# Chapter 9 Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Chapter 9 Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories 1. or a molecule with the formula AB 2 the molecular shape is. (a). linear or trigonal planar (b). linear or bent (c). linear or T-shaped (d). T-shaped Explanation: When answering questions like these always try to imagine a molecule that would fit the generic (AB 2 ) formula. In this case you could use the examples of C 2 or H 2. Thus in the case of C 2, the molecule would be linear since the central atom would not have any lone pairs while with water the shape would be bent due to the lone pairs on the central atom. 2. According to VSEPR theory, if there are five electron domains in the valence shell of an atom, they will be arranged in a(n) geometry. (a). octahedral (b). trigonal bipyramidal (c). tetrahedral (d). trigonal planar Explanation: The trigonal bipyramidal arrangement of electron domains would be the ideal one to minimize the repulsions involved. 3. The electron-domain geometry and molecular geometry of iodine trichloride are and respectively. (a). trigonal bipyramidal, trigonal planar (b). tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal (c). trigonal bipyramidal, T-shaped (d). octahedral, trigonal planar Explanation: The Lewis structure of I 3 shows that the two lone pairs occupy the equatorial positions in this trigonal bipyramidal electron domain geometry. The molecule itself is T-shaped. The lone pairs occupy equatorial positions and are 120 apart, experiencing the least amount of repulsions, compared to axial positions. I Copyright 2006 Dr. Harshavardhan D. Bapat 1

2 4. According to valence bond theory, which orbitals on bromine atoms overlap in the formation of the bond in Br 2? (a). 3s (b). 3p (c). 4s (d). 4p Explanation: According to the valence bond theory, orbital overlap between two atoms leads to a bond formation. The orbitals that overlap are usually the outermost valence orbitals. In Br atoms, the valence electrons are held in the 4s and 4p orbitals with the 4p being the outermost orbital. 5. The electron-domain geometry of a sulfur-centered compound is trigonal bipyramidal. The hybridization of the central sulfur atom is. (a). sp (b). sp 2 (c). sp 3 d (d). sp 3 Explanation: A trigonal bipyramidal electron domain geometry indicates that there are 5 electron domains available. These 5 electron domains can be made possible only if a sp 3 d set of hybrid orbitals is available on the central atom. 6. The hybridization of orbitals on the central atom in a molecule is sp. The electrondomain geometry around this central atom is. (a). octahedral (b). linear (c). trigonal planar (d). tetrahedral Explanation: The presence of sp hybrid orbitals indicates that the central atom can form only 2 bonds, making the electron domain geometry linear. 7. The hybridization of orbitals on the central atom in a molecule is sp 2. The electrondomain geometry about this central atom is. (a). tetrahedral (b). linear (c). trigonal planar (d). trigonal bipyramidal Copyright 2006 Dr. Harshavardhan D. Bapat 2

3 Explanation: The presence of the sp 2 hybrid orbitals on the central atom indicate that the electron domains can be arranged only in a trigonal planar geometry. 8. The hybridization of the carbon atom in carbon dioxide is. (a). sp (b). sp 2 (c). sp 3 (d). sp 3 d Explanation: The Lewis structure of the molecule shows that it is a linear molecule with no lone pairs on the central atom. As a result of this the central atom can have only sp hybrid orbitals on it. C 9. In order to produce sp 3 hybrid orbitals, s atomic orbital(s) and p atomic orbitals (s) must be mixed. (a). one, two (b). one, three (c). one, one (d). two, two Explanation: The sp 3 hybrid orbitals are formed by the combination of one s orbital and three p orbitals. This information can be deduced by adding the number of orbitals (one s + three p ) present in the name of the hybrid orbitals. 10. There are σ and π bonds in the H C C H molecule. (a). 3 and 2 (b). 3 and 4 (c). 4 and 3 (d). 2 and 3 Explanation: The single bonds between the C and H atoms are counted as sigma (σ) bonds while the triple bond between the 2 C atoms is made of one sigma and two pi (π) bonds. 11. There are σ and π bonds in the H 2C C CH 2 molecule. (a). 4, 2 (b). 6, 2 (c). 2, 2 (d). 2, 6 Copyright 2006 Dr. Harshavardhan D. Bapat 3

4 Explanation: Here the C atoms on the outside are each bonded to 2 H atoms by single bonds and then boded to the middle carbon with a single bond, making the total sigma bonds = 6. The number of pi bonds on the other hand is 2, bonding the middle C atom to the outside C atoms. 12. In counting the electron domains around the central atom in VSEPR theory, a is not included. (a). nonbonding pair of electrons (b). single covalent bond (c). core level electron pair (d). double covalent bond Explanation: According to the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory, it is the electrons that are in the valence (outermost) shell that contribute towards bonding. The core electrons do not participate in bonding at all. 13. The -C- bond angle in the C 3 2- ion is approximately. (a). 90 (b) (c). 180 (d). 120 o Explanation: The Lewis structure of the C 3 2- ion shows that the three atoms are arranged around the central C atom in a trigonal planar manner. Since the central C atom does not have any lone pairs the bond angles would not be affected and hence be exactly C 14. The -C- bond angle in the C 2 molecule (C is the central atom) is slightly. (a). greater than (b). less than (c). less than 120 (d). greater than 120 Explanation: The Lewis structure of the C 2 molecule shows that there is a double bond between the and the central C atom. A double bond represents a Copyright 2006 Dr. Harshavardhan D. Bapat 4

5 slightly larger electron domain which disrupts the ideal 120 -C- bond angle, making it smaller. C 15. The molecular geometry of the left-most carbon atom in the molecule below is. H C H H C (a). trigonal planar (b). tetrahedral (c). trigonal bipyramidal (d). octahedral H Explanation: When working with a molecule that has more than one central atom always concentrate on counting the number of electron domains around the particular central atom in question. Here the left most C atom has 4 electron domains around it and no lone pairs. As a result of this the geometry around it would be tetrahedral. 16. The molecular geometry of the right-most carbon in the molecule below is. H H C C H (a). T-shaped (b). trigonal planar (c). tetrahedral (d). octahedral H Explanation: When working with a molecule that has more than one central atom always concentrate on counting the number of electron domains around the particular central atom in question. Here the right most C atom has 3 electron domains around it and no lone pairs. As a result of this the geometry around it would be trigonal planar. Copyright 2006 Dr. Harshavardhan D. Bapat 5

6 17. An electron domain consists of (a). a nonbonding pair of electrons (b). a single bond (c). a multiple bond (a). a and b only (b). b and c only (c). a and c only (d). a, b, and c Explanation: Electron domains are regions where valence electrons are most likely to be present. These electrons may be present as a non-bonding pair or a bonding pair of electrons. 18. According to VSEPR theory, if there are three electron domains on a central atom, they will be arranged such that the angles between the domains are. (a). 90 (b). 180 (c) (d). 120 Explanation: According to the VSEPR theory the best arrangement of a given number of electron domains is the one that minimizes the repulsions between the pairs. Thus for 3 electron domains the best arrangement will be the one with angles of According to VSEPR theory, if there are four electron domains on a central atom, they will be arranged such that the angles between the domains are. (a). 120 (b) (c). 180 (d). 90 Explanation: According to the VSEPR theory the best arrangement of a given number of electron domains is the one that minimizes the repulsions between the pairs. Thus for 4 electron domains the best arrangement will be the one with angles of Copyright 2006 Dr. Harshavardhan D. Bapat 6

7 20. The electron-domain geometry and the molecular geometry of a molecule of the general formula AB n are. (a). never the same (b). always the same (c). sometimes the same (d). not related to each other Explanation: The electron domain geometry of a molecule describes the arrangement of the electron domains in the molecule while the molecular geometry describes the arrangement of the actual atoms in the molecule. The presence of non-bonding electron pairs can affect the molecular geometry making it different than the electron domain geometry. 21. The electron-domain geometry and the molecular geometry of a molecule of the general formula AB n will always be the same if. (a). there are no lone pairs on the central atom (b). there is more than one central atom (c). n is greater than four (d). the octet rule is obeyed Explanation: The presence of lone pairs on the central atom can alter the electron domain geometry of the molecule. The two geometries can be the same only if there are no lone pairs present on the central atom. 22. or molecules of the general formula AB n, n can be greater than four. (a). for any element A (b). only when A is boron or beryllium (c). only when A is an element from the third period or below the third period (d). only when A is Kr Explanation: The value of n can be greater than 4 only the element A is from the third or higher period of the periodic table. Elements from these periods can have more than 8 electrons around their atoms (have expanded octets). 23. f the molecules below, only is polar. (a). C 4 (b). CH 4 (c). Si 4 (d). Se 4 Explanation: The polarity of a molecule is closely related to its electron domain and molecular geometries. Both the electron domain and molecular geometries of C 4, Copyright 2006 Dr. Harshavardhan D. Bapat 7

8 CH 4 and Si 4 are tetrahedral. The molecular geometry of Se 4 is see-saw while the electron-domain geometry is trigonal bipyramidal due to a lone pair on the central Se atom. As a result of the lone pair on the central atom, this molecule becomes polar. 24. f the molecules below, which one is nonpolar? Se (a). B 3 (b). N 3 (c). I 3 (d). PBr 3 Explanation: With the exception of the B 3 molecule all the other molecules will have one or more lone pairs on the central atom. As a result of the lone pair(s) the molecule will then be polar. In B 3 the polar B- bonds will cancel each other, making the molecule non-polar. 25. Three sulfur fluorides are observed: S 2, S 4, and S 6. f these, is/are polar. (a). S 2 only (b). S 2 and S 4 only (c). S 4 only (d). S 6 only Explanation: The polarity of a molecule is closely related to its electron domain and molecular geometries. Here, S 6 has an octahedral geometry and does not have any electrons on the central S atom. As a result of this the polar S- bonds cancel each other s pulls. In both the other fluorides, the central S atom has lone pairs on it making them polar molecules. 26. The molecular geometry of the Be 2 molecule is, and this molecule is. (a). linear, nonpolar (b). linear, polar (c). bent, nonpolar (d). bent, polar Explanation: The polarity of a molecule is closely related to its electron domain and molecular geometries. The Lewis structure of this molecule clearly shows that the Copyright 2006 Dr. Harshavardhan D. Bapat 8

9 molecule is linear and since the central Be atom does not have any lone pairs on it, the polar Be- bonds will negate each other making it a non-polar molecule. Be 27. or molecules with only one central atom, how many lone pairs on the central atom guarantees molecular polarity? (a). 1 (b). 2 (c). 1 or 2 (d). Any number greater than 1. Explanation: The polarity of a molecule is closely related to its electron domain and molecular geometries. The presence of one lone pair of electrons on the central atom makes the molecule polar, even if other bonds in the molecule may cancel each other. 28. According to valence bond theory, which orbitals overlap in the formation of the bond in HBr? (a). 1s on H and 4s on Br (b). 1s on H and 4p on Br (c). 1s on H and 3p on Br (d). 2s on H and 4p on Br Explanation: According to the valence bond theory bonds are formed due to overlaps between valence orbitals. In the case of the HBr molecule the valence electrons are contained in the 1s orbital for H and in the 4p orbital for the Br. The 4s orbital is full and does not have any room. 29. The combination of two atomic orbitals results in the formation of molecular orbitals. (a). 1 (b). 2 (c). 3 (d). 0 Explanation: The combination of two atomic orbitals always leads to the formation of a bonding and an antibonding molecular orbital. Copyright 2006 Dr. Harshavardhan D. Bapat 9

10 30. The sp 3 d 2 atomic hybrid orbital set accommodates electron domains. (a). 2 (b). 3 (c). 6 (d). 5 Explanation: The number of electron domains indicated by a set of hybrid orbitals can be easily found by adding the number of atomic orbitals present in the set. Here we have one s + three p + two d (= 6) orbitals present making 6 electron domains available. 31. The sp 2 atomic hybrid orbital set accommodates electron domains. (a). 2 (b). 3 (c). 4 (d). 5 Explanation: The number of electron domains indicated by a set of hybrid orbitals can be easily found by adding the number of atomic orbitals present in the set. Here we have one s + two p (= 3) orbitals present making 3 electron domains available. 32. The hybridization of iodine in I 3 and I 5 are and, respectively. (a). sp 3, sp 3 d (b). sp 3 d, sp 3 d 2 (c). sp 3 d, sp 3 (d). sp 3 d 2, sp 3 d Explanation: The Lewis structures of these molecules indicate that I 3 will have a trigonal bipyramidal electron-domain geometry while I 5 will have an octahedral geometry. To be able to have these geometries the molecules will need the hybrid orbitals to accommodate the electron domains. I I Copyright 2006 Dr. Harshavardhan D. Bapat 10

11 33. The hybridizations of bromine in Br 5 and of arsenic in As 5 are and, respectively. (a). sp 3, sp 3 d (b). sp 3 d, sp 3 d 2 (c). sp 3 d, sp 3 (d). sp 3 d 2, sp 3 d Explanation: The Lewis structures of these molecules indicate that the Br 5 will have an octahedral electron-domain geometry where as the As 5 will have trigonal bipyramidal geometry. The central Br atom will thus need 6 electron domains to accommodate the 5 Br- bonds and the lone pair. The central As atom on the other hand will need only 5 electron domains to bond with the 5 atoms. Br As Consider the following species when answering questions 34 and 35: (i) P 3 (ii) C 4 (iii) Te 4 (iv) Xe 4 (v) S In which of the molecules does the central atom utilize d orbitals to form hybrid orbitals? (a). (i) and (ii) (b). (iii) only (c). (i) and (v) (d). (iii), (iv), and (v) Explanation: Molecules with central atoms from the third period and beyond can have an expanded octet; meaning more than 4 pairs of electrons around them. To do this the atoms use their empty d orbitals. f all the species here, only Te, Xe and S fit this requirement and hence will utilize the d orbitals to form hybrid molecular orbitals. Copyright 2006 Dr. Harshavardhan D. Bapat 11

12 35. Which of the molecules has a see-saw shape? (a). (i) only (b). (ii) only (c). (iii) only (d). (iv) only Explanation: The Lewis structures of the species involved clearly show that only the Te 4 will have a see-saw shape. P C Xe S Copyright 2006 Dr. Harshavardhan D. Bapat 12

### Chapter 10 Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory

Chem 1: Chapter 10 Page 1 Chapter 10 Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory I) VSEPR Model Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion Model A) Model predicts Predicts electron arrangement and molecular

### Name: Class: Date: 3) The bond angles marked a, b, and c in the molecule below are about,, and, respectively.

Name: Class: Date: Unit 9 Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The basis of the VSEPR model of molecular bonding is. A) regions of

### Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory

Chapter 10 Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory Concept Check 10.1 An atom in a molecule is surrounded by four pairs of electrons, one lone pair and three bonding pairs. Describe how the four

### Chapter 9. Chemical reactivity of molecules depends on the nature of the bonds between the atoms as well on its 3D structure

Chapter 9 Molecular Geometry & Bonding Theories I) Molecular Geometry (Shapes) Chemical reactivity of molecules depends on the nature of the bonds between the atoms as well on its 3D structure Molecular

### Vocabulary: VSEPR. 3 domains on central atom. 2 domains on central atom. 3 domains on central atom NOTE: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

Vocabulary: VSEPR Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory domain = any electron pair, or any double or triple bond is considered one domain. lone pair = non-bonding pair = unshared pair = any electron

### Chapter10 Tro. 4. Based on the Lewis structure, the number of electron domains in the valence shell of the CO molecule is A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 5

Chapter10 Tro 1. All of the geometries listed below are examples of the five basic geometries for molecules with more than 3 atoms except A) planar triangular B) octahedral C) tetrahedral D) trihedral

### SHAPES OF MOLECULES (VSEPR MODEL)

1 SAPES MLEULES (VSEPR MDEL) Valence Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion model - Electron pairs surrounding atom spread out as to minimize repulsion. - Electron pairs can be bonding pairs (including multiple

### The Lewis electron dot structures below indicate the valence electrons for elements in Groups 1-2 and Groups 13-18

AP EMISTRY APTER REVIEW APTER 7: VALENT BNDING You should understand the nature of the covalent bond. You should be able to draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for any atom, molecule, or polyatomic ion.

### EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules

EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules INTRODUCTION Lewis dot structures are our first tier in drawing molecules and representing bonds between the atoms. The method was first published

### Chemistry 105, Chapter 7 Exercises

hemistry 15, hapter 7 Exercises Types of Bonds 1. Using the periodic table classify the bonds in the following compounds as ionic or covalent. If covalent, classify the bond as polar or not. Mg2 4 i2 a(3)2

### VSEPR Model. The Valence-Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Model. Predicting Molecular Geometry

VSEPR Model The structure around a given atom is determined principally by minimizing electron pair repulsions. The Valence-Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Model The valence-shell electron pair repulsion

### Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key

Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key 1) Nitrogen is the central atom in each of the following species: N2 N2 - N2 + Nitrogen can also form electron deficient compounds with a single unpaired electron on the

### EXPERIMENT 17 : Lewis Dot Structure / VSEPR Theory

EXPERIMENT 17 : Lewis Dot Structure / VSEPR Theory Materials: Molecular Model Kit INTRODUCTION Although it has recently become possible to image molecules and even atoms using a high-resolution microscope,

### 2. Atoms with very similar electronegativity values are expected to form

AP hemistry Practice Test #6 hapter 8 and 9 1. Which of the following statements is incorrect? a. Ionic bonding results from the transfer of electrons from one atom to another. b. Dipole moments result

### Chapter 12 Review 1: Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure

Chapter 12 Review 1: Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure 1) How are ionic bonds and covalent bonds different, and what types of elements combine to form each? Ionic bonds result from the transfer of

### EXPERIMENT 14: COMPARISONS OF THE SHAPES OF MOLECULES AND IONS USING MODELS

EXPERIMENT 14: CMPARISNS F TE SAPES F MLECULES AND INS USING MDELS PURPSE Models of various molecules and ions will be constructed and their shapes and geometries will be compared. BACKGRUND LEWIS STRUCTURES

### COVALENT BONDING. [MH5; Chapter 7]

COVALENT BONDING [MH5; Chapter 7] Covalent bonds occur when electrons are equally shared between two atoms. The electrons are not always equally shared by both atoms; these bonds are said to be polar covalent.

### CHAPTER 10 THE SHAPES OF MOLECULES

ATER 10 TE AE MLEULE 10.1 To be the central atom in a compound, the atom must be able to simultaneously bond to at least two other atoms. e,, and cannot serve as central atoms in a Lewis structure. elium

### Geometries and Valence Bond Theory Worksheet

Geometries and Valence Bond Theory Worksheet Also do Chapter 10 textbook problems: 33, 35, 47, 49, 51, 55, 57, 61, 63, 67, 83, 87. 1. Fill in the tables below for each of the species shown. a) CCl 2 2

### ch9 and 10 practice test

1. Which of the following covalent bonds is the most polar (highest percent ionic character)? A. Al I B. Si I C. Al Cl D. Si Cl E. Si P 2. What is the hybridization of the central atom in ClO 3? A. sp

### Unit 28 Molecular Geometry

Unit 28 Molecular Geometry There are two concepts in the study of molecular geometry. One is called the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) model. The other is electron orbital hybridization.

### 7.14 Linear triatomic: A-----B-----C. Bond angles = 180 degrees. Trigonal planar: Bond angles = 120 degrees. B < B A B = 120

APTER SEVEN Molecular Geometry 7.13 Molecular geometry may be defined as the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule. The study of molecular geometry is important in that a molecule s geometry

### Valence Bond Theory - Description

Bonding and Molecular Structure - PART 2 - Valence Bond Theory and Hybridization 1. Understand and be able to describe the Valence Bond Theory description of covalent bond formation. 2. Understand and

### Chemistry Workbook 2: Problems For Exam 2

Chem 1A Dr. White Updated /5/1 1 Chemistry Workbook 2: Problems For Exam 2 Section 2-1: Covalent Bonding 1. On a potential energy diagram, the most stable state has the highest/lowest potential energy.

### Chapter 9-10 practice test

Class: Date: Chapter 9-10 practice test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which one of the following is most likely to be an ionic compound?

### Covalent Bonding And Molecular Geometry

ovalent Bonding And Molecular Geometry Questions: 1.ow can the valence electrons of an atom be represented? 2.ow do atoms achieve an octet? 3.ow are electrons shared in a molecule? 4.ow can the geometries

### Covalent Bonding & Molecular Compounds Multiple Choice Review PSI Chemistry

Covalent Bonding & Molecular Compounds Multiple Choice Review PSI Chemistry Name 1) Which pair of elements is most apt to form a molecular compound with each other? A) aluminum, oxygen B) magnesium, iodine

### PREDICTING MOLECULAR SHAPE AND POLARITY USING VSEPR THEORY

EXPERIMENT 2 PREDICTING MOLECULAR SHAPE AND POLARITY USING VSEPR THEORY Materials Needed Molecular model kit. Textbook Reading Smith, chapter 3.10-3.12 Background In this lab, you will practice your understanding

### Structures and Properties of Substances. Introducing Valence-Shell Electron- Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory

Structures and Properties of Substances Introducing Valence-Shell Electron- Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory The VSEPR theory In 1957, the chemist Ronald Gillespie and Ronald Nyholm, developed a model for

### Bonding Models. Bonding Models (Lewis) Bonding Models (Lewis) Resonance Structures. Section 2 (Chapter 3, M&T) Chemical Bonding

Bonding Models Section (Chapter, M&T) Chemical Bonding We will look at three models of bonding: Lewis model Valence Bond model M theory Bonding Models (Lewis) Bonding Models (Lewis) Lewis model of bonding

### Chapter 7. Comparing Ionic and Covalent Bonds. Ionic Bonds. Types of Bonds. Quick Review of Bond Types. Covalent Bonds

Comparing Ionic and Covalent Bonds Chapter 7 Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure Intermolecular forces (much weaker than bonds) must be broken Ionic bonds must be broken 1 Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds

### Chem 121 Problem Set V Lewis Structures, VSEPR and Polarity

hemistry 121 Problem set V olutions - 1 hem 121 Problem et V Lewis tructures, VEPR and Polarity AWER 1. pecies Elecronegativity difference in bond Bond Polarity Mp 3 E = 3.0-3.0 = 0 for - very weakly polar

### 5. Which of the following is the correct Lewis structure for SOCl 2

Unit C Practice Problems Chapter 8 1. Draw the lewis structures for the following molecules: a. BeF 2 b. SO 3 c. CNS 1- d. NO 2. The correct Lewis symbol for ground state carbon is a) b) c) d) e) 3. Which

### : : Solutions to Additional Bonding Problems

Solutions to Additional Bonding Problems 1 1. For the following examples, the valence electron count is placed in parentheses after the empirical formula and only the resonance structures that satisfy

### Lab Manual Supplement

Objectives 1. Learn about the structures of covalent compounds and polyatomic ions. 2. Draw Lewis structures based on valence electrons and the octet rule. 3. Construct 3-dimensional models of molecules

### CHAPTER 10 THE SHAPES OF MOLECULES

ATER 10 TE AE MLEULE EMIAL ETI BED READIG RBLEM B10.1 lan: Examine the Lewis structure, noting the number of regions of electron density around the carbon and nitrogen atoms in the two resonance structures.

### C has 4 valence electrons, O has six electrons. The total number of electrons is 4 + 2(6) = 16.

129 Lewis Structures G. N. Lewis hypothesized that electron pair bonds between unlike elements in the second (and sometimes the third) row occurred in a way that electrons were shared such that each element

### Unit 8: Drawing Molecules

Unit 8: Drawing Molecules bjectives Topic 1: Lewis Dot Diagrams & Ionic Bonding 1. Draw a Lewis dot diagram of any representative element. 2. Draw a Lewis dot diagram of any ionic compound. A Lewis structure

### Molecular Geometry and VSEPR We gratefully acknowledge Portland Community College for the use of this experiment.

Molecular and VSEPR We gratefully acknowledge Portland ommunity ollege for the use of this experiment. Objectives To construct molecular models for covalently bonded atoms in molecules and polyatomic ions

### CHEM 1211K Test IV. MULTIPLE CHOICE (3 points each)

CEM 1211K Test IV MULTIPLE COICE (3 points each) 1) ow many single covalent bonds must a silicon atom form to have a complete octet in its valence shell? A) 4 B) 3 C) 1 D) 2 E) 0 2) What is the maximum

### Chemical Bonding: Covalent Systems Written by Rebecca Sunderman, Ph.D Week 1, Winter 2012, Matter & Motion

Chemical Bonding: Covalent Systems Written by Rebecca Sunderman, Ph.D Week 1, Winter 2012, Matter & Motion A covalent bond is a bond formed due to a sharing of electrons. Lewis structures provide a description

### ACE PRACTICE TEST Chapter 8, Quiz 3

ACE PRACTICE TEST Chapter 8, Quiz 3 1. Using bond energies, calculate the heat in kj for the following reaction: CH 4 + 4 F 2 CF 4 + 4 HF. Use the following bond energies: CH = 414 kj/mol, F 2 = 155 kj/mol,

### Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures

Introduction Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures Molecular compounds are formed by sharing electrons between non-metal atoms. A useful theory for understanding the formation of molecular

### CHAPTER 10 THE SHAPES OF MOLECULES

ATER 10 TE AE MLEULE 10.1 To be the central atom in a compound, the atom must be able to simultaneously bond to at least two other atoms. e,, and cannot serve as central atoms in a Lewis structure. elium

### Covalent Bonding and Molecular Geometry

Name Section # Date of Experiment Covalent Bonding and Molecular Geometry When atoms combine to form molecules (this also includes complex ions) by forming covalent bonds, the relative positions of the

### Valence Bond Theory: Hybridization

Exercise 13 Page 1 Illinois Central College CEMISTRY 130 Laboratory Section: Valence Bond Theory: ybridization Name: Objectives To illustrate the distribution of electrons and rearrangement of orbitals

### CHAPTER 9 COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS. Questions

APTER 9 VALET BDIG: RBITALS Questions 9. In hybrid orbital theory, some or all of the valence atomic orbitals of the central atom in a molecule are mixed together to form hybrid orbitals; these hybrid

### Question 4.2: Write Lewis dot symbols for atoms of the following elements: Mg, Na, B, O, N, Br.

Question 4.1: Explain the formation of a chemical bond. A chemical bond is defined as an attractive force that holds the constituents (atoms, ions etc.) together in a chemical species. Various theories

### Hybrid Atomic Orbitals

Hybrid Atomic Orbitals These materials were adapted from Prof. George Bodner, Purdue University (http:// chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch8/hybrid.html#geom; excerpted 08/25/2011). This

### Theme 3: Bonding and Molecular Structure. (Chapter 8)

Theme 3: Bonding and Molecular Structure. (Chapter 8) End of Chapter questions: 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, 18, 23, 27, 28, 32, 33, 39, 43, 46, 67, 77 Chemical reaction valence electrons of atoms rearranged (lost,

### 5. Which of the following subatomic particles are most important in determining the chemical reactivity and physical properties of an atom?

1. For the following compounds draw the Lewis Structure and determine: (a) The # of Bonding Pairs (b) The # of Lone pairs (c) The electron domain shape (d) The molecular shape (e) Hybridization (f) Whether

### Exercises Topic 2: Molecules

hemistry for Biomedical Engineering. Exercises Topic 2 Authors: ors: Juan Baselga & María González Exercises Topic 2: Molecules 1. Using hybridization concepts and VSEPR model describe the molecular geometry

### Molecular Structures. Chapter 9 Molecular Structures. Using Molecular Models. Using Molecular Models. C 2 H 6 O structural isomers: .. H C C O..

John W. Moore onrad L. Stanitski Peter. Jurs http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/moore hapter 9 Molecular Structures Stephen. oster Mississippi State University Molecular Structures 2 6 structural isomers:

### Molecular Models: Lewis Structure and VSEPR Theory

Minneapolis Community & Technical College Chemistry Department Chem 1020 Laboratory Molecular Models: Lewis Structure and VSEPR Theory bjectives To determine the Lewis structure for a molecule To determine

### 5. Structure, Geometry, and Polarity of Molecules

5. Structure, Geometry, and Polarity of Molecules What you will accomplish in this experiment This experiment will give you an opportunity to draw Lewis structures of covalent compounds, then use those

### Ch a p t e r s 8 a n d 9

Ch a p t e r s 8 a n d 9 Covalent Bonding and Molecular Structures Objectives You will be able to: 1. Write a description of the formation of the covalent bond between two hydrogen atoms to form a hydrogen

### UNIT TEST Atomic & Molecular Structure. Name: Date:

SCH4U UNIT TEST Atomic & Molecular Structure Name: _ Date: Part A - Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Who postulated that electrons

### A pure covalent bond is an equal sharing of shared electron pair(s) in a bond. A polar covalent bond is an unequal sharing.

CHAPTER EIGHT BNDING: GENERAL CNCEPT or Review 1. Electronegativity is the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself. Electronegativity is a bonding term. Electron affinity is the

### Chapter 3 Molecular Shape and Structure

Key oncepts hapter 3 Molecular Shape and Structure The VSEPR Model (Sections 3.1 3.3) molecular formula, structural formula, space-filling model, ball-and-stick model, bond angle, valence-shell electron-pair

### AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts 8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds A. Ionic Bonding 1. Electrons are transferred 2. Metals react with nonmetals 3. Ions paired have lower energy

VSEPR Theory, Valence Bond Theory, Characteristic of Covalent Compounds. VSEPR theory was proposed by Gillespie and Nyholm to explain the shapes of molecules and ions.. The orbital which contains the bonded

### 4.2. Molecular Shape and Polarity. Lewis Structures for Molecules and Polyatomic Ions

Molecular Shape and Polarity 4.2 molecule is a discrete chemical entity, in which atoms are held together by the electrostatic attractions of covalent bonds. In previous chemistry courses, you used Lewis

### Inorganic Chemistry with Doc M. Day 3. Covalent bonding: Lewis dot structures and Molecular Shape.

Inorganic Chemistry with Doc M. Day 3. Covalent bonding: Lewis dot structures and Molecular Shape. Topics: 1. Covalent bonding, Lewis dot structures in review, formal charges 2. VSEPR 6. Resonance 3. Expanded

### The Lewis structure is a model that gives a description of where the atoms, charges, bonds, and lone pairs of electrons, may be found.

CEM110 Week 12 Notes (Chemical Bonding) Page 1 of 8 To help understand molecules (or radicals or ions), VSEPR shapes, and properties (such as polarity and bond length), we will draw the Lewis (or electron

### Molecular Geometry. How can molecular shapes be predicted using the VSEPR theory? H 2. CO 3 electron domains (3 bonding, 0 nonbonding)

Why? Molecular Geometry How can molecular shapes be predicted using the VSEPR theory? When you draw a Lewis structure for a molecule on paper, you are making a two-dimensional representation of the atoms.

### Principal energy levels are divided into sublevels following a distinctive pattern, shown in Table 5.1 below.

56 Chapter 5: Electron Configuration, Lewis Dot Structure, and Molecular Shape Electron configuration. The outermost electrons surrounding an atom (the valence electrons) are responsible for the number

### 10. Geometry Hybridization Unhybridized p atomic orbitals

APTER 14 VALET BDIG: RBITALS The Localized Electron Model and ybrid rbitals 9. The valence orbitals of the nonmetals are the s and p orbitals. The lobes of the p orbitals are 90E and 180E apart from each

### Hybrid Molecular Orbitals

Hybrid Molecular Orbitals Last time you learned how to construct molecule orbital diagrams for simple molecules based on the symmetry of the atomic orbitals. Molecular orbitals extend over the entire molecule

### Polarity. Andy Schweitzer

Polarity Andy Schweitzer What does it mean to be polar? A molecule is polar if it contains + and somewhere in the molecule. Remember: Protons can not move. So for a molecule to get a +/- it must somehow

### What Are the Shapes of Molecules?

Lab 7 Name What Are the Shapes of Molecules? Pre-Lab Assignment Read the entire lab handout. There is no written pre-lab assignment for this lab. Learning Goals Derive the Lewis structure of a covalent

### Self Assessment_Ochem I

UTID: 2013 Objective Test Section Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. There is only one correct answer; please carefully bubble your choice on the scantron sheet.

### Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories

9 Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories We saw in hapter 8 that Lewis structures help us understand the compositions of molecules and their covalent bonds. owever, Lewis structures do not show one of

### CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16. Covalent Bonding

CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16 Covalent Bonding Goals : To gain an understanding of : NOTES: 1. Valence electron and electron dot notation. 2. Stable electron configurations. 3. Covalent bonding. 4. Polarity

### EXAM 4 CH (Blackstock) November 30, 2006

EXAM 4 CH101.004 (Blackstock) November 30, 2006 Student name (print): honor pledge: 1. Which of these choices is the general electron configuration for the outermost electrons of elements in the alkaline

### Assignment 7 and Practice Third Exam Solutions

Assignment 7 and Practice Third Exam Solutions 1. Draw the structures of the following molecules, and don t forget their lone pairs! (a) thiocyanide anion, SC Isoelectronic analogies: S is like, and is

### Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms

Chapter 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 1 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties design of periodic table is based on observing properties

### A REVIEW OF GENERAL CHEMISTRY: ELECTRONS, BONDS AND MOLECULAR PROPERTIES

A REVIEW OF GENERAL CEMISTRY: ELECTRONS, BONDS AND MOLECULAR PROPERTIES A STUDENT SOULD BE ABLE TO: 1. Draw Lewis (electron dot and line) structural formulas for simple compounds and ions from molecular

### Health Science Chemistry I CHEM-1180 Experiment No. 15 Molecular Models (Revised 05/22/2015)

(Revised 05/22/2015) Introduction In the early 1900s, the chemist G. N. Lewis proposed that bonds between atoms consist of two electrons apiece and that most atoms are able to accommodate eight electrons

### 3) Of the following, radiation has the shortest wavelength. A) X-ray B) radio C) microwave D) ultraviolet E) infrared Answer: A

1) Which one of the following is correct? A) ν + λ = c B) ν λ = c C) ν = cλ D) λ = c ν E) νλ = c Answer: E 2) The wavelength of light emitted from a traffic light having a frequency of 5.75 1014 Hz is.

### Molecular Geometry and Hybrid Orbitals. Molecular Geometry

Molecular Geometry and ybrid Orbitals + -- bond angle 90 o Molecular Geometry Why Should I are bout Molecular Geometry? Molecular geometry (shape) influences... 3 Physical properties: 3 3 3 3 3 Pentane

Copyright 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved. Chemistry Chemical bonding, molecular structure and Gases Blizzard Bag 2014-2015 1. Which of the following is a unit of pressure? A. newton-meters per second

### Ch. 9 Review Packet Answers - 1. Chapter 9 Review Packet

Ch. 9 Review Packet Answers - 1 Chapter 9 Review Packet 1. The hybridization of the central nitrogen of N O is: a) not hybridized. b) sp c) sp d) sp 3 e) dsp 3. The hybridization of the central atom, sulfur,

### 3.4 Covalent Bonds and Lewis Structures

3.4 Covalent Bonds and Lewis Structures The Lewis Model of Chemical Bonding In 1916 G. N. Lewis proposed that atoms combine in order to achieve a more stable electron configuration. Maximum stability results

### Molecular Geometry and Molecular Models

Experiment 10 Molecular Geometry and Molecular Models molecular geomometry background.wpd INTENT The purpose of this experiment is to introduce to you some of the basic theories and techniques used by

### CH101/105, GENERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY

CH101/105, GENERAL CHEMITRY LABORATORY LABORATORY LECTURE 5 EXPERIMENT 5: LEWI TRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR HAPE Lecture topics I. LEWI TRUCTURE a) calculation of the valence electron numbers; b) choosing the

### Background: Electron Dot Formula Basics

Background: Electron Dot Formula Basics 1. What do the dots in an electron dot formula represent? 2. Describe the pattern of electron dot formulas as you move from left to right in a period of the Periodic

### Chapter 9 - Covalent Bonding: Orbitals

Chapter 9 - Covalent Bonding: Orbitals 9.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model A. Hybridization 1. The mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new

### CHEM 1301 SECOND TEST REVIEW. Covalent bonds are sharing of electrons (ALWAYS valence electrons). Use Lewis structures to show this sharing.

CEM 1301 SECOND TEST REVIEW Lewis Structures Covalent bonds are sharing of electrons (ALWAYS valence electrons). Use Lewis structures to show this sharing. Rules OCTET RULE an atom would like to have 8

### Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding 1. There are paired and unpaired electrons in the Lewis symbol for a phosphorus atom. (a). 4, 2 (b). 2, 4 (c). 4, 3 (d). 2, 3 Explanation: Read the question

### CHAPTER TWENTY THE REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTS: GROUPS 5A THROUGH 8A

CHAPTER TWENTY THE REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTS: GRUPS 5A THRUGH 8A or Review 1. Group 5A: ns 2 np 3 ; As with groups IIIA and IVA, metallic character increases going down a group. Nitrogen is strictly a nonmetal

### Chapter 5 Chemical Compounds. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop

Chapter 5 Chemical Compounds An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures Element: A substance that cannot be chemically converted into simpler substances;

### 3.091 Fall Term 2002 Homework #4 Solutions

3.091 all Term 2002 omework #4 olutions 5-5. We imply that sodium is a better electron donor than lithium. Evidence for this can be found in the lower value of AVEE which for these two elements is equivalent

### Lewis Dot Structure of Hydrogen Fluoride.

Lewis Dot Structure of Hydrogen Fluoride. Drawing Lewis Structures Sum the valence electrons from all atoms in the species. Write the atomic symbols for the atoms involved so as to show which atoms are

### Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding

Selected Honour Chemistry Assignment Answers pg. 9 Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding Chapter 7: The Electronic Structure of Atoms (pg. 240 to 241) 48. The shape of an s-orbital is

### Exam. Name. 1) Chlorine (atomic number = 17) has the electronic configuration:. E) 1s22s22d103s2

Exam Name 1) Chlorine (atomic number = 17) has the electronic configuration:. A) 1s22s22p62d63s1 B) 1s22s22p63s23d5 C) 1s22s22p62d53s2 D) 1s22s22p63s23p5 E) 1s22s22d103s2 2) The complete electron configuration

### Chapter 8: Covalent Bonding and Molecular Structure

hapter 8 ovalent Bonding and Molecular Structure 8-1 hapter 8: ovalent Bonding and Molecular Structure hapter 8 8.1 Interactions Between Particles: oulomb s Law 8.2 ovalent Bonding Basics 8.3 Lewis Structures

### Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding. Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II Molecular Geometry & Intermolecular Forces

onour Chemistry Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II Molecular Geometry & Intermolecular orces 10.1: Molecular Geometry Molecular Structure: - the three-dimensional