Canadian Geography 1202

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1 Canadian Geography 1202 Unit 1 Canada, Geography, and You (show video found here) Geography: The study of how the Earth works and how people interact with the Earth. Landscapes: The natural and human features you can see in an area. (Read page 4 - Take the Challenge don t complete the map) Canada is the second largest country in the world. It is so big that all 46 countries in Europe would fit inside it. Because of its size Canada has a variety of different things including huge mountains, large areas of grasslands and swampy wetlands. Place Place: Any spot or area on the Earth s surface. A place can be described by giving its location. There are several ways to give a location. Relative Location: A location given in relation to another feature. Ex. Coleman s is located across the street from Botwood Collegiate. Absolute Location: Location that is given using Latitude and Longitude. Latitude: Imaginary lines that run east to west on a map and measure distances north or south of the Equator. Longitude: Imaginary lines that run north to south on a map and measure distances east or west of the Prime Meridian.

2 Latitude and longitude are measured in degrees. Each degree can be split into 60 minutes. Each degree of latitude is about 111 km wide N reads 47 degrees 26 minutes North latitude. Longitudinal lines are 111 km wide at the Equator but narrow as they meet at the North and South Poles. The Equator is 0 degrees latitude. The Prime Meridian, which runs through Greenwich, England, is 0 degrees longitude. (Go here for an interactive lesson on lat and long) Use the given political map of Canada to locate these places. Alert Most northern settlement at N just 800 km from the North Pole Middle Island most southern place at N Cape Spear most easterly at W US/Yukon Border most westerly at N Canada is 4600 km from north to south and 5500 km from east to west. The Earth is tilted on its axis giving Canada 4 seasons.

3 The Summer Solstice (first day) is June 21 st, Winter Solstice is December 21 st, Fall Equinox is September 23 rd, and Spring Equinox is March 21 st. Canada s Landscapes (Give map of Canada s Landscape Regions) Region: A part of the Earth s surface with similar characteristics that set it apart from surrounding areas. The Canadian Shield is the largest and oldest region in Canada covering 45% of the land. The rock found here is 3 billion years old. Newfoundland is in the Appalachian Mountains region. The rock here is 400 million years old. The youngest rock is found in the Rocky Mountains in the Western Cordillera Region. Rock here is only 65 million years old. There are 3 main types of rock. They are: 1. Igneous Formed when magma cools and hardens. This rock contains minerals like gold and silver. 2. Sedimentary Formed when sand, soil and small rock particles are laid down in layers. Fossils are found in this rock as well as the fossil fuels like oil and gas. 3. Metamorphic Formed when igneous and sedimentary rock change into new rock while under intense heat and pressure. Shaping the Landscape Landscapes are formed through two types of forces, building up or wearing down. The wearing down forces are:

4 A) Weathering: The breaking of rock by wind, water, plant roots and chemical reactions. B) Erosion: The moving of broken rock particles to other places. The building up of mountains occurs through 3 main forces: A) Folding 2 plates are squeezed together causing the land in between to rise up. B) Faulting 2 plates separate causing one plate to drop. C) Volcanic Pressure Magma pushes the land up from underneath. Plates: Large pieces of the Earth s crust. Magma: Molten rock found inside the Earth. Plate Tectonics: The movement of the plates resulting in the formation of mountains. Another factor in shaping the landscape is the movement of glaciers. Glaciers have tremendous weight and can gouge out huge chunks of rock, carry it away and drop it when it begins to melt. The Great Lakes were formed when glaciers made large gouges in the Earth. As the glacier later melted water filled these basins creating the lakes. Fiords are also formed by glaciers. Fiords: Long narrow inlets to the sea with very steep sides. Deposition: The laying down of earth materials such as rock, sand, and soil. (Go over answers to questions # 3 and 4 on pg. 17)

5 Interactions There are 3 main types of interactions, both positive and negative, that geographers study. They are: 1. Natures impact on people. 2. Peoples impact on nature. 3. Peoples impact on other people. 1 - Natures Impact on People Nature affects where people decide to settle. Climate, soil, food, water and safety issues have an impact. In Newfoundland people originally settled on the coast in sheltered harbours near a good supply of fresh water. The Rocky Mountains slowed expansion into BC since it was a barrier to transportation. The densest population in Canada is found in the Great Lakes Lowland Region of Canada. This area has a large supply of water from the Great Lakes, the richest soil in Canada deposited there by glaciers, and the warmest temperatures giving it the longest growing season in Canada. Natural Hazards have a negative impact on people. Three natural hazards that can occur in Canada are: 1. Earthquakes Occurs when 2 plates move against each other. 2. Tsunami A gigantic, fast-moving wave caused by an undersea earthquake. 3. Hurricanes Formed offshore in by low pressure systems and have very high winds and heavy rain. Physical Features: Naturally occurring features like rivers and mountains. Cultural Features: Man-made features like buildings and roads. Topographic Maps: Maps that show physical and cultural features.

6 Topographic maps give a lot of information by using the following: A) Legend Tells what the symbols mean on a map. B) Contour Lines : Lines connecting land with the same elevation. The closer the lines are together, the steeper the slope. C) Contour Interval: The difference in height between 2 contour lines. D) Colour: Used to show land (green) or water (blue). E) Scale: Gives a ratio of distance on the map to real life distances. Objects can be found on a topographic map by giving a 4 figure grid reference for large objects, or 6 figure grid reference for small objects. A 4 figure reference uses the numbered line to the left of the block and the line under the block. The order is important. The grey block below has a 4 figure grid reference of Note is WRONG, order is important! A 6 figure grid reference splits a block into 10 sections to find a location within the block. We give the numbered line to the left first, then the section out of 10 from left to right. Next we give the numbered line below followed by the section out of 10 from top to bottom. The 6 figure grid reference for the x is (Pg. 27 # 1,4)

7 2 - People s Impact on Nature The biggest impact people have on nature is through the use of natural resources. If used correctly it can be positive but abuse can lead to problems. Sustainable Development: Using resources wisely so they are around for future generations to use. Canadians uses a huge amount of resources. If the whole world used resources as much as Canada does it would cause a disaster. The way we currently live is not sustainable. (Create a list of ways to reduce this problem) Bioregion: A small local region with distinct natural features such as climate, soil, etc.)

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