d) Ferrel Cycles e) Doldrums

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1 3) The movement of air in convective currents, such as Hadley cells, does not occur in straight lines because of the rotation of the earth. This is known as a) The Rotation Effect b) The Coriolis Effect c) A Thermal Inversion d) Ferrel Cycles e) Doldrums

2 4) Explain, in a sentence, why the earth experiences seasons.

3 The Atmosphere Ocean Connection chapter 18, pgs

4 Board Notes Climate vs. Weather Wind? Cold, Warm, Stationary, Occluded Fronts Pictures of each Rotation of the earth is west to east

5 Hadley Cells and Global Wind Hadley cells are important in determining climate

6 Hadley Cells and Global Wind Hadley cells are important in determining climate A warm air rises and picks up moisture B air expands; clouds C water released; rain D air moves from equator, it cools and descends E dry air picks up moisture as it moves back to equator

7 Hadley, Ferrel, Polar Cells -Hadley (O o 30 o ) -Ferrel(30 o 60 o ) -Polar (60 o 90 o ) ` * These cells move in alternating, opposite directions!

8 Hadley Cells and Global Wind The combination of convection currents and the rotation of the earth on its axis produces global wind patterns. Because of the rotation of earth, the movement of air by the Hadley, Ferreland Polar cells does not occur in straight lines.

9 Hadley Cells and Global Wind The combination of convection currents and the rotation of the earth on its axis produces global wind patterns. Because of the rotation of earth, the movement of air by the Hadley, Ferreland Polar cells does not occur in straight lines. This is known as the CoriolisEffect

10 Global Wind Patterns

11

12 Jet streams

13

14 Board Notes Drawing of global wind patterns Southeast Tradewinds Northeast Tradewinds Westerliesboth northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere Polar easterlies both northern and southern hemisphere

15 Ocean Absorption

16 Ocean Absorption The Good News The ocean holds 50x more carbon than the atmosphere. It actively absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in two ways: 1) Natural absorption of gas into the ocean Via ocean air interaction 2) The uptake of carbon dioxide by photosynthetic organisms

17 Ocean Absorption The Good News

18 Ocean Absorption The Bad News The oceans absorb CO 2 more slowly then we are adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

19 Ocean Absorption The Bad News Recent evidence suggests ocean absorption is now actually decreasing due to global warming. Cold water can absorb more gas than warm water as ocean waters warm, less carbon dioxide can be dissolved within them.

20 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

21 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Under normal circumstances, the trade winds around the equator move from east to west, causing water to move in that direction. Warm, surface water moves toward the Pacific cold, deep water rises to replace the warm water along the edge of South America. Australia CHILE

22 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Normally, water in Indonesia is around 20 inches higher and 8 o C warmer than water near South America.

23 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) In an El Niño event, air pressure changes, weakening the trade winds. Without the force of the winds, the warm surface water moves back eastward, stopping cold, deep water from rising.

24 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) In an El Niño event, air pressure changes, weakening the trade winds. Without the force of the winds, the warm surface water moves back eastward, stopping cold, deep water from rising. This cold water contains important nutrients that support marine life in these areas.

25 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) El Niño events not only affect marine life, but also alters weather patterns worldwide creating rainstorms and floods in dry areas and causing drought in generally moist areas.

26 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ENSO cycles are periodic, but irregular occurring every 2-8 years. May last 1-2 years. Scientists continue to investigate whether rising global air and sea temperatures contribute to the El Niño cycles.

27

28 Ocean Circulation

29 Ocean Circulation Ocean water circulation, aided by atmospheric winds, plays a major role in world climate. Some things to know first: Cold water is denser than hot water Salty water is denser than fresh water

30 Ocean Circulation Water in the ocean is not static it moves continuously along currents (like a river within the ocean.) Warm water moves along the top of cold water, circling around the globe in a complete circuit.

31 Ocean Circulation The climates of the eastern seaboard of the United States and Europe are warmer then would be expected due to the North Atlantic Current. The circular movement of worldwide ocean currents is known as thermohaline circulation.

32 Ocean Circulation Ocean water near the equator is heated the warm water sits atop cold water and moves within ocean currents. As the heat dissipates, the water cools and sinks and the circuit is repeated.

33 Ocean Circulation

34 Ocean Circulation and Global Warming Recently, scientists have hypothesized that interrupting thermohalinecirculation could trigger rapid climate change. As global warming causes polar ice caps to melt, freshwater is introduced into the circulation enough freshwater could potentially stop the flow of these major ocean currents.

35 Ocean Circulation and Global Warming Recently, scientists have hypothesized that interrupting thermohalinecirculation could trigger rapid climate change. As global warming causes polar ice caps to melt, freshwater is introduced into the circulation enough freshwater could potentially stop the flow of these major ocean currents. Global warming leading to global cooling

36 The Day After Tomorrow

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