i' or 'y' Syllabification rules Marking words for their structure When we learn about any given concept in a number of different ways our memory for that concept will be stronger. If we employ this idea when teaching students how to spell the words on their spelling lists our teaching program would include information about word structure and word meaning. Marking each spelling word for its structure would provide a deeper knowledge of each word than that provided by a more simplistic activity, such as the look, say, cover, write, check method Apply knowledge of the content teaching area to develop engaging teaching activities Session 4 Assessment, Diagnosis and Remediation Assessment Structuring a spelling assessment for diagnostic purposes Diagnosis of errors Levels of difficulty Priority remediation Task analysis The weekly spelling quiz Teaching for generalisation Teaching for generalisation refers to the concept of requiring students to be able to use their knowledge of known spelling families and rules in order to spell unknown words belonging to a known family. Dictation Proofreading Word meanings Synonyms Design and implement learning and teaching programs using knowledge of curriculum, assessment and reporting requirements

5 Session 5 Teaching Strategies that Scaffold the Acquisition of Spelling Skills Session 6 Programming Teaching strategies that scaffold the acquisition of spelling skills 1. Getting the spelling list words onto the board 2. The role of dictation Students need to be able to maintain their reading and spelling of a word when these new words are presented in a sentence or a passage. The major issue in completing a dictation for young students is the task of remembering the sentence in order to write it (a working memory issue.) 3. What to do with a spelling list and how to make words live! 4. Homework activities based on a spelling list a. Sort spelling list words by part of speech (nouns and verbs), then give each noun an adjective and each verb an adverb. b. Report back (verbally) on simple research questions. (General knowledge) c. Find synonyms for two words on the list. d. Find antonyms for two words on the list. e. Find multiple meanings for two words on the list. f. Create a silly sentence using as many spelling words as possible (later used for dictation). g. Write each word out and mark it for its spelling structure. h. Write each word out and explain its morphemic structure. 5. Morphology Morphology is the identification, analysis and description of the structure of a given language's morphemes and other linguistic units, such as root words, affixes and parts of speech. 6. Etymology Etymology is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time. For languages with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods of their history and when they entered the languages in question. Programming 1. Based on diagnostic assessments 2. Based on a weekly spelling list Lesson plan based on spelling list Preparation sheets for the teaching of one week's spelling list Suggested content for one week's spelling lessons Apply knowledge of the content teaching area to develop engaging teaching activities Plan and implement wellstructured learning and teaching programs or lesson sequences that engage students and promote learning Select and/or create and use a range of resources, including ICT, to engage students in their learning Apply knowledge of the content teaching area to develop engaging teaching activities Plan and implement wellstructured learning and teaching

6 Practice Vowels (Short and Long sounds) Verb to be etc. (Year 1 only) Phonics Quiz Cards (read up to 10 front of cards ) Phonics Quiz Cards (spell up to 10 cards) Practise spelling rule Student roster: dictation of 'silly sentences' Student roster: talking and listening - research results New Words Extend some of Monday s words, by adding affixes Develop mnemonic cues for irregular words Word Meanings Choose 2 words from the regular word list and 2 words from the irregular word list. Work on word meanings in oral and/or written form: a) Imaging exercises b) Dictionary exercises Sentence Construction Create one sentence (simple, compound or complex) using a word from the Word Meaning exercises General Knowledge Introduce, or construct, the general knowledge questions. Sayings and Expressions Find a saying, expression or proverb that uses a word from any list Discuss the inferred meaning in the saying Discuss the usage of the word in the saying Discuss the context in which the expression might occur programs or lesson sequences that engage students and promote learning Select and/or create and use a range of resources, including ICT, to engage students in their learning Ants in the Apple Pty Ltd. - NSW Institute of Teachers endorsed provider of Institute Registered professional development for the maintenance of accreditation at Proficient Teacher. Scope of Endorsement Australian Professional Standards for Teachers at the level of Proficient Teacher 2.1.2, 2.3.2, 3.2.2, for the course Spelling Does Matter

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