# Time and Geology Chapter 8

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

2 How do we assess the ages of rocks? In this chapter we will be concerned with how geologists assess the ages of rocks. There are two types of ages, relative and numerical, and they are assessed in different ways: Relative age A relative age is an age relative to something else. A relative age assessment involves the ordering of events or objects, from oldest to youngest. This requires knowledge of several geologic concepts and principles. Numerical age A numerical age is an age that is expressed as a number or numbers (e.g., 10 million years old or 3.6 billion years old). A numerical age is assessed by isotopic dating (determining how much radioactive decay of a specific element has occurred since a rock formed or an event occurred) Relative Age Determination Because only a few rock types are amenable to isotopic dating methods, geologists often assess the relative ages of rocks. Assessment is relatively simple once you gain knowledge and understanding of the principles and concepts listed below. Much of this is geologic common sense, as you will see. Principles Used to Determine Relative Age original horizontality superposition lateral continuity cross-cutting relationships Other time relationships inclusions Metamorphosed (baked) contacts 2 2

3 My guess is that, even before we discuss the concepts and principles mentioned on the previous slide, you have already learned enough in this class to begin to assess relative ages. For example, the photo below shows three rock bodies: plutonic rock (marked pluton) and two dikes (dike x and dike y ). Can you list the three rock bodies in terms of their relative ages? Let 1 = oldest and 3 = youngest. A quarter is shown for scale. pluton 3= pluton Dike Y 2= 1= pluton Dike Y pluton Principles Used to Determine Relative Ages Contacts - surfaces separating successive rock layers (beds) Formations - bodies of rock of considerable thickness with recognizable characteristics allowing them to be distinguished from adjacent rock units 3 3

4 Contacts are surfaces separating two different rock types or ages of rocks. We will consider two types of contacts: depositional and intrusive. A depositional contact is a contact between sedimentary formations (which are groups of beds), beds, or extrusive volcanic rocks. The bottom line is that a depositional contact is a contact between rocks that have been deposited on other rocks. An intrusive contact is a contact between an intrusive igneous body (pluton, dike, sill) and the country rock. This sketch shows strata (group of beds) overlain by a basalt flow. All of the contacts between the different rock types are depositional contacts. The red arrows highlight all the contacts. Original horizontality - beds of sediment deposited in water are initially formed as horizontal or nearly horizontal layers Superposition - within an undisturbed sequence of sedimentary or volcanic rocks, layers or beds get younger from bottom to top Lateral continuity an originally horizontal bed extends laterally until it tapers or thins at its edges Question List the sedimentary formations shown in the diagram above from oldest (#1) to youngest (#4). 4= 3= 2= 1= 4 4

5 Cross-cutting relationships - a disrupted pattern is older than the cause of the disruption Intrusions and faults are younger than the rocks they cut through Questions On the basis of the principles and concepts we have discussed, list the rocks in terms of their relative ages from oldest (#1) to youngest (#5). (you may assume the sedimentary rocks predate the pluton) 5= 4= 3= 2= 1= What principle did you use to determine the relative ages of # s 1-4 on your list? What principle did you use to determine the relative age of #5 on your list? Exercise Study the block diagram and then list the rock formations (including the pluton) from oldest (#1) to youngest (#10). Hint: there are two basic groups of rocks: a pluton and strata. The sedimentary rocks are divided into formations that are labeled with red letters. To figure out the relative ages of the sedimentary formations you will need to visualize them un-tilted and then use the principle of superposition to assess their ages. 10 = 9= l m n a b c z y x 8= 7= 6= 5= This block diagram shows tilted strata intruded by a granite pluton and associated dike and sills. The contact between the intrusive rock and the country rock is an intrusive contact. 4= 3= 2= 1= 5 5

6 Other time relationships Inclusions are rock fragments embedded in host rock that are older than the host rock d v k a Inclusions are another thing that we can use to determine relative ages of rocks. Two important types of inclusions are xenoliths and pebbles of rock derived by erosion of an underlying formation. Study the adjacent cross section and then answer, solely on the basis of inclusions, the following questions. What do the xenoliths tell you about the relative ages of the tilted strata vs. the granite? What do the pebbles of the granite in formation k tell you about whether the pluton intruded before or after the deposition of formation k? Metamorphosed (baked )contacts refers to a contact between an igneous intrusion and surrounding rocks, wherein the surrounding rocks have experienced contact metamorphism If we see an intrusive igneous body, how do we know whether the contact between the intrusion and the surrounding rock is intrusive or depositional? One important way is to see if the surrounding rocks are metamorphosed in a contact aureole; if they are then you are looking at an intrusive contact. If the rocks are not metamorphosed then you are looking at a depositional contact. The adjacent cross section shows a pluton where all contacts are intrusive except for the part that I have highlighted with a red dashed line. We know this contact is not intrusive because the rocks above it are not metamorphosed. Please remember (for the remainder of this class), and understand,the following definition of a cross section. A cross section shows what the rocks would look like beneath the Earth s surface (as if you made a vertical cut through the crust and removed the rock on one side of the cut so that you could see what is below the surface). 6 6

7 Exercise Determine the relative ages of rocks shown in the block diagram below. You will need to use your knowledge of the principles and concepts that we have just covered. There are ten different rock bodies. You may check your answer in the book. Unconformities An unconformity is a contact that represents a gap in the geologic record. Generally, there is a substantial amount of time not represented by rocks across an unconformity. Unconformities are a special type of depositional contact. Unconformities are useful for assessing the geologic history of an area There are three types of unconformities: disconformity, angular unconformity, and a non-conformity 7 7

8 Disconformity - an unconformity in which the contact representing missing rock layers separates beds that are parallel to each other. The sketches below illustrate how a disconformity commonly forms. g f e d c b a Deposition of a-g Erosion of d-g Deposition of h and then i c b a i h c b a Angular unconformity - an unconformity in which the contact separates overlying younger layers from eroded tilted or folded layers Exercise The adjacent diagram shows an example of how an angular unconformity may form. Describe, in your own words, the sequence of events necessary to form an angular unconformity. 8 8

9 Nonconformity - an unconformity in which an erosional surface on plutonic or metamorphic rock has been covered by younger sedimentary or volcanic rock Plutonic and metamorphic rocks are exposed by large amounts of erosion Typically represents a large gap in the geologic record Exercise The dashed red line denotes the approximate location of a famous nonconformity in the Grand Canyon. The layering you see above the nonconformity represents bedding. The metamorphic rocks below the nonconformity do not appear layered. Describe, in your own words, the sequence of events necessary to form this nonconformity. Question R T X A G This is a photo of the entrance to Dunbar Cave. The layers of rock that you see are limestone beds. Please determine which of the beds that I have labeled with white letters is the oldest and which is the youngest? 9 9

10 x y z Exercise Determine the relative ages of the beds at points x, y, and z. Exercise A cross section of the Grand Canyon area is shown below. List the Navajo Sandstone, Vishnu Schist, Coconino Sandstone and Bright Angel Shale in chronologic order from oldest to youngest. Also, indicate the type of unconformity that the black arrow is pointing to. 4= 3= Bright Angel Shale 2= 1= 10 10

11 The Standard Geologic Time Scale Geologic time is divided into the Precambrian and the three eras: Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The three eras are further subdivided into periods. Precambrian is a generalized term that denotes the vast amount of time preceding the Paleozoic era and it is not divided into eras or periods. Precambrian This timescale subdivides geologic time based on fossil assemblages. Sedimentary rocks from each period are defined by unique fossils of organisms that evolved and went extinct in that particular period. Consequently, if you find the unique fossils in the rocks you can assign a relative age to the rocks. This timescale expresses relative (not numerical) geologic time Questions Disconformities are generally found by recognizing that strata of a certain period are missing. Can you find the disconformities in the cross sections showing sedimentary formations below? Tertiary Cretaceous Jurassic Mississippian Devonian Silurian Cambrian Quaternary Triassic Permian Pennsylvanian Mississippian Devonian Precambrian What geologic era are we living in today? What geologic period are we living in today? 11 11

13 it is not part of its chemical structure. However, after the mineral is formed Pb206 will be produced by decay of U238, and this Pb will be locked inside the zircon. Consequently, as time goes on the amount of U238 decreases and the amount of Pb206 correspondingly increases. The decay of U to Pb can be used to date the rock because we can measure the amount of U remaining and the amount of Pb produced (this is done by a device called a mass spectrometer), and we know the rate of decay, i.e., the rate at which U turns into lead. In summary, these basic assumptions and techniques are used in dating: (1) No Pb is assumed to exist in the mineral when it formed (2) The amount of U238 decreases over time and the amount of Pb206 increases (3) We know the rate of decay and we can measure the amount of U and Pb in the mineral using a device called a mass spectrometer We will now discuss the basic idea behind producing an isotopic age. The most important thing to understand is the rate of decay, which is measured in terms of half-life. A half life is the time it takes for a given amount of radioactive isotope to be reduced in half. The graph in Figure 3 illustrates the concept of half life. The percent of original radioactive isotope is on the vertical axis and time in terms of half life is on the horizontal axis. The black line shows the amount of radioactive isotope remaining and the red dashed line shows the growing percentage of stable daughter product. When the mineral first forms there is 100 % parent and 0% daughter. After one half life there is 50% parent remaining and 50 % has decayed to the daughter product. After two half lives there is 25% parent remaining and 75 % has decayed to the Figure 3. daughter product. From the graph you can see that a sample whose age is equal to one half life would have a ratio of parent to daughter of 1:1. When this sample is two half-lives old the ratio of parent to daughter would be 1:3. Because the half life of a radioactive isotope is known, all we need to do to place an isotopic age on a mineral or rock is to measure the amount of parent and daughter and look at their ratios. To better visualize this concept lets imagine that we have a zircon crystal with 1000 U238 atoms and see what happens to the amount of U238 over time (Figure 4). U238 has a half life of Age Amount of parent present Amount of daughter present Figure 4 Time when mineral formed 0 b.y. 4.5 b.y. 9.0 b.y U ~4.5 billion years (b.y.). When the mineral first forms there are 1000 U atoms and no Pb atoms. After 4.5 b.y. there are 500 U atoms present and 500 U atoms have converted to Pb, hence the ratio of U to Pb is 1:1. After another half-life has elapsed and the rock is 9.0 b.y. old, there are 250 U atoms remaining and 750 Pb atoms have been produced by decay of U. Thus after two half-lives the ratio of parent to daughter is 1:3. Although we have only discussed a few ratios of parent to daughter, it is possible to 0 Pb Time after 1 half life has elapsed 500 U 500 Pb Time after 2 half lives have elapsed 250 U 750 Pb 13

14 mathematically assess an age for any ratio if you have been given the half life and the ratio of parent to daughter. Although we have focused on the U-Pb method of dating, there are many other radioactive isotopes that can be used for dating. These other methods are based on principles that are similar to what we have described for U-Pb. One example of a common method of dating is the K-Ar method. This involves the decay of a radioactive isotope of potassium (K) to a stable isotope of argon (Ar). Minerals containing K are used for this method. For example, it is commonly used for orthoclase and muscovite (see Figure 5) in igneous rocks. Figure 5. Photographs of muscovite and orthoclase, which are two K bearing minerals used for K Ar dating. Do you know which picture is of muscovite and which is of orthoclase? Questions (please answer the following questions based on what you have just read) (1) What is the difference between a stable and a radioactive isotope? (2) What is the meaning of the terms parent and daughter product? (3) Explain what happens to an atom of the radioactive isotope U238 over time. (4) If a granite sample has 5000 atoms of U238, how many are remaining after 1 half life? How many are remaining after 2 half lives? (5) If a granite sample has 400 atoms of U238, how many Pb206 atoms have been produced after 1 half life? How many have been produced after 2 half lives? (6) Explain in your own words the reasons why zircon can be used for isotopic dating. (7) Imagine you have a sample with 500 atoms of radioactive isotope X. Isotope X decays to stable isotope Y with a half life of 2 million years. How much time will it take to produce 375 atoms of isotope Y? Hint: to solve this problem you might want to construct a diagram similar to that shown in Figure 4. (8) Imagine you have a sample with 36 atoms of radioactive isotope W. Isotope W decays into stable isotope Z with a half life of 1 million years how much time will it take for 27 atoms of W to decay to Z? Hint: to solve this problem you might want to construct a diagram similar to that shown in Figure 4. (9) Name an example of a mineral that is commonly used for the U-Pb method of dating and a mineral that is commonly used for the K-Ar method of dating. 14

15 Relative vs. Numerical ages Things we have covered Concepts and principles used for relative age determination: contacts, original horizontality, superposition, lateral continuity, cross-cutting relationships, baked contacts, inclusions, unconformities (angular unconformities, nonconformities, disconformities) How to view rocks and cross sections and determine the relative ages of rocks and to delineate the various types of unconformities The eras and periods of the geologic timescale and what the geologic time scale is based on Atomic number vs. mass number and stable vs. unstable isotopes The principles behind isotopic dating (decay, half-life etc.) utilizing the U-Pb method as an example Next up: Now that you have reviewed this lecture file and read the chapter, please go to the content section of D2L for this chapter and click on Preparation for quiz to answer questions related to this chapter. You will find the answers to these questions in material presented in this file and in the text book

### USING RELATIVE DATING AND UNCONFORMITIES TO DETERMINE SEQUENCES OF EVENTS

EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT THROUGH TIME LABORATORY- EES 1005 LABORATORY THREE USING RELATIVE DATING AND UNCONFORMITIES TO DETERMINE SEQUENCES OF EVENTS Introduction In order to interpret Earth history from

### Geologic History Review

1. The climate that existed in an area during the early Paleozoic Era can best be determined by studying (1) the present climate of the area (2) recorded climate data of the area since 1700 (3) present

Page 1 of 16 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Geologic Time This page last updated on 08-Oct-2015 From the beginning of this course, we have stated that the Earth is

### Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 11 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 11 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

### Geologic time and dating. Geologic time refers to the ages relevant to Earth s history

Geologic time and dating Most figures and tables contained here are from course text: Understanding Earth Fourth Edition by Frank Press, Raymond Siever, John Grotzinger, and Thomas H. Jordan Geologic time

### 89.215 - FORENSIC GEOLOGY GEOLOGIC TIME AND GEOLOGIC MAPS

NAME 89.215 - FORENSIC GEOLOGY GEOLOGIC TIME AND GEOLOGIC MAPS I. Introduction There are two types of geologic time, relative and absolute. In the case of relative time geologic events are arranged in

### The Fossil Record and Geologic Time Scale

Two Conceptions of Earth History: Catastrophism Assumption: Great Effects Require Great Causes Earth History Dominated by Violent Events Uniformitarianism Assumption: We Can Use Cause And Effect to Determine

### Chapter 8: Geologic Time

Chapter 8: Geologic Time 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Art of Time The History of Relative Time Geologic Time Numerical Time Rates of Change Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction

### Geologic Time. Relative Dating. Principle of Original Horizontality. Relative Time. Absolute Time. Geologic Column

Geologic Time Relative Time 5 Principles of Relative Dating Absolute Time Radiometric Dating Geologic Column Relative Dating principle of horizontality principle of superposition principle of cross-cutting

### principles of stratigraphy: deposition, succession, continuity and correlation

Relative Age Dating Comparative Records of Time Nature of the rock record principles of stratigraphy: deposition, succession, continuity and correlation Stratigraphic tools biological succession of life:

### Geological Time Murck and Skinner, 1999

Geological Time Murck and Skinner, 1999 Geological Time Scale The Precambrian (Archaean( + Proterozoic) ) covers the first 85% of the geological timescale. Precambrian rocks form the cores of the major

### Name Date Per Integrated Science: Plate Tectonics. Geologic Time WebQuest

Name Date Per Integrated Science: Plate Tectonics Geologic Time WebQuest If the age of the Earth were to be scaled to the length of the Golden Gate Bridge (about 6000 ft), then 600 years of civilization

### GEOLOGIC MAPS. PURPOSE: To be able to understand, visualize, and analyze geologic maps

GEOLOGIC MAPS PURPOSE: To be able to understand, visualize, and analyze geologic maps Geologic maps show the distribution of the various igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks at Earth s surface in

### LABORATORY TWO GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES

EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT THROUGH TIME LABORATORY- EES 1005 LABORATORY TWO GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES Introduction Structural geology is the study of the ways in which rocks or sediments are arranged and deformed

### Geologic Time Scale Newcomer Academy Visualization Three

Geologic Time Newcomer Academy Visualization Three Chapter Subtopic/Media Key Points of Discussion Notes/Vocabulary Introduction Title NA NA Various Pictures of Geologic Time It s About Time Personal Timeline

### GEOL 104 Dinosaurs: A Natural History Geology Assignment. DUE: Mon. Sept. 18

GEOL 104 Dinosaurs: A Natural History Geology Assignment DUE: Mon. Sept. 18 Part I: Environments of Deposition Geologists can use various clues in sedimentary rocks to interpret their environment of deposition:

### 2012 Learning on Location St. Louis Science Center Symposium

2012 Learning on Location St. Louis Science Center Symposium Title of Activity/Lesson Understanding the Geologic Time Scale Michelle Hrastich, Windsor School District Grade Level(s) this activity/lesson

### Solar System Formation

Blizzard Bag Day 2 Here is the lesson that you need to complete for the first calamity day. I am attaching the notes along with the question to help you with the question. Please try your BEST and answer

### GEOS 2900 Sample Activity

GEOS 2900 Sample Activity 3.3 GEOLOGIC TIME Introduction: Now that we understand how fossils and rocks are used to interpret past events and to put relative and absolute ages on these events, we can begin

### Unit 5: Formation of the Earth

Unit 5: Formation of the Earth Objectives: E5.3B - Explain the process of radioactive decay and explain how radioactive elements are used to date the rocks that contain them. E5.3C - Relate major events

### Geological Maps 1: Horizontal and Inclined Strata

Geological Maps 1: Horizontal and Inclined Strata A well-rounded geologist must be familiar with the processes that shape the Earth as well as the rocks and minerals that comprise it. These processes cover

### Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate

1. Of the Earth's more than 2,000 identified minerals, only a small number are commonly found in rocks. This fact indicates that most 1) minerals weather before they can be identified 2) minerals have

### Radiometric Dating Lab By Vicky Jordan

Science 8: The Deep Time Diaries Name Date Per Radiometric Dating Lab By Vicky Jordan Problem: How long will it take for 100 atoms of the radioactive parent Carbon-14 to completely decay to the stable

### Worksheet: The geological time scale

Worksheet: The geological time scale Senior Phase Grade 7-9 Learning area: Natural Science Strand: Life and living Theme: Biodiversity, change and continuity Specific Aim 1: Acquiring knowledge of natural

### Page 1. Name:

Name: 1) According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, which sedimentary rock would be formed by the compaction and cementation of particles 1.5 centimeters in diameter? A) shale B) conglomerate C)

### Geology 200 Getting Started...

Geology 200 Getting Started... Name This handout should be completed and become a part of your Notebook for this course. This handout is intended to be a review of some important ideas from your introductory

### BOWEN'S REACTION SERIES

BOWEN'S REACTION SERIES Purpose John J. Thomas Frequently, people cannot visualize the mineral associations that form the sequences of igneous rocks that you find in the earth's crust and what happens

### Radiometric Dating. This document last updated on 18-Apr-2012

Page 1 of 14 EENS 2120 Tulane University Radiometric Dating This document last updated on 18-Apr-2012 Petrology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Prior to 1905 the best and most accepted age of the Earth was that

### Carbonate Rock Formation

Limestone, dolomite (or dolostone), and marble are often collectively referred to as carbonate rocks because the main mineral is calcite. The chemical name of calcite is calcium carbonate. Limestone, dolomite,

### Stratigraphic Cross Sections Why study old rocks?

rom IRIS collection: Animations of eologic Processes www.iris.edu/educate/animations Stratigraphic ross Sections Why study old rocks? The earthquake potential of an area can be determined by studying the

### 1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers.

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. Which statement about the deposition of the sediments best explains why these layers have the curved shape shown? 1) Sediments were

### lithosphere granite basalt

The Earth s s Crust The Earth s s Crust The earth s crust is the outside layer of the earth. It is thickest at the continents at about 40 Km (up to 70 Km) deep. It is thinnest under the oceans at about

### What is a rock? How are rocks classified? What does the texture of a rock reveal about how it was formed?

CHAPTER 4 1 The Rock Cycle SECTION Rocks: Mineral Mixtures BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a rock? How are rocks classified? What does

### Dip is the vertical angle perpendicular to strike between the imaginary horizontal plane and the inclined planar geological feature.

Geological Visualization Tools and Structural Geology Geologists use several visualization tools to understand rock outcrop relationships, regional patterns and subsurface geology in 3D and 4D. Geological

### Potassium-Argon (K-Ar) Dating

Potassium-Argon (K-Ar) Dating K-Ar Dating In 10,000 K atoms: 9326 39 K 673 41 K 1 40 K Potassium Decay Potassium Decay Potassium Decay Argon About 1% of atmosphere is argon Three stable isotopes of argon

### The strata exposed in Arizona s Grand Canyon contain clues to hundreds of millions of years of Earth history. (Photo by Carr Clifton)

Geology Needs a Time Scale A Brief History of Geology Relative Dating Key Principles Correlation of Rock Layers Fossils: Evidence of Past Life Dating with Radioactivity The Geologic Time Scale Difficulties

### Minerals and Rocks C) D)

Minerals and Rocks Name 1. Base your answer to the following question on the map and cross section below. The shaded areas on the map represent regions of the United States that have evaporite rock layers

### Lesson Plan Title. Toilet Paper Tape Measure of Geologic Time

Lesson Plan Title Toilet Paper Tape Measure of Geologic Time Name (last, first): Serratos, Danielle J. Scientific Theme(s): Life Science *Changes in Life Forms over Time Earth Science *Forces that Shape

### Unit 2 Lesson 4 The Geologic Time Scale. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Once Upon a Time How have geologists described the rate of geologic change? Geology is the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth and the processes that shape it. Early geologists

### Geol 101: Physical Geology Summer 2007 EXAM 2

Geol 101: Physical Geology Summer 2007 EXAM 2 Write your name out in full on the scantron form and fill in the corresponding ovals to spell out your name. Also fill in your student ID number in the space

### REVIEW Key Concepts. Unit 5 Planet Earth. Earthquakes and Volcanoes can suddenly change the Earth s surface

REVIEW Key Concepts Unit 5 Planet Earth 1.0 Changes on the Earth s Surface Layers: Crust, Mantle, Core (Inner and Outer) Earthquakes and Volcanoes can suddenly change the Earth s surface Scientist s use

### The Geology of the Marginal Way, Ogunquit, Maine

Geologic Site of the Month February, 2002 The Geology of the Marginal Way, Ogunquit, Maine 43 14 23.88 N, 70 35 18.36 W Text by Arthur M. Hussey II, Bowdoin College and Robert G. Marvinney,, Department

### Name: DUE: May 2, 2013 Ms. Galaydick. Geologic Time Scale Era Period End date (in millions of years) Cenozoic Quaternary present

Name: DUE: May 2, 2013 Ms. Galaydick Objective: Use the diagrams to answer the questions for each set: USING SCIENCE SKILLS PART #1 Geologic Time Scale Era Period End date (in millions of years) Cenozoic

### Unit 2 Lesson 4 The Geologic Time Scale. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Once Upon a Time How have geologists described the rate of geologic change? Geology is the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth and the processes that shape it. Early geologists

### Geologic Time Scale Notes

Name: Date: Period: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Notes Essential Question: What is the geologic time scale? Vocabulary: Geology: the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth and the processes that

### Geology and Landscapes 2014 Maps and cross-sections

Geology and Landscapes 2014 Maps and cross-sections Practicals 2 to 9 will be dedicated to the study of geological maps and the production of geological cross-section. Below is a summary of the different

### Unit 8.3.1 Study Guide: Rocks, Minerals, and the Rock Cycle

Name Date Per Unit 8.3.1 Study Guide: Rocks, Minerals, and the Rock Cycle I Can Statements I Can Statements are the learning targets for each unit. By the time you take the test for this unit, you should

### What are Rocks??? Rocks are the most common material on Earth. They are a naturally occurring collection of one or more minerals.

The Rock Cycle What are Rocks??? Rocks are the most common material on Earth. They are a naturally occurring collection of one or more minerals. The Rock Cycle a cycle that continuously forms and changes

### Radiometric Dating. Dating Methods for Igneous Rocks

Radiometric Dating why radiometric? although several different dating techniques are employed, all but radiometric dating is able to estimate ages in timescales relevant to astronomers. How it works Radiometric

### Exploring How Rocks Are Formed

Exploring How Rocks Are Formed Grade Level: 3-4 Purpose and Goals: In this lesson, students are introduced to the three types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. After receiving background

### WEATHERING, EROSION, AND DEPOSITION PRACTICE TEST. Which graph best shows the relative stream velocities across the stream from A to B?

NAME DATE WEATHERING, EROSION, AND DEPOSITION PRACTICE TEST 1. The diagram below shows a meandering stream. Measurements of stream velocity were taken along straight line AB. Which graph best shows the

### Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com

Name: KEY Rocks & Minerals 1 KEY CONCEPT #1: What is a mineral? It is a naturally occurring, inorganic substance which has a definite chemical composition What would be the opposite of this? man-made,

### Name: LAB: The Geologic Time Scale

Name: LAB: The Geologic Time Scale INTRODUCTION: It is difficult to comprehend the age of the Earth and the time that various geologic events occurred in the past. A model drawn to scale is often useful

### 1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire

UNIT 3 EXAM ROCKS AND MINERALS NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire FRANCONIA, N.H. Crowds

### Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet?

Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet? Name: 1 Before you start What do you already know? What is the difference between a rock and a mineral? What are the three categories of rocks? 1. 2. 3.

### ROCKS OF THE GRAND CANYON BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR DOCENTS

ROCKS OF THE GRAND CANYON BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR DOCENTS There are three distinct types of rock. Igneous rocks. Igneous comes from the Greek word for fire. It is so hot deep in the Earth that rocks

### Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes

Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes 3.4 How are the rock classes related to one another? The Rock Cycle Smith & Pun, Chapter 3 Processes link types Plate tectonics is driving force If we look closely we see

### EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY

EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY DR. WOLTEMADE NAME: SECTION: MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY INTRODUCTION The identification of minerals and rocks is an integral part of understanding our physical

### Pre Trip information for teachers

1 A Blandy Experimental Farm Program Pre Trip information for teachers Before your students come to Blandy, they should be familiar with the following vocabulary: Rocks are naturally formed aggregates

### Key Concepts in Science GEOLOGIC TIME TEACHER GUIDE. 2015 Sally Ride Science

Key Concepts in Science GEOLOGIC TIME TEACHER GUIDE 2015 Sally Ride Science GEOLOGIC TIME: CONTENTS Student handouts are at the back of the Teacher Guide. Correlation to Standards... 3-4 Sally Ride Science

### Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com

Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 KEY CONCEPT #1: What is a mineral? It is a, substance which has a What would be the opposite of this? KEY CONCEPT #2: What causes minerals to have different physical properties?

### EARTH LAYERS ROCKS. Released SOL Test Questions Sorted by Topic Compiled by SOLpass

Released SOL Test Questions Sorted by Topic Compiled by SOLpass www.solpass.org SOL 5.7 Earth s Constantly Changing Surface The student will investigate and understand how Earth s surface is constantly

### Understanding Geologic Time from the Texas Memorial Museum

Understanding Geologic Time from the Texas Memorial Museum Objective To gain a better understanding of the geologic time scale. Materials Activity 1: Geologic Time Geologic Time Activity Worksheet (included)

### Theory of Catastrophism - earth s shapes created in great cataclysms

Atmosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Lithosphere is the branch of physical geography, shared with the fields of Geomorphology and Tectonics, that specifically examine the landforms, continents

### Earth s Crust and Interior

Student: Date received: Handout 6 of 14 (Topic 2.1) Earth s Crust and Interior Seafloor topography around Iceland in the North Atlantic Ocean (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/image:n-atlantic-topo.png). Iceland

STRATIGRAPHY Teacher Guide including Lesson Plans, Student Readers, and More Information Lesson 1 - What is stratigraphy? Lesson 2 - Correlation Activity Lesson 3 -Geologic Time Lesson 4 - Earth s History

### The Dynamic Crust 2) EVIDENCE FOR CRUSTAL MOVEMENT

The Dynamic Crust 1) Virtually everything you need to know about the interior of the earth can be found on page 10 of your reference tables. Take the time to become familiar with page 10 and everything

### Round and Round the Rock Cycle

Round and Round the Rock Cycle Objectives The student will identify the processes that cause the three different types of rocks to form and identify rock samples from each type. Suggested Grade Level Fifth

### Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. about how organisms have changed. grown in complexity over time.

History of Life Evolution Q: How do fossils help biologists understand the history of life on Earth? 19.1 How do scientists use fossils to study Earth s history? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: Fossils give

### Atoms and Elements. Atoms: Learning Goals. Chapter 3. Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks. Clicker 1. Chemistry Background?

Chapter 3 Atoms Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks A Review of Chemistry: What geochemistry tells us Clicker 1 Chemistry Background? A. No HS or College Chemistry B. High School

### Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE

DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer Provide specific and detailed

### Earth Materials: Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks. The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth

Earth Materials: 1 The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth 2 Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks Three main categories of rocks: Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic The most common minerals

### Rock Cycle Part I Student Guide

Rock Cycle Part I Student Guide Write your answers on the separate answer sheet provided. Introduction Why are there different kinds of rock on Earth? Earth rocks are recycled so that new rock is constantly

### How Did Rocks and Rivers Shape the Great Lakes?

How Did Rocks and Rivers Shape the Great Lakes? The rocks in the Great Lakes Basin are of two main types: metamorphic/igneous and sedimentary. The metamorphic/igneous rocks formed long ago, when molten

### Ohio s State Tests PRACTICE TEST SPRING 2015 GRADE 8 SCIENCE PART 2. Student Name

Ohio s State Tests PRACTICE TEST SPRIG 2015 GRADE 8 SCIECE PART 2 Student ame The Ohio Department of Education does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, or

### GEOLOGY OF THE COLORADO PLATEAU

GEOLOGY OF THE COLORADO PLATEAU Annabelle Foos Geology Department, University of Akron Introduction The Colorado is a land of scenic beauty characterized by sparsely vegetated plateaus, mesas, deep canyons,

### The rock cycle. Introduction. What are rocks?

The rock cycle This Revision looks at the three types of rock: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. It looks at how they are formed, the weathering of rocks and the way one form of rock turns into another,

### Plate Tectonics Review

1. Recent volcanic activity in different parts of the world supports the inference that volcanoes are located mainly in 1) the centers of landscape regions 2) the central regions of the continents 3) zones

### Laboratory #8: Structural Geology Thinking in 3D

Name: Lab day: Tuesday Wednesday Thursday ENVG /SC 10110-20110L Planet Earth Laboratory Laboratory #8: Structural Geology Thinking in 3D http://www.nd.edu/~cneal/physicalgeo/lab-structural/index.html Readings:

### How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form?

298 10.14 INVESTIGATION How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form? The terrain below contains various features on the seafloor, as well as parts of three continents. Some general observations

### Chapter 9: Earth s Past

Chapter 9: Earth s Past Vocabulary 1. Geologic column 2. Era 3. Period 4. Epoch 5. Evolution 6. Precambrian time 7. Paleozoic era 8. Shield 9. Stromatolite 10. Invertebrate 11. Trilobite 12. Index fossil

### Lecture 19. 1) The geologic timescale: the age of the Earth/ Solar System the history of the Earth

Lecture 19 Part 2: Climates of the Past 1) The geologic timescale: the age of the Earth/ Solar System the history of the Earth 2) The evolution of Earth s atmosphere - from its origin to present-day 3)

### Types of Rocks By Cindy Sherwood

Mount Rushmore is an amazing sight, with the faces of four presidents carved into a giant rock mountain. But even a small rock you find in your yard is pretty amazing. After all, most rocks have been around

### Lesson 5: The Rock Cycle: Making the Connection

Target Grade or Age Level Sixth grade science Lesson 5: The Rock Cycle: Making the Connection Scientific Processes Addressed Defining operationally, formulating and testing hypotheses, constructing models

### Igneous rocks: : Rock that forms when hot molten rock (magma or lava) cools and

Igneous rocks: : Rock that forms when hot molten rock (magma or lava) cools and freezes solid. Can be intrusive (formed deep in the earth) or extrusive (formed at the surface of the earth). Magma: : Molten

### GEL 113 Historical Geology

GEL 113 Historical Geology COURSE DESCRIPTION: Prerequisites: GEL 111 Corequisites: None This course covers the geological history of the earth and its life forms. Emphasis is placed on the study of rock

### Rock Type Identification Flow Chart

Rock Type Identification Flow Chart SEDIMENTARY AMORPHOUS No Crystals or Clasts fairly hard very soft hard & cherty vague crystals SEDIMENTARY IGNEOUS - VOLCANIC CLASTS Broken pieces of rocks or minerals

### Three Main Types of Rocks Igneous Rocks. Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks. Made by Liesl at The Homeschool Den

Three Main Types of Rocks Igneous Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Igneous Rocks Above and below: Basalt Above: Gabbro Above: Pumice Above: Basalt, Giant Causeway in Ireland Above: Obsidian Above:

### 1. Structure and Properties of the Atom

SACE Stage 1 Chemistry - The Essentials 1. Structure and Properties of the Atom 1.1 Atoms: A simple definition of the atom is that it is the smallest particle that contains the properties of that element.

### Interior Structures of Planets

Interior Structures of Planets Thematic Questions about Planetary Interiors Planetary interiors tend to be layered structures How does differentiation of planetary materials to form a layered structure

### Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE

DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer Provide specific and detailed

### Geologic Time The first geologic time scale was proposed in 1913 by the British geologist Arthur Holmes (1890-1965). This was soon after the discovery

Geologic Time Geologic Time The first geologic time scale was proposed in 1913 by the British geologist Arthur Holmes (1890-1965). This was soon after the discovery of radioactivity, and using it, Holmes

### ORANGE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OFFICE OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION OFFICE OF SCIENCE. GRADE 6 SCIENCE Post - Assessment

ORANGE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OFFICE OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION OFFICE OF SCIENCE GRADE 6 SCIENCE Post - Assessment School Year 2013-2014 Directions for Grade 6 Post-Assessment The Grade 6 Post-Assessment is

### All sediments have a source or provenance, a place or number of places of origin where they were produced.

Sedimentary Rocks, Processes, and Environments Sediments are loose grains and chemical residues of earth materials, which include things such as rock fragments, mineral grains, part of plants or animals,

### Geology 2 Physical Geology Lab Lab #9 Point Lobos Fieldtrip - Preparation

Geology 2 Physical Geology Lab Fieldtrip - Preparation What: We will be going to Point Lobos State Reserve for our Wednesday October 18 class lecture and lab session Why: We will look at some of our local

### 1. The building blocks of rocks are naturally occurring solid materials called A. granules B. grains C. minerals D. crystals

The Rock Cycle describes how rocks form and change over time What are Rocks and Minerals 1. The building blocks of rocks are naturally occurring solid materials called A. granules B. grains C. minerals

### Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

Sedimentary rocks: summary in haiku form Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks Earth, Chapter 7 Lithification - glue particles together. Was sand, now sandstone. What is a sedimentary rock? Products of mechanical

### Foundations of Earth Science (Lutgens and Tarbuck, 5 th edition, 2008)

EAS 100 Study Guide to Textbook Foundations of Earth Science (Lutgens and Tarbuck, 5 th edition, 2008) STUDY GUIDE 1/08 The textbook for EAS 100, Foundations of Earth Science, by Lutgens and Tarbuck is