# Maps- What, Why, How & Where? NOSB-Otter Bowl Diversity Program

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1 Maps- What, Why, How & Where? NOSB-Otter Bowl Diversity Program

2 What are maps used for? Maps are a visual representation of the surface of the earth and where things are They can show roads, mountain and valleys, counties and more Help figure out which road to take, what the weather will be like, what the fastest route from North America to Europe is Understand how things relate to each otherexample

3 Longitude & Latitude Longitude- measurement east (+180) or west (-180) of the prime meridian. Prime meridian is located in Greenwich, England. There are 360 degrees in longitude like a circle. Latitude- location of a place on earth north or south of the equator. Measured north (90N-90S) and 0 at equator. 180 degrees in total

4 Types of maps There are many types of maps. Each show different information. Most maps include a compass rose, which indicates which way is north, south, east and west. They also include a scale so you can estimate distances. The science of making maps is called cartography Look at different types of maps

5 Political maps World maps showing countries Do not show physical features Indicate state and national boundaries and capital and major cities Capital city is usually marked with a star within a circle.

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8 Road maps Show major, some minor highways, roads, airports, railroad tracks, cities and points of interest. Use road maps to plan trips and for driving directions mont+st&mapzipcode=93940&mapcity=montere y&mapstate=ca&deststreet2=&destcity2=&dest zipcode2=&deststate2=&map=

9 Topographic maps Have contour lines that show shape and elevation of an area Contour lines have a set value for example 10 or 20. Areas between the contour lines, for example between 10 and 20 must be higher than 10, but lower than 20. Contour lines close together indicate steep terrain, and lines far apart indicate flat terrain

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13 Bathymetric Maps Topographic map- but showing features that are underwater- terrain as contour lines and also may provide surface navigational information.

14 Nautical Charts Nautical chart is map of ocean with coastal (land) regions near Essential tools for marine navigation; many countries require vessels, especially commercial ships, to carry them. May be charts printed on paper or computerized electronic navigational charts May show depths of water and heights of land, natural features of seabed, details of coastline, navigational hazards, locations of natural and man-made aids to navigation, information on tides and currents, local details of the Earth s magnetic field, and man-made structures such as harbors, buildings and bridges.

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18 Physical Maps Shows features of geography such as mountains, soil type or land use. For example, geological maps show physical surface and characteristics of the underlying rock, fault lines, and subsurface structures. Ocean basins mapped with satellite-noaa

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20 Understanding Scale To make a map, you need to understand how objects can be represented in a smaller space Maps are smaller than the areas they portray- otherwise would be useless- image map same size as city! Distances on maps are smaller than distances they represent Relationship between map distance and real distance is represented by a map s scale

21 Types of scales Graphic scale Fractional Scale Large Scale1:25,000 Small Scale1:1,000,000 or smaller Verbal One inch represents 16 miles

22 Compass Rose & Map Legends A compass rose or wind rose, displays the orientation of north, south, east and west on a map or nautical chart Legend- list defines symbols appearing in a map or chart. Some symbols, may resemble the features they represent.

23 Interactive Maps Maps are electronic and you can change them according to your needs and play with them! Google Earth GIS

24 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) What is it? GIS is a system for capturing, storing, analyzing and managing data and information which are spatially referenced to the earth. Is computer system (software) that can integrate, store, edit, analyze, share, and display geographically referenced information. Is a tool that allows users to create interactive queries (user created searches), analyze spatial information, edit data, and present results of these operations.

25 How is GIS really used? Benefit from GIS software every day. GIS can help in synchronization of traffic lights, or the convenient location of local park or school Can be used for scientific investigations, resource management, Environmental Impact Assessment, Urban planning, cartography, route planning, and much more! GIS could be used to find wetlands that need protection from pollution or to look at changes in a system over time (Elkhorn Slough)

26 What s the difference between a GIS map and a paper map? A paper, or static map can show where features are located and measure approximate distances between them. GIS maps are dynamic! You can zoom in and out, decide what features you want to see, how they are symbolized and, access a database of information about all the features. Is one or more data frames. Data frame contains a collection of layers. Layers, contain features that represent real-world objects.

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28 Points, Lines and Polygons In the real world, geographic objects have a wide variety of shapes. In a GIS map, geographic objects are primarily represented as point, line, and polygon features. In map of South America, countries are represented as polygons, rivers are represented as lines, and cities are points.

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