Ch. 29 Conflict in the Middle East. Section 2, The Arab-Israeli Conflict

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1 Ch. 29 Conflict in the Middle East Section 2, The Arab-Israeli Conflict

2 Learning Target 7: I can identify and explain at least two (2) causes and at least three (3) effects of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Causes of Arab-Israeli Conflict 1. Both Jews and Palestinian Arabs have historic claims to the area in the eastern Mediterranean known as Palestine, which the Jews call the Land of Israel. Each group considers the land its ancestral home. In the late 19th century, Zionism, or Jewish nationalism, developed in Europe. Zionism advocated that Jews outside their ancient homeland of Israel return there. Additionally, throughout history, the Jews have been persecuted. An increase in Jewish immigration to Palestine occurred after World War I, and during and after World War II. 2. After World War II, the United Nations approved a plan for the partition of Palestine called the two-state solution dividing Palestine into two parts. One part would be Palestine for the Arabs and one part would be a newly created state of Israel. Both the Jews and Arabs were frustrated and dissatisfied. They both wanted more than what they received. Effects of Arab-Israeli Conflict 1. Arab nations, such as Egypt, Jordan, and Syria, fought many wars, such as the Six-Day War, with Israel over territory, such as the Sinai Peninsula. Each time Israel showed its strength and was victorious. Thus gaining or maintaining territorial possession vital to both the Israelis and Arabs. 2. Camp David Accords (1978) - Egypt recognized Israel as a state. - Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt that it had won in the 1967 or Six-Day War. - This peace treaty ended 30 years of fighting. Oslo Accords (1993) - The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) recognized Israel. - Israel granted Palestinian self-rule in parts of the West Bank and Gaza 3. Peace between the Israelis and Arabs is still shaky today. Israel still fights for state sovereignty and territorial claims while the Arabs continue to fight for the right to return to their homes in present day Israel and to reclaim the same land for their homeland.

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5 Ch. 29 Conflict in the Middle East Section 3, Political Change in Egypt and Iran

6 Learning Target 8: I can identify and explain at least two (2) causes and at least two (2) effects of the Suez Crisis. Causes of the Suez Crisis Effects of the Suez Crisis 1. Nasser s ties with the Soviet bloc and communist China. President Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt) wanted to build a strong country that was free of ties to Western society and Western control. One of his goals was to build the Aswan Dam in the Nile River to prevent flooding and provide Egypt with hydroelectric power. To fund this project, Egypt accepted loans from the United States. After the U.S. learned of Nasser s ties with the Soviet bloc and communist China, they revoked their loans. 1. International uproar, as the international community charged the country with imperialism. Israel invaded the Sinai peninsula, and France and G.B. invaded Egypt because they were afraid the Soviets would gain interest in this region. The U.S. pressured invaders to withdraw. 2. Egypt kept control of the Suez Canal, and President Nasser was a hero in the Middle East. 2. In July 1956, Nasser struck back at the U.S. for withdrawing their loans by nationalizing the Suez Canal. 3. Spread of Pan-Arabism, uniting Arab countries around common goals. The Suez Canal was in Egyptian territory, but was historically controlled by France and Great Britain.

7 Learning Target 9: I can identify and explain at least two (2) causes and at least two (2) effects of the Iranian Revolution. Causes of the Iranian Revolution 1. Nationalism post World War II. Nationalist leader Mohammed Mossadeq took power, angered Western nations, and was overthrown by the CIA and Iranian conspirators. 2. The reign of the shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. -policy of modernization -Created close ties with the West -expanded the military -SAVAK (secret police) Opposition against Pahlavi grew. Opposing political groups met in secret. 3. Iran s economy was collapsing due to overspending, mismanagement, and corruption. Effects of the Iranian Revolution 1. Women lost many of their civil rights. 2. Ayatollah Khomeini was Iran s supreme leader and hoped to spread the Iranian Revolution to other Muslim countries, whom he thought were run by corrupt leaders. 3. U.S. embassy was seized by Iranians, holding hostages for more than one year. This was caused by the United States allowing the shah to come to the United States for medical treatment. 4. War between Iraq and Iran. Iraq was run by Sunni Muslims, even though the majority of the population was Shi a. The Iraqi leaders were afraid that the Shi a would revolt, so they invaded Iran in 1980.

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10 Ch. 29 Conflict in the Middle East Section 4, Oil and Power in the Persian Gulf

11 Learning Target 10: I can identify and explain at least two (2) impacts of oil in the Gulf nations, such as the formation of OPEC and the Arab oil embargo. Impacts of Oil in Gulf Nations 1. By 1970, the Gulf nations of the Middle East supplied 1/2 of the non-communist countries oil. Today the Gulf nations produce about 1/3 of the world s oil. 2. In 1960, major oil producing countries came together to make the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to regulate oil production levels and prices. Many Gulf nations significantly benefited from the oil and were able to build roads, schools, airports, power plants, and other infrastructure that helped transform and modernize their societies.

12 Learning Target 11: I can identify who Saddam Hussein was and how he came into power of Iraq. Who was Saddam Hussein? (Be specific and include as many details as possible.) Iraqi dictator member of the Baath party Sunni Muslim How did Saddam Hussein rise into power of Iraq? He was the dominant force of the Baath party Pan-Arabism socialist movement Strongman who controlled government & policies (before he was the President) He nationalized the oil industry in Iraq Became President Attempted to resolve the threat to his power and overthrow the Iraqi government

13 Learning Target 12: I can explain at least one (1) cause and at least two (2) effects of the Persian Gulf War. Cause(s) of the Persian Gulf War 1. Iraq s didn t defeat Iran and their economy was close to collapsing. Regardless, his large and powerful army and his ambitions were not defeated. To restore his image (ego) and to make up for his losses, he invaded Kuwait. Effects of the Persian Gulf War 1. Saddam s regime survived. However the Kurdish population and the Shi a population revolted, leading to a brutal campaign of repression. 2. Saddam was overthrown in A second invasion of Iraq by U.S. led-coalition forces overthrew Saddam and his regime. Following, Iraq established a democratic government. However, violence continued as Iraqis fought the U.S. troops in a war until late 2011.

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