Weather Vocabulary. Weather- The condition of the atmosphere at a certain time and place.

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1 Weather Vocabulary Weather- The condition of the atmosphere at a certain time and place. Meteorologist-A scientist who studies weather Weather maps- a map or chart showing the meteorological conditions, or predictions of conditions, over a specific geographic area at a specific time. Climate- The average weather conditions in a certain area over a long period of time Density-The ratio or relationship of mass to volume Condensation-The process by which a gas, such as water vapor, becomces a liquid Precipitation-Water, in a solid or liquid form, that falls from the air to Earth Evaporation-The change from and liquid phase of matter, such as water, to a gas Transpiration- The process by which living organisms release water vapor into the atmosphere Coriolis Effect- changes the intended path of a moving body caused by the rotation of the Earth on its axis. Ex: Hurricanes and Ocean Currents Temperature- A measure of how hot/cold something is based on the average kinetic energy of the particles of matter in an object Psychrometer- instrument used to measure relative humidity Global Warming-The increase of the Earth's global temperatures each year Water Cycle-The movement of water through the atmosphere, the ground, bodies of water and living things; the continuous movement of water above, on and below the Earths surface Hurricane- a storm that forms over warm, tropical ocean waters and whose strong winds of more than 120 km/h spiral in toward the intensely low-pressure storm center Ground water- Water that collects in or on the Earth's surface such at oceans, lakes, rivers, aquifers, streams, etc. Run off- Water that flows into bodies of water

2 Ocean Vocabulary: Continental Deflection- when surface currents meet a continent and changes direction Ocean current- masses of ocean water that flow from one place to another as a result of prevailing winds and the earth's rotation. Surface current- A streamlike movement of ocean water that occurs at or near the surface of the ocean Deep current- A streamlike movement of ocean water far below the surface of the ocean Ocean Gyre-A gyre in oceanography is any large system of rotating ocean currents, particularly those involved with large wind movements. Gyres are caused by the Coriolis Effect. El Nino-A major warming of the equatorial waters in the Pacific Ocean that usually occur every 2-7 years causing shifts in normal weather patterns La Nina-The periodic cooling of the equatorial waters in the Pacific Ocean that usually occurs every 2-7 years causing shifts in normal weather patterns Tides- The regular rise and fall of the oceans caused by the gravitational pull of the Earth, moon and sun AIR MASS Vocabulary: Air mass- A large body of air that has similar temperature, humidity and air pressure throughout. Tropical air mass- A warm air mass that forms in the tropics (near the equator) and has low pressure. Air becomes warm as it gains energy from the warm land or water. Maritime air mass- (MAR-ih-TYM) air masses form over water. Air becomes moist as it gains water vapor from the water below it. Polar air mass- A cold air mass that forms in the poles (above 50ºN and below 50ºS) and has high pressure. Air becomes cool as it loses energy to the cold land or water. Arctic and Antarctic air masses- A cold air mass in which qualities of arctic air are developed over ice and snow-covered ground in northern Canada and Antarctica. Arctic air is deeply cold, colder than polar air masses.

3 Continental air mass- form over land. Air becomes dry as it loses its moisture to the dry land below it. Maritime Tropical (mt)- Wet, hot air masses - Usually brings summer showers and thunderstorms in the eastern United States. In winter, it brings heavy rain or snow. The first word of an air mass s category name tells whether the air mass formed over water or dry land. It describes the moisture of the air mass. The second word of a category name tells whether an air mass formed close to the equator. It describes the air mass s temperature. Maritime Polar (mp)- Wet, cold air masses. These affect the west coast more than the east. They bring fog, rain and cool temperature. The first word of an air mass s category name tells whether the air mass formed over water or dry land. It describes the moisture of the air mass. The second word of a category name tells whether an air mass formed close to the equator. It describes the air mass s temperature. Continental Tropical (ct)- Dry, hot air masses. They affect mostly the southwest and Mexico bringing hot, dry weather. The first word of an air mass s category name tells whether the air mass formed over water or dry land. It describes the moisture of the air mass. The second word of a category name tells whether an air mass formed close to the equator. It describes the air mass s temperature. Continental Polar (cp)- Dry cold air masses. They bring bitterly cold weather with low humidity. In summer they are much milder. The first word of an air mass s category name tells whether the air mass formed over water or dry land. It describes the moisture of the air mass. The second word of a category name tells whether an air mass formed close to the equator. It describes the air mass s temperature. Continental Arctic (ca) air represents extremely cold and dry conditions as, due to its temperature, it contains very little water vapor. FRONT Vocabulary: Interaction- involving 2 or more substances and their relationship to each other Front-The area or boundary where two different air masses meet Cold front- forms when cold air moves under warm air which is less dense and pushes air up (produces thunderstorms heavy rain or snow. Cold fronts can move into regions quickly. Warm front- A front where warm air moves over cold air and brings drizzly rain and then are followed by warm and clear weather. Warm fronts move more slowly than cold fronts.

4 Stationary Front- When a warm air mass meets a cold air mass and neither is moving very fast. The warm air and cool air meet causing condensation to occur, which causes precipitation. This remains over an area for a long period of time, possibly a few days of clouds and precipitation. Occluded Front- This is when a warm air mass becomes trapped between two cooler air masses. Three fronts come together. It forms in stages. It begins with a stationary front between a cold and a warm air mass. Then a cold front comes through faster and lifts up the warm air. Very heavy rains, severe weather (thunderstorms and strong winds) Pressure Systems Vocabulary: High pressure system- formed when air moves all the way around a high-pressure center. Most high-pressure systems are large and change slowly. When a high-pressure system stays in one location for a long time, an air mass may form. The air and resulting air mass can be warm or cold, moist or dry. This system generally brings clear skies and calm air or gentle breezes. This is because as air sinks to lower altitudes, it warms up a little bit. Water droplets evaporate, so clouds often disappear. Low pressure system- is a large weather system that surrounds a center of low pressure. It begins as air moves around and inward toward the lowest pressure and then up to higher altitudes. The upward motion of the air lowers the air pressure further, and so the air moves faster. The pattern of motion strengthens into a low-pressure weather system. The rising air produces stormy weather. In the Northern Hemisphere, the air in a low-pressure system circles in a counterclockwise direction. A low-pressure system can develop wherever there is a center of low pressure. One place this often happens is along a boundary between a warm air mass and a cold air mass. Winds and Breeze Vocabulary: Anemometer- A tool that measures wind speed Wind- the movement of air caused by differences in air pressure due to uneven heating of the earths surface. Global Winds- Winds that blow from specific directions across the Earth, and cover long distances Trade winds: masses of air that move across Earth s surface from the subtropical highpressure belts toward the equatorial low-pressure belt. Jet stream-narrow belts of fast-moving winds in the upper troposphere

5 Land breeze- the movement of air from land toward water Sea breeze- A local wind that blows from water toward land during the day Atmosphere Vocabulary: Atmosphere- the layer of air that surrounds the earth. Broken into 5 main layers.; Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, and Exosphere Stratosphere- the layer of the Earth's atmosphere that has the ozone layer in it. Troposphere- layer of the Earth s atmosphere where almost all of Earth's weather happens Example Flash Card Questions: What are streamlike movements of water that occur at or near the surface of the ocean. Surface Currents What type of current is the Gulf Stream? Warm Water Current Cold Water causes molecules to. Contract What creates the mild and warm climate in the British Isles? Warm Water Current A current that is caused by the expansion of molecules to do rising temperature. Convection Current Deep Atlantic currents are formed by. the sinking of denser colder water Surface Currents are formed by. Wind What kind of currents creat cooler climates where it is normally much warmer? Cold Water Currents What kind of currents carry warm water from the equator to the polar regions? Surface Currents Currents that form along the ocean floor are. Deep Water Currents

6 Global winds are caused by. the uneven heating of Earth's surface. Which layer of the Earth's atmosphere has the ozone layer in it? stratosphere Almost all of Earth's weather happens in this layer... troposphere Names of the five main layers of Earth's atmosphere are: Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, and Exosphere How do air masses move in the continental United States? In the United States air masses are usually moved by either the Jet Streams or the Prevailing Westerlies. Both of these winds carry air masses from West to East. What type of weather do you expect in a high-pressure system? -clear skies and calm air or gentle breezes. What type of weather do you expect in a low-pressure system? -stormy weather

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