GEMS. Presented By: Nirmala De Silva. Gems have been part of human history for over 20,000 years.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "GEMS. Presented By: Nirmala De Silva. Gems have been part of human history for over 20,000 years."

Transcription

1 GEMS Presented By: Nirmala De Silva What is a Gem Gems have been part of human history for over 20,000 years. very early gems were generally of organic materials. Examples coral, amber, and vegetable ivory most gems used today are inorganic minerals. early crystal gems were probably derived from alluvial sources. as found, gems are rather ordinary-looking, unlike cut gemstones there are many different kinds of gems, and most come in many colors gems can be synthesized 1

2 What is a Gem (Contd.) gems can be enhanced (and most commonly are) simulants are different from synthetics names: trade or commercial names obscure the true identity of a gemstone or simulant material A gem is a naturally occurring material desirable for its beauty, valuable in its rarity, and sufficiently durable to give lasting pleasure. Beauty is determined by brilliance, iridescence, color, sparkle, and play of color. A gem should be durable against heat and common household chemicals. It should not be easily scratched or broken. Brittleness is a measure of the gem's tendency to crack or cleave. Gem Formation Earth crust varies from 5km thick under the seabed to 40 km under continents. Under the crust is the mantle, which is approximately 3000 km thick. It makes up 83% of the earth's volume. The mantle is composed of molten rock, called magma. In the rare occasions where it reaches the surface (lava). The mantle is hottest near the center and heat currents keep it in constant motion. Where the mantle and crust meet, is a turbulent zone with high pressures and temperatures. The crust is made up of several plates that float on the liquid mantle. As they run into with each other, some are pushed down; others are raised into new mountains. 2

3 Gem Formation (Contd.) The magma is also in constant motion. Its movement and pressure are constantly acting on the bottom of the crust, creating wear and fracturing. Rocks break free from the crust and are carried away in the fluid magma. Much of this material melts, changing the chemistry of the nearby magma. Some of the smaller particles are destined to be inclusions in future gems. The lower surface of the crust is heavily fractured and contains numerous cavities. Fluids escaping from the magma flow through these fractures and cavities. It is here we find the proper conditions for crystal growth. The fluid is a chemical rich soup, which supplies the necessary ingredients. The cavities offer space to grow and the temperature and pressure are high. As the fluid moves through the crust, it cools enough for crystallization to occur. Only time is still required. Gem Formation (Contd.) The passages are constantly opening and collapsing. Often crystals start to form, and then the passage feeding the fluid is closed off. At this point all growth stops. If the passage reopens, growth will begin again. Often this on and off growth pattern is undetectable in a crystal. Other times, the successive layers of growth will have a slightly different chemical composition. When this happens, color zoning in the crystal will happen. In some occasions, the new layers will have different orientation. This is the cause of twinning. Still other times, the new layers will not bond completely with each other. 3

4 Gem Formation (Contd.) In the on and off growth process, the same minerals need to reform. Indeed, the temperature, pressure, and/or chemistry often vary, producing different minerals. When opening a deposit, it is common to see different minerals covering earlier layers There are three kinds of rock formation; igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. Igneous minerals are created with heat. They are minerals that are created deep within the earth. Metamorphic refers to conditions where heat and pressure change existing minerals into something new. Sedimentary rocks are based on deposits of sediment. Gem Formation (Contd.) Since crystals form under the surface, how they get to the top where people can mine them. A few crystals are brought to the surface during volcanic eruptions. However, most reach the surface through mountain building and erosion. Over vast periods of time, the movement of the continental plates causes mountains to rise. Years of weathering take down the mountain, leaving the deposits near the surface. 4

5 Why are gems cut Internal reflection, critical angle Refraction Why are gems cut (Contd.) Light travelling through a stone intersects the stone-air surface. If it passes within the critical angle it will exit the stone. If it passes outside the critical angle, it will be internally reflected. In order to achieve brilliance and sparkle, light should escape from top facets, not from the pavillion. Many gem cuts that meet the basic critical angle requirements can be created. Two important examples are the "Brilliant Cut" and "Emerald Cut". 5

6 Why are gems cut (Contd.) Luster Not only does the placement of the facets matter, but the smoothness of the surface (called "luster") does too. Luster is a function of both the surface and the Refractive Index of the mineral itself. Terms used to describe luster include adamantine, pearly, metallic, silky, vitreous, resinous, and waxy. When the surface of the gem is polished, the light is internally reflected,, as expected. If the surface of the gem is left rough, light is lost through unplanned leakage. Why are gems cut (Contd.) Fire Fire" refers to the rainbow-like flashes of color seen in cut stones. Fire is especially obvious in diamonds. 6

7 Value The 4 factors that affect the value of a gemstone are easily remembered as the "4 c's": Color: : Clearly, color affects value. Some colors are more desirable than t others. In part, this is dictated by personal taste and in part by industry standards (e.g., for diamonds). Clarity: flaws (crack, inclusions) decrease the value of a gemstone. Cut: : the ideal proportions for gems (to optimize brilliance and fire) are not always to be found in a faceted stone. Poorly cut stones have e much lower value. Small errors in the placement of facets decrease the value of a gem. Carat weight: : bigger is not always better, but for otherwise equal color, clarity, cut, the larger the stone will be more expensive! Value (Contd.) 1 carat = 0.2 g, thus 5 carat = 1 g Notice that the number of carats depends on density, so two different types of gems of the same size will normally be a different number of carats! Obviously, the rarity of a gemstone is an important factor in determining the value. However, some other things that affect value that are unrelated to the 4c's and rarity. The supply of a specific type of gem can be controlled to improve the value or a specific gem may greatly change in value due to consumer demand or perceived investment potential. The value of a gem may be much lower if its apparent clarity or color has been improved by treatment. Furthermore, synthetic gems (made by humans) have very much lower values than natural stones and beware! - the gemstone is not always the material it is claimed to be: it may be a simulant (look-alike). 7

8 Gems in Sri Lanka Sri Lanka is home to 40 varieties of Gems out of 85 varieties available ailable in the whole world. "Variety of gem material" that one can find in Sri Lanka are listed below. Corundum - Blue s, Star s, Rubies, Star Rubies, Yellow s, Pink s, Padmadradcha, Orange s, White sapphires. Chrysoberyl Cat's Eye, Alexandrite, Alexandrite Cat's Eye, Chrysoberyl. Spinel Blue Spinel, Red Spinel, Purple Spinel. Topaz White Topaz (When Treated Makes London Blue) Zircon Green Zircon, Yellow Zircon, Brown Zircon, Colourless Zircon. Garnet Rhodolite Garnet, Hessonite Garnet, Pyrope Garnet, Almandine Garnet. Beryl Aquamarine, Heliodor. Quartz Smoky Quartz, White Quartz, Amethyst Quartz Cat's Eye Tourmaline Brown Tourmaline, Yellow Tourmaline (Green & Blue Rare) Feldspar Moonstones Also Andalusite, Kornerupine And A Variety Of Agates. Gems in Sri Lanka (Contd.) Rare Gemstones Sinhalite, Lolite, Indicolite, Fibrolite, Taaffeite, Ekanite and Star Spinel. The Blue is Sri Lanka's Gem Supreme. And Sri Lanka's Blue s are the finest in the world. s of the finest quality q have what is called the experts 'a corn flower blue' or a royal blue tint. The highly priced of all gems, the Blue is second only to the diamond in hardness. The largest known s in the world weighing 42 pounds was found in the gem gravels of Sri Lanka. The world jewelry market demands Blue B s of carats. Sri Lanka's Star s is the star beauty among Earth's precious stones. The most celebrated Sri Lanka's star is on permanent display at the Smithsonian museum of Natural History in New York. However, Sri Lanka has not gotten the recognition it deserves as the stone is named the Star of Bombay. 8

9 Gems in Sri Lanka (Contd.) Moonstone the only gem that is found in situ in Sri Lanka displays a milky bluish sheen similar to that of the moon beams, and hence the name moonstone. Through some quirk of nature, moonstones are found only in a solitary quarter acre block of land in the village of Meetiyagoda. The world's moonstone market is dominated by Sri Lanka. Gem mining in Sri Lanka Estimates are that 90 percent of Sri Lanka is potential gem bearing land - the gem-bearing belt is approximately 80 miles in length and 20 miles in width and lies south-west of the central hills, as well as other pockets of gem producing areas. Sri Lanka offers a concentration of gemstones not found anywhere in the world and is second only to Brazil in hosting the greatest variety of gemstones found worldwide. 9

10 Gem mining in Sri Lanka (Contd.) Heat treatment Heat Treatment Gems, mainly those of the corundum group, are heat treated to enhance the value. Sri Lankans have made some progress in mastering the process of heat treatment and there are several parties engaged in this service. During the period , 11,430 kgs of rough geudas amounting to Rs. 1,675 Million were exported to Thailand. This loss is attributed to lack of technological know-how on heat-treatment treatment and imitation in investment on advanced technology and related equipment. 10

11 Sri Lanka's Gem Exports Year/Item 1997 Rs. Mn Rs. Mn Rs. Mn Rs. Mn Rs. Mn. Cut and Polished Gems Rough Geuda Diamond Jewellery Diamond Jewellery The Danger The British crown sports a 400 carat Sri Lankan blue sapphire. There are still more than 3,000 gem mines in Sri Lanka but some argue the future of the industry lies in developing a processing centre for high end precious stones which need specialized cutters with considerable experience. The argument is that the country produces the best sapphire in the world and they should be branded as a purely Sri Lankan product just like Ceylon Tea. But others say it's a mistake to stress geography instead of quality - especially when many gemstones in Sri Lanka actually come from Madagascar and Tanzania. Sri Lankan traders now visit Madagascar in particular to buy rough stones which they bring home for cutting and polishing and it's then difficult to establish their origin when they leave the island for export. 11

12 Birthstones by Month Certain stones can bring you good luck according to your month of o birth. January: Garnet February: Amethyst March: Red Jasper, Blood Stone April: Diamond, May: Emerald, Jade, Green Tourmaline June: Emerald, Pearl, Moonstone July: Turquoise, Onyx, Ruby August: Peridot,, Chrysoberyl Cat's Eye September: Chrysoprase,, October: Opal, Aquamarine November: Topaz, Yellow, Citrine, Yellow Zircon December: Ruby, Turguoise Stones for Days of the Week Follow this weekly schedule for good luck! Sunday: Ruby Monday: Moonstone Tuesday: Coral Wednesday: Emerald Thursday: Chrysoberyl Cat's Eye Friday: Diamond Saturday: Blue, Black Pearl 12

13 13 Stones for Stones for Lagna Lagna Yellow Yellow Jupiter Jupiter Pisces Pisces Blue Blue Satun Satun Aquarius Aquarius Blue Blue Satun Satun Capricon Capricon Yellow Yellow Jupiter Jupiter Sagittarius Sagittarius Coral Coral Mars Mars Scorpio Scorpio Diamond Diamond Venus Venus Libra Libra Gem Stone Gem Stone Ruling Ruling Planet Planet Lagna Lagna Emerald Emerald Mercury Mercury Virgo Virgo Ruby Ruby Sun Sun Leo Leo Pearl Pearl Moon Moon Cancer Cancer Emerald Emerald Mercury Mercury Gemini Gemini Diamond Diamond Venus Venus Taurus Taurus Red Red Coral Coral Mars Mars Aries Aries Gem Gem Stone Stone Ruling Ruling Planet Planet Lagna Lagna Thank You Thank You

Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Class: Date: Minerals Study Guide Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true.

More information

OLD FINAL EXAM QUESTIONS, BY CATEGORY

OLD FINAL EXAM QUESTIONS, BY CATEGORY 347k Review for Final Exam Spring, 2001 M. Helper OLD FINAL EXAM QUESTIONS, BY CATEGORY GEM SYNTHESIS 1) What differentiates a synthetic gem from an imitation gem from a natural gem? 2) There exists, for

More information

Unit 8.3.1 Study Guide: Rocks, Minerals, and the Rock Cycle

Unit 8.3.1 Study Guide: Rocks, Minerals, and the Rock Cycle Name Date Per Unit 8.3.1 Study Guide: Rocks, Minerals, and the Rock Cycle I Can Statements I Can Statements are the learning targets for each unit. By the time you take the test for this unit, you should

More information

E-Line Gemological Refractometer

E-Line Gemological Refractometer E-Line Gemological Refractometer User Guide E-Line Gemological Refractometer User Guide (Eng) B+S Code : 44-895 Issue 3C August 2013 Order Code Description 44-861 E-Line Gemological Refractometer Copyright

More information

TIFFANY GEMSTONE & PEARL JEWELRY

TIFFANY GEMSTONE & PEARL JEWELRY TIFFANY GEMSTONE & PEARL JEWELRY SINCE 1837, TIFFANY & CO. HAS MAINTAINED THE VERY HIGHEST STANDARDS IN DESIGN, MATERIALS AND CRAFTSMANSHIP. THIS IS THE REASON THAT TIFFANY JEWELRY IS TREASURED WORLDWIDE

More information

Unit 3 Lesson 1 Minerals. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 3 Lesson 1 Minerals. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Animal, Vegetable, or Mineral? What do minerals have in common? Not all minerals are sparkling gems, but they all have certain characteristics in common. A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid

More information

Diamond Education. Diamond Cut

Diamond Education. Diamond Cut Diamond Education A diamond truly is a unique gemstone. The word diamond comes from the Greek word adamas which means unconquerable. Nothing compares to the hardness of a loose diamond. The diamond is

More information

Theory of Catastrophism - earth s shapes created in great cataclysms

Theory of Catastrophism - earth s shapes created in great cataclysms Atmosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Lithosphere is the branch of physical geography, shared with the fields of Geomorphology and Tectonics, that specifically examine the landforms, continents

More information

Chemistry in the Gem & Mineral Hall

Chemistry in the Gem & Mineral Hall Chemistry in the Gem & Mineral Hall High School Duration 2-3 classes and a Museum visit Location Gem & Mineral Hall Supplies See individual lessons Standards Chemistry 1.2.3.6.7.9 Module Overview How is

More information

Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com

Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com Name: KEY Rocks & Minerals 1 KEY CONCEPT #1: What is a mineral? It is a naturally occurring, inorganic substance which has a definite chemical composition What would be the opposite of this? man-made,

More information

Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide

Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide Rocks are classified based on how they were formed. The three types of rocks are sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. Igneous rock forms when magma (liquid

More information

EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY

EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY DR. WOLTEMADE NAME: SECTION: MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY INTRODUCTION The identification of minerals and rocks is an integral part of understanding our physical

More information

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Lesson 1: Layers of the Earth 1. Atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the planet 2. Clouds are in this layer 3. Atmosphere contains gases

More information

Rocks and Minerals 5 th Grade Kelly Krupa

Rocks and Minerals 5 th Grade Kelly Krupa Rocks and Minerals 5 th Grade Kelly Krupa Benchmark and SLC#: SLC 12: A. Students will classify rocks by their characteristics. Objectives: Students will classify rocks by their characteristics; learn

More information

Educator s Guide. Harry Frank Guggenheim Hall of Minerals. Morgan Memorial Hall of Gems. amnh.org/mineralsgems/educators

Educator s Guide. Harry Frank Guggenheim Hall of Minerals. Morgan Memorial Hall of Gems. amnh.org/mineralsgems/educators Educator s Guide Harry Frank Guggenheim Hall of Minerals Morgan Memorial Hall of Gems amnh.org/mineralsgems/educators Inside: Suggestions to Help You Come Prepared Essential Questions for Student Inquiry

More information

Rapid Changes in Earth s Surface

Rapid Changes in Earth s Surface TEKS investigate rapid changes in Earth s surface such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and landslides Rapid Changes in Earth s Surface Constant Changes Earth s surface is constantly changing. Wind,

More information

Identifying Minerals

Identifying Minerals Identifying Minerals All rocks are made up of minerals. Rocks have different colors, textures, and shapes. Some rocks or minerals are very hard. Some are soft. A gemstone is a mineral that is rare and

More information

lithosphere granite basalt

lithosphere granite basalt The Earth s s Crust The Earth s s Crust The earth s crust is the outside layer of the earth. It is thickest at the continents at about 40 Km (up to 70 Km) deep. It is thinnest under the oceans at about

More information

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT Tectonics Assessment / 1 TECTONICS ASSESSMENT 1. Movement along plate boundaries produces A. tides. B. fronts. C. hurricanes. D. earthquakes. 2. Which of the following is TRUE about the movement of continents?

More information

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate 1. Of the Earth's more than 2,000 identified minerals, only a small number are commonly found in rocks. This fact indicates that most 1) minerals weather before they can be identified 2) minerals have

More information

EARTH LAYERS ROCKS. Released SOL Test Questions Sorted by Topic Compiled by SOLpass

EARTH LAYERS ROCKS. Released SOL Test Questions Sorted by Topic Compiled by SOLpass Released SOL Test Questions Sorted by Topic Compiled by SOLpass www.solpass.org SOL 5.7 Earth s Constantly Changing Surface The student will investigate and understand how Earth s surface is constantly

More information

Earth Science Grade 4 Minerals

Earth Science Grade 4 Minerals Earth Science Grade 4 Minerals Standards: Identifies the physical properties of minerals Teacher Background Minerals are pure substances and mix together to make rocks. Rocks have a cycle and different

More information

Minerals and Rocks C) D)

Minerals and Rocks C) D) Minerals and Rocks Name 1. Base your answer to the following question on the map and cross section below. The shaded areas on the map represent regions of the United States that have evaporite rock layers

More information

NEW GENERATION & TECHNOLOGY SINTERED (METAL BOND) BLADES

NEW GENERATION & TECHNOLOGY SINTERED (METAL BOND) BLADES Diamond Lapidary Blades - SMART CUT technology NEW GENERATION & TECHNOLOGY SINTERED (METAL BOND) BLADES Why waste Valuable Time, Money, & Material? More Precision Minimal Dressing More Universal Heat Resistant

More information

Volcano in the lab: a wax volcano in action: teacher s notes

Volcano in the lab: a wax volcano in action: teacher s notes Volcano in the lab: a wax volcano in action: teacher s notes Level This activity is designed for students aged 11-14, as a simple demonstration of igneous activity. English National Curriculum reference

More information

Michelle Mindick. volcanism, gradation, impact cratering, and Earth s interior core.

Michelle Mindick. volcanism, gradation, impact cratering, and Earth s interior core. Michelle Mindick The Evolution of Earth s Surface According to 21 st Century Astronomy, Earth originally formed as a result of gas and dust that rotated around a protostar - our sun- billions of years

More information

JOANNA THOMSON JEWELLERY. classic collection

JOANNA THOMSON JEWELLERY. classic collection JOANNA THOMSON JEWELLERY classic collection JOANNA THOMSON JEWELLERY BIRTHSTONES CONTENTS January February March April May June July August September October November December Garnet Amethyst Aquamarine

More information

The 4 C s. There are some key components in the purchase of a diamond that will help you make the best decision for your budget, and for your partner.

The 4 C s. There are some key components in the purchase of a diamond that will help you make the best decision for your budget, and for your partner. tapper s diamond buying guide diamond buying guide Purchasing a diamond, especially an engagement ring, is not only a very exciting time in a couple s relationship, but it can also be a purchase that may

More information

The Jeweler. Since 1931 BEAUTY+EXPECTATION+TIMELESS+ELEGANCE

The Jeweler. Since 1931 BEAUTY+EXPECTATION+TIMELESS+ELEGANCE The Jeweler Since 1931 BEAUTY+EXPECTATION+TIMELESS+ELEGANCE The Jeweler As the saying goes, what s old is new again. When I look back at our rich history, I wonder to myself, what has kept Gleim the Jeweler

More information

Boone and Crockett Club Trophy Memories Catalog

Boone and Crockett Club Trophy Memories Catalog 2011-2012 Boone and Crockett Club Trophy Memories Catalog Relive Your Records-Book Accomplishment Forever! B&C Trophy Rings The Boone and Crockett Club is pleased to offer trophy recognition rings, custom

More information

Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet?

Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet? Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet? Name: 1 Before you start What do you already know? What is the difference between a rock and a mineral? What are the three categories of rocks? 1. 2. 3.

More information

Mineral Properties. Hand sample description

Mineral Properties. Hand sample description Mineral Properties Hand sample description How do we characterize minerals? 1) Color and streak 2) Luster 3) Hardness 4) Fracture and tenacity 5) Crystal form and system 6) Crystal shape and habit 7) Cleavage

More information

2012-2013 Boone and Crockett Club Trophy Memories Catalog. Relive Your Records-Book Accomplishment Forever!

2012-2013 Boone and Crockett Club Trophy Memories Catalog. Relive Your Records-Book Accomplishment Forever! 2012-2013 Boone and Crockett Club Trophy Memories Catalog Relive Your Records-Book Accomplishment Forever! Visit us online at www.booneandcrockettclub.com B&C Trophy Rings The Boone and Crockett Club is

More information

ROCKS GEMS & MINERALS PRECIOUS. A fabulous collection of rocks, gems and minerals, gathered from all over the earth.

ROCKS GEMS & MINERALS PRECIOUS. A fabulous collection of rocks, gems and minerals, gathered from all over the earth. PRECIOUS ROCKS GEMS & MINERALS A fabulous collection of rocks, gems and minerals, gathered from all over the earth. The world s most beautiful rocks, gems and minerals for you to treasure A collection

More information

Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com

Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 KEY CONCEPT #1: What is a mineral? It is a, substance which has a What would be the opposite of this? KEY CONCEPT #2: What causes minerals to have different physical properties?

More information

8-3.1 Summarize the three layers of Earth crust, mantle, and core on the basis of relative position, density, and composition.

8-3.1 Summarize the three layers of Earth crust, mantle, and core on the basis of relative position, density, and composition. Earth s Structure and Processes 8-3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of materials that determine the structure of Earth and the processes that have altered this structure. 8-3.1 Summarize

More information

When looking for a diamond, keep in mind that if a diamond is cut poorly, it affects the brilliance; the number of facets a stone has

When looking for a diamond, keep in mind that if a diamond is cut poorly, it affects the brilliance; the number of facets a stone has Diamond Buying Guide We have created a tutorial to provide you with the guidance you need when purchasing diamond jewelry. By developing your knowledge of diamonds, you will find shopping for and making

More information

1 Exploring Earth s Interior

1 Exploring Earth s Interior 1 Exploring Earth s Interior Crust Mantle Outer Core Crust-to-Mantle Inner Core Cross Section From Surface to Center SCIENCE EXPLORER Focus on Earth Science Prentice-Hall, Inc. 2 Evidence for Continental

More information

Page 1. Name:

Page 1. Name: Name: 1) According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, which sedimentary rock would be formed by the compaction and cementation of particles 1.5 centimeters in diameter? A) shale B) conglomerate C)

More information

EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY IN PLANETARY SCIENCE

EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY IN PLANETARY SCIENCE Rocks and Minerals I. OBJECTIVES One of the many ways to study Earth is by examining the rocks that make up its surface. Earth is a dynamic planet, with plate tectonics, water, wind, volcanoes, and mountains.

More information

2 Identifying Minerals

2 Identifying Minerals CHAPTER 5 2 Identifying Minerals SECTION Minerals of Earth s Crust KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What are seven physical properties scientists use to identify minerals?

More information

Teacher Workbooks. Science and Nature Series Cloze Paragraphs Natural Disasters Theme, Vol. 1

Teacher Workbooks. Science and Nature Series Cloze Paragraphs Natural Disasters Theme, Vol. 1 Teacher Workbooks Science and Nature Series Cloze Paragraphs Natural Disasters Theme, Vol. 1 Copyright 2005 Teachnology Publishing Company A Division of Teachnology, Inc. For additional information, visit

More information

** Rocks are aggregates of one or more minerals ** 3. Hardness: A measure of resistance to scratching. On the Mohs Scale, it ranges from 1 to 10.

** Rocks are aggregates of one or more minerals ** 3. Hardness: A measure of resistance to scratching. On the Mohs Scale, it ranges from 1 to 10. Lab 2: Mineral Lab notes. Minerals are inorganic, solid, naturally occurring substances that have a characteristic chemical compositions, distinctive physical properties, and crystalline structures. Chemical

More information

Rock Identification Lab

Rock Identification Lab Rock Identification Lab Name Mineral Hardness Objective: You will determine the relative hardness of common objects relative to the known hardness of index minerals. We will use fingernail, copper, glass,

More information

Grade 9 Geography - Unit 3 Lesson 3 The Rock Cycle

Grade 9 Geography - Unit 3 Lesson 3 The Rock Cycle Grade 9 Geography - Unit 3 Lesson 3 The Rock Cycle What is the difference between a Rock and a Mineral? Minerals are homogeneous, naturally occurring, inorganic solids. Each mineral has a definite chemical

More information

Essential Standards: Grade 4 Science Unpacked Content

Essential Standards: Grade 4 Science Unpacked Content This document is designed to help North Carolina educators teach the Essential Standards (Standard Course of Study). NCDPI staff are continually updating and improving these tools to better serve teachers.

More information

Heat Flow. The decay of short-lived radioactive elements (such as aluminum-26) generated heat energy in the early stages of the Earth s formation.

Heat Flow. The decay of short-lived radioactive elements (such as aluminum-26) generated heat energy in the early stages of the Earth s formation. Heat Flow Heat from Earth s Interior Earth s interior heat comes from a combination of the following factors: Original heat from the formation and gravitational compression of the Earth from the solar

More information

Using specific examples, students will be able to explain how rocks change as they go through the rock cycle.

Using specific examples, students will be able to explain how rocks change as they go through the rock cycle. Title: Rock Cycle Comic Strip Author: Ashley Packard Subject Area: Geology Grade: 8 Description of Lesson: This lesson is designed to help the students understand how the rock cycle works. They will play

More information

Rocks and Plate Tectonics

Rocks and Plate Tectonics Name: Class: _ Date: _ Rocks and Plate Tectonics Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is a naturally occurring, solid mass of mineral or

More information

How can you tell rocks apart?

How can you tell rocks apart? How can you tell rocks apart? Grade Range: 4-7 G.L.E Focus: 1.1.5 Time Budget: 1 1.5 hours WASL Vocabulary: Overview: Different rocks have different characteristics because of their minerals, the ways

More information

II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013)

II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) EAPS 100 Planet Earth Lecture Topics Brief Outlines II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) 1. Interior of the Earth Learning objectives: Understand the structure of the Earth s interior crust,

More information

FIRST GRADE ROCKS 2 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIRST GRADE ROCKS 2 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FIRST GRADE ROCKS 2 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES ROCK CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIRST GRADE CHEMISTRY WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing solids, gases, liquids, and plasma. LAB: Exploring how states of matter can change.

More information

Crust: low density rocks. Mantle: high density rocks. Core: very high density metal. core

Crust: low density rocks. Mantle: high density rocks. Core: very high density metal. core Crust: low density rocks Mantle: high density rocks Core: very high density metal core mechanical) layering mechanical layers lithosphere: rigid & strong asthenosphere: plastic & weak mesosphere: plastic

More information

Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds

Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds Mercury craters smooth plains, cliffs Venus volcanoes few craters Radar view of a twinpeaked volcano Mars some craters volcanoes riverbeds? Moon craters smooth

More information

Rock Type Identification Flow Chart

Rock Type Identification Flow Chart Rock Type Identification Flow Chart SEDIMENTARY AMORPHOUS No Crystals or Clasts fairly hard very soft hard & cherty vague crystals SEDIMENTARY IGNEOUS - VOLCANIC CLASTS Broken pieces of rocks or minerals

More information

A SOLAR SYSTEM COLORING BOOK

A SOLAR SYSTEM COLORING BOOK A SOLAR SYSTEM COLORING BOOK Brought to you by: THE SUN Size: The Sun is wider than 100 Earths. 1 Temperature: 27,000,000 F in the center, 10,000 F at the surface. So that s REALLY hot anywhere on the

More information

1. The building blocks of rocks are naturally occurring solid materials called A. granules B. grains C. minerals D. crystals

1. The building blocks of rocks are naturally occurring solid materials called A. granules B. grains C. minerals D. crystals The Rock Cycle describes how rocks form and change over time What are Rocks and Minerals 1. The building blocks of rocks are naturally occurring solid materials called A. granules B. grains C. minerals

More information

Types of Rocks By Cindy Sherwood

Types of Rocks By Cindy Sherwood Mount Rushmore is an amazing sight, with the faces of four presidents carved into a giant rock mountain. But even a small rock you find in your yard is pretty amazing. After all, most rocks have been around

More information

Objectives: Vocabulary: Materials: Students will: Safety: Element Mineral Streak. Absolute Hardness

Objectives: Vocabulary: Materials: Students will: Safety: Element Mineral Streak. Absolute Hardness : Finding Clues Like a Scientist Author: Kris Poduska Date Created: 2000 Subject: Earth Science, Classification Level: Elementary and Middle School Standards: New York State- Intermediate Science (www.emsc.nysed.gov/ciai/)

More information

P1: Rock identification (I)

P1: Rock identification (I) P1: Rock identification (I) Examine the rocks specimens provided with the aid of these notes. All the rocks come from Ireland, as detailed on the attached map. Answer the short question on each specimen

More information

Lesson 3 Temptation. Lesson Objectives:

Lesson 3 Temptation. Lesson Objectives: Lesson 3 Temptation Lesson Objectives: The objective of this lesson is to help children and teens: Know the meaning of the word temptation Understand the process involved in yielding to temptation. Be

More information

A Solar System Coloring Book

A Solar System Coloring Book A Solar System Coloring Book Courtesy of the Windows to the Universe Project http://www.windows2universe.org The Sun Size: The Sun is wider than 100 Earths. Temperature: ~27,000,000 F in the center, ~10,000

More information

4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67)

4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67) 4. Plate Tectonics II (p. 46-67) Seafloor Spreading In the early 1960s, samples of basaltic ocean crust were dredged up from various locations across the ocean basins. The samples were then analyzed to

More information

Silica (quartz) Silica is the fourteenth element on the periodic table. It can sometimes be found as the

Silica (quartz) Silica is the fourteenth element on the periodic table. It can sometimes be found as the Silica (quartz) Silica, SiO 2, is a white or colorless crystalline compound found mainly as quartz, sand, flint, and many other minerals. Silica is an important ingredient to manufacture a wide variety

More information

CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following is NOT one of the four stages in the development of a terrestrial planet? 2. That Earth, evidence that Earth differentiated.

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Shaky Ground 6 th Grade

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Shaky Ground 6 th Grade The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

Earth Materials: Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks. The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth

Earth Materials: Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks. The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth Earth Materials: 1 The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth 2 Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks Three main categories of rocks: Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic The most common minerals

More information

1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire

1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire UNIT 3 EXAM ROCKS AND MINERALS NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire FRANCONIA, N.H. Crowds

More information

Beads, Pendants. and Crystal Nacre Pearls

Beads, Pendants. and Crystal Nacre Pearls Beads, Pendants and Crystal Nacre Pearls Welcome TO PRECIOSA The master craftsmen at Preciosa have devoted themselves to crystal cutting for generations. We re known throughout the world for our up-to-date

More information

Homework #6 Chapter 5: Earth and Moon Due: 15 Oct 2013

Homework #6 Chapter 5: Earth and Moon Due: 15 Oct 2013 Homework #6 Chapter 5: Earth and Moon Due: 15 Oct 2013 Review and Discussion: RD5.1 Explain how the Moon produces tides in Earth s oceans. The Moon pulls on the side of Earth facing it with a stronger

More information

MINERAL PROPERTIES DEFINITION. LUSTER - appearance of a fresh mineral surface in reflected light. HARDNESS - Resistance of a mineral to abrasion.

MINERAL PROPERTIES DEFINITION. LUSTER - appearance of a fresh mineral surface in reflected light. HARDNESS - Resistance of a mineral to abrasion. MINERAL PICTIONARY DEFINITION MINERALS Are inorganic, naturally occurring substances that have a characteristic chemical composition, distinctive physical properties, and crystalline structure. MINERAL

More information

WHERE DO VOLCANOES FORM AND WHY?

WHERE DO VOLCANOES FORM AND WHY? Name: Class: Date: What is a Volcano? WHERE DO VOLCANOES FORM AND WHY? A volcano is a weak spot in the crust where molten material, called magma, erupts to the surface. Magma is a mixture of rock-forming

More information

LE BOUTONNIER SWITZERLAND. Reviving the Art of Button-Making

LE BOUTONNIER SWITZERLAND. Reviving the Art of Button-Making LE BOUTONNIER SWITZERLAND Reviving the Art of Button-Making LE BOUTONNIER SWITZERLAND Boutons pour la Haute Couture - Bespoke Buttons Le Boutonnier Switzerland is part of Janos Tedeschi Jewelers - a ultra

More information

The First Step The Diamond Studies Course

The First Step The Diamond Studies Course The Diamond Studies Course 2 0 1 1 In This Lesson: A Step Toward Knowledge Why Learn About Diamonds? How This Course Works Start Learning Now! A STEP TOWARD KNOWLEDGE Welcome to the DCA s Diamond Studies

More information

General Product Information

General Product Information General Product Information Ring sizes K L M N O P Q R _ T _ V Note: there is no S or U but some rings are available in X Some styles come in selected sizes. Details are displayed in the Look Book. General

More information

Rock On! Science: Minerals 4 th Grade Level 3 90-minute periods plus independent study

Rock On! Science: Minerals 4 th Grade Level 3 90-minute periods plus independent study Rock On! Science: Minerals 4 th Grade Level 3 90-minute periods plus independent study Materials: Copies of handouts Mineral and Rock Samples Styrofoam bowl for each student 2 pieces of charcoal for each

More information

Interactive Plate Tectonics

Interactive Plate Tectonics Interactive Plate Tectonics Directions: Go to the following website and complete the questions below. http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/index.html How do scientists learn about the interior

More information

Ch6&7 Test. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Ch6&7 Test. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch6&7 Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following does NOT change the form of existing rock? a. tremendous pressure c.

More information

Minerals. Author: Rebecca Brindley

Minerals. Author: Rebecca Brindley Minerals Author: Rebecca Brindley CHAPTER 1 Minerals 1 Minerals Quartz: What is a Mineral? There are five things that must be true for a substance to be classified as a mineral. The five items are as follows:

More information

Chapter 1 MINERALS SECTION I: INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1 MINERALS SECTION I: INTRODUCTION Chapter 1 MINERALS SECTION I: INTRODUCTION From the perspective of a gemologist a mineral is an exciting thing! Most gems are minerals and minerals even in their natural form can be quite beautiful and

More information

Earth Egg Model Teacher Notes

Earth Egg Model Teacher Notes Ancient Greeks tried to explain earthquakes and volcanic activity by saying that a massive bull lay underground and the land shook when it became angry. Modern theories rely on an understanding of what

More information

CHOCOLATE ROCKS TEACHER NOTES AND HANDY HINTS

CHOCOLATE ROCKS TEACHER NOTES AND HANDY HINTS Chocolate Rocks CHOCOLATE ROCKS TEACHER NOTES AND HANDY HINTS The Chocolate Rocks experiment is an adaptation of the Hawai i Space Grant Consortium s Edible Rocks experiment (see: http://imina.soest.hawaii.edu/spacegrant/class_acts/ediblerockste.html).

More information

What are Rocks??? Rocks are the most common material on Earth. They are a naturally occurring collection of one or more minerals.

What are Rocks??? Rocks are the most common material on Earth. They are a naturally occurring collection of one or more minerals. The Rock Cycle What are Rocks??? Rocks are the most common material on Earth. They are a naturally occurring collection of one or more minerals. The Rock Cycle a cycle that continuously forms and changes

More information

The rock cycle. Introduction. What are rocks?

The rock cycle. Introduction. What are rocks? The rock cycle This Revision looks at the three types of rock: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. It looks at how they are formed, the weathering of rocks and the way one form of rock turns into another,

More information

What is a rock? How are rocks classified? What does the texture of a rock reveal about how it was formed?

What is a rock? How are rocks classified? What does the texture of a rock reveal about how it was formed? CHAPTER 4 1 The Rock Cycle SECTION Rocks: Mineral Mixtures BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a rock? How are rocks classified? What does

More information

[Geology Layers of the Earth] [Basic: Grade 2-3] [Advanced: Grade 5: Introduction to Plate Tectonics}

[Geology Layers of the Earth] [Basic: Grade 2-3] [Advanced: Grade 5: Introduction to Plate Tectonics} [Geology Layers of the Earth] [Basic: Grade 2-3] [Advanced: Grade 5: Introduction to Plate Tectonics} BACKGROUND Scientists and geologists have been able to do some drilling on Earth. They are also able

More information

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different structures of volcanoes. LAB: Modeling three types

More information

LESSON PLAN 1. Key Terms and Concepts. asthenosphere continental crust geologist. Purpose. Objectives. Activities

LESSON PLAN 1. Key Terms and Concepts. asthenosphere continental crust geologist. Purpose. Objectives. Activities LESSON PLAN 1 What s Inside? Earthquakes 3 5 Earthquake Science Children will better understand earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis when they learn that we live on the surface of a constantly changing

More information

Village Originals, Inc. Denver 2011 Show Flyer

Village Originals, Inc. Denver 2011 Show Flyer Amethyst Churches Standard (with base) Medium Grade, 6 pc lot, 30-50 lb pieces Medium Dark Grade, 5 pc lot, 30-50 lb pieces Dark Grade, 4 pc lot, 30-50 lb pieces Village Originals, Inc. Denver 2011 Show

More information

On the outside, there's a crust. Within this crust, the most abundant elements (by mass) are oxygen and silicon.

On the outside, there's a crust. Within this crust, the most abundant elements (by mass) are oxygen and silicon. The Earth is made up of rocks and minerals. The core of the Earth is molten rock. On the outside, there's a crust. Within this crust, the most abundant elements (by mass) are oxygen and silicon. Sometimes

More information

ORANGE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OFFICE OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION OFFICE OF SCIENCE. GRADE 6 SCIENCE Post - Assessment

ORANGE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OFFICE OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION OFFICE OF SCIENCE. GRADE 6 SCIENCE Post - Assessment ORANGE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OFFICE OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION OFFICE OF SCIENCE GRADE 6 SCIENCE Post - Assessment School Year 2013-2014 Directions for Grade 6 Post-Assessment The Grade 6 Post-Assessment is

More information

5thscience earth science (5thscience_earth)

5thscience earth science (5thscience_earth) Name: Date: 1. An extinct volcano is one that A. erupts only once. B. erupts once every 100 years. C. is expected to erupt soon. D. has not erupted in many years. 2. An acorn fell into a crack in a large

More information

Atoms and Elements. Atoms: Learning Goals. Chapter 3. Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks. Clicker 1. Chemistry Background?

Atoms and Elements. Atoms: Learning Goals. Chapter 3. Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks. Clicker 1. Chemistry Background? Chapter 3 Atoms Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks A Review of Chemistry: What geochemistry tells us Clicker 1 Chemistry Background? A. No HS or College Chemistry B. High School

More information

REVIEW Key Concepts. Unit 5 Planet Earth. Earthquakes and Volcanoes can suddenly change the Earth s surface

REVIEW Key Concepts. Unit 5 Planet Earth. Earthquakes and Volcanoes can suddenly change the Earth s surface REVIEW Key Concepts Unit 5 Planet Earth 1.0 Changes on the Earth s Surface Layers: Crust, Mantle, Core (Inner and Outer) Earthquakes and Volcanoes can suddenly change the Earth s surface Scientist s use

More information

KINDERGARTEN PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

KINDERGARTEN PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES KINDERGARTEN PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF KINDERGARTEN VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Learning that all mountains are not volcanoes. LAB: Investigating rocks

More information

Property Descriptions and Testing Procedures

Property Descriptions and Testing Procedures Lab 1: Mineral Identification OLLI Rock ID and Geologic Mapping Name: Introduction: In this lab activity you will become familiar with minerals and identifying their different properties. This lab will

More information

Mineral Identification Testing Lesson Plan

Mineral Identification Testing Lesson Plan Mineral Identification Testing Lesson Plan Set up: Print Mineral Identification - Introduction to Mineral Tests Chart for students to record observations. Set up four mineral testing stations as follows:

More information

6th Grade - Science. Content Vocabulary. * Assess. investigation. make observations complete investigations conduct research generate questions

6th Grade - Science. Content Vocabulary. * Assess. investigation. make observations complete investigations conduct research generate questions Science Processes - Inquiry Process S.IP..1 Develop an understanding that scientific inquiry and reasoning involves observing, questioning, investigating, recording, and developing solutions to problems.

More information

Stawell Health & Community Centre

Stawell Health & Community Centre Updated: January 2013 Stawell Health & Community Centre Information for External Group Room Users Business /Professional 8 22 Patrick St STAWELL Vic 3380 Ph: 03 5358 7400 SH&CC Reception Fax: 03 5358 4113

More information

ESS 1992-123C. Iolite in rock, and gemstones, near Nelson, British Columbia

ESS 1992-123C. Iolite in rock, and gemstones, near Nelson, British Columbia GEMSTONES 1 Beautiful and Rare Pirate's loot! A chest spilling over with rubies, diamonds, emeralds, and other precious stones a vision that has inspired countless treasure hunters and writers of fiction.

More information