Topic of Discussion The Development of Regionalism in the Early Colonies

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1 I Review A. Colonial Exploration by the British and Spanish primarily dominated the Eastern coast of America B. Colonization was motivated by potential wealth, land opportunities and freedom from persecution C. Roanoke one example of a failed attempt. Lack of support (financial and circumstantial) D. one example of a successful colony. Overcame great odds, Persistence, financial support, the impact of the Columbian exchange and some luck helped this colony to succeed. E. A Plan for survival the people leaving for America soon realized that in order to survive they needed formal agreements and rules that could govern the colony. These basic rudimentary agreements were the foundation for what become the Law of the Land, the United States Constitution. F. Religious influence it must also be recognized that many people came to America looking for an opportunity. Not just for wealth but an opportunity based in freedom. The freedom to live their lives without persecution and the opportunity to express their religious points of view. These communities which were based on a religious faith also were organized with a representative form of rules or government. Although these communities out grew the religious control, the values and ethics established by these faith based communities still influence certain areas of our country today.

2 G. Geographical influence on the settlements - It must also be recognized that the physical location, natural geographical attributes, weather patterns and the type of soil also played a major part in the early development of America. Once it was realized that people from Europe could successful survive and flourish in the Americas, more and more people started migrated West. These new immigrants would land in various areas along the west coast of the Americas. II Introduction A. Throughout history, people from cultures around the world have come to America seeking a new life or a change from their current conditions. They may have come to avoid persecution, overpopulation, or to be successful in an entirely new world from the life they formerly knew. As the immigrants arrived, some found that their dreams could be found. While, some found that America was more difficult as they thought. B. In the early colonial days of America, the migration of Europeans arrived on the shores of America. These people came from a various areas of Europe, yet there was distinct individuality about certain groups. This diverse immigrant population would add cultural variety to the United States population. It is apparent that these European groups who immigrated to America would shape the development of Colonial regionalisms known throughout the country. C. Four primary European groups immigrated to America within a span of less than two hundred years. Although they all migrated from the same European region, they each had a distinct set of standards and a set culture that they brought with them. Not only were the people of early America diverse, so were the motives for which

3 they migrated to America. D. Therefore, as life in the colonies progressed, certain regions of America developed distinct characteristics and each had its own unique niche. The contrasts between the different regions were involving European ethnic groups, crops, religion, and control. The distinct regions were New England colonies, the southern colonies and the middle colonies. III The New England Colonies These colonies include: A. Rhode Island B. Connecticut C. New Hampshire D. Massachusetts A New England Perspective The Reasons for settlement were: a. Many people were coming to America to escaping religious persecution b. These people sought religious freedom c. These people sought religious tolerance d. They were mostly Puritans

4 The geography a. Located in the cold northeast where the season could be harsh and extreme b. There was minimal is no faming. The economy was based on a. Trade fur, crops, lumber, fishing, whaling, livestock and rum Their social and cultural life a. Focused on religion God, Orderly, families, discipline, education, living a healthy lifestyle Summary a. These people were successful due to discipline, high morals, good climate, diverse economy Other Comments A. The founders of the New England colonies had an entirely different mission from other settlers. Although economic prosperity was still a goal of the New England settlers, their true goal was spiritual. Fed up with the ceremonial Church of England, Pilgrims and Puritans sought to recreate society in the manner they believed God truly intended it to be designed. B. The Pilgrims, called the Separatists in England because of their desire to separate from the Anglican Church, were persecuted by agents of the throne. C. The Puritans, so named for their desire to purify the Church of England, experienced the same degree of harassment. By the second and third decades of the 1600s, each group decided that England was no place to put their controversial beliefs into practice.

5 D. Where else but in America could such a golden opportunity be found? The land was unspoiled. Children could be raised without the corruption of old English religious ideas. The chance to create a perfect society was there for the taking. The English kings saw America a means to get rid of troublemakers. E. By 1620, the seeds for a new society, quite different from the one already established at, were planted deeply within the souls of a few brave pioneers. Their quest would form the basis of New England IV The Middle Colonies These colonies included A. New York B. Pennsylvania C. New Jersey D. Delaware A Middle Colony Perspective The Reasons for settlement: a. Expansion b. They sought to a grow their trade business c. They also sought religious freedom (Quakers) in some instances tolerance form the Puritans d.

6 The geography a. The land here consisted of some farm land and a milder climate. b. This allowed for subsistence farming to develop. c. There were natural harbors and cities for shipping soon developed. The Economy was based on a. Wheat, lumber, furs, sugar refinery, ship building, and farming. Their Social and Cultural life a. Very diverse, trade with Indians, many languages, religious tolerance Summary a. Very diverse (social, economic, religious), focused on personal freedoms Other Comments: B. Advantaged by their central location, the middle colonies served as important distribution centers in the English mercantile system. New York and Philadelphia grew at a fantastic rate. These cities gave rise to brilliant thinkers such as Benjamin Franklin, who earned respect on both sides of the Atlantic. In many ways, the middle colonies served as the crossroads of ideas during the colonial period. C. In contrast to the South where the cash crop plantation system dominated, and New England whose rocky soil made large-scale agriculture difficult, the middle colonies were fertile. Land was generally acquired more easily than in New England or in the plantation south. Wheat and corn from local farms would feed the American colonies through their colonial infancy and revolutionary adolescence.

7 D. The middle colonies represented exactly that a middle ground between its neighbors to the North and South. Elements of both New England towns and sprawling country estates could be found. Religious dissidents from all regions could settle in the relatively tolerant middle zone. Aspects of New England shipbuilding and lumbering and the large farms of the South could be found. Aptly named, they provided a perfect nucleus for English America V The Southern Colonies These colonies included A. Virginia B. Maryland C. North Carolina D. South Carolina E. Georgia A Southern Colony Perspective The Reasons for settlement: a. gold, religious freedom, farming, land expansion, new opportunities for debtors and debt protection b.

8 The geography a. These colonies were located in a warmer climate with rich soil for planting. b. Large farms and plantations soon grew. c. The problem is that fewer people owned large plots of land. d. The labor was intensive to maintain these farms and help had to be brought in The Economy was based on a. Tobacco, indigo, rice, livestock agriculture, shipping supplies Their Social and Cultural life a. Wide spread, remote communities, relatively unhealthy environment, religious freedom, education not a priority Summary a. Spread out, slow to develop, focused on farming, more individualistic Other comments: A. While Puritan zeal was fueling New England's mercantile development, and Penn's Quaker experiment was turning the middle colonies into America's bread basket, the South was turning to cash crops. Geography and motive rendered the development of these colonies distinct from those that lay to the North. B. Immediately to Virginia's north was Maryland. Begun as a Catholic experiment, the colony's economy would soon come to mirror that of Virginia, as tobacco became the most important crop. To the south lay the Carolinas, created after the English Civil War had been concluded. In the Deep South was Georgia, the last of the

9 original thirteen colonies. Challenges from Spain and France led the king to desire a buffer zone between the cash crops of the Carolinas and foreign enemies. Georgia, a colony of debtors, would fulfill that need. The Southern colonies included Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia. C. English American Southerners would not enjoy the generally good health of their New England counterparts. Outbreaks of malaria and yellow fever kept life expectancies lower. Since the northern colonies attracted religious dissenters, they tended to migrate in families. Such family connections were less prevalent in the South. D. The economy of growing cash crops would require a labor force that would be unknown north of Maryland. Slaves and indentured servants, although present in the North, were much more important to the South. They were the backbone of the Southern economy. E. Settlers in the Southern colonies came to America to seek economic prosperity they could not find in Old England. The English countryside provided a grand existence of stately manors and high living. But rural England was full, and by law those great estates could only be passed on to the eldest son. America provided more space to realize a lifestyle the new arrivals could never dream to achieve in their native land.

10 In Summary regarding the development of North-South economic differences: The colonies in North America differed in how they survived economically from the northern colonies to the southern colonies. This was mainly due to the climate differences, population, and the types of farming that the north and south had during the colonial era. The north was not completely dependent on farming especially because the farming land was so poor and rocky, so they had to find alternatives to flourish. These alternatives included things such as finding natural resources that did not require farming, such as fish, whales, certain types of trees and animal fur that could be traded for the food that they lacked to farm. In addition to all of this the north was known for all of its manufacturing which they would then sell and trade to Great Britain and to the south in exchange for the necessities that they did not have at the time. The south was the exact opposite of the north in terms of how they went about surviving economically. The south farmed on rich farm land which they were fortunate enough to live off at the time, so basically they continued with the Native American ways by living off of the land. The south flourished in the farming aspect of economics by farming things such as indigo, tobacco, cotton, and rice which they could then sell to the north, or trade to the north in exchange for the manufacturing that the north was doing at the time. The climate was also a huge factor in the way that the two economies developed, and climate was an advantage for the south, but a disadvantage to the north. As far as religion that means the New England colonies were more Congregational and the south was more Anglican, and both Rhode Island and Maryland encouraged freedom of religion.

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