SUPPORTING INFORMATION GRADE 1. Texas Education Agency

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1 SUPPORTING INFORMATION GRADE 1 Texas Education Agency

5 TEKS: Mathematical Process Standards. 1(1)(A) Mathematical process standards. The student uses mathematical processes to acquire and demonstrate mathematical understanding. The student is expected to apply mathematics to problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. 1(1)(B) Mathematical process standards. The student uses mathematical processes to acquire and demonstrate mathematical understanding. The student is expected to use a problem-solving model that incorporates analyzing given information, formulating a plan or strategy, determining a solution, justifying the solution, and evaluating the problem-solving process and the reasonableness of the solution. 1(1)(C) Mathematical process standards. The student uses mathematical processes to acquire and demonstrate mathematical understanding. The student is expected to select tools, including real objects, manipulatives, paper and pencil, and technology as appropriate, and techniques, including mental math, estimation, and number sense as appropriate, to solve problems. 1(1)(D) Mathematical process standards. The student uses mathematical processes to acquire and demonstrate mathematical understanding. The student is expected to communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications using multiple representations, including symbols, diagrams, graphs, and language as appropriate. 1(1)(E) Mathematical process standards. The student uses mathematical processes to acquire and demonstrate mathematical understanding. The student is expected to create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas. 1(1)(F) Mathematical process standards. The student uses mathematical processes to acquire and demonstrate mathematical understanding. The student is expected to analyze mathematical relationships to connect and communicate mathematical ideas. 1(1)(G) Mathematical process standards. The student uses mathematical processes to acquire and demonstrate mathematical understanding. The student is expected to display, explain, and justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral communication. This SE emphasizes application. The opportunities for application have been consolidated into three areas: everyday life, society, and the workplace. This SE, when paired with a content SE, allows for increased rigor through connections outside the discipline. This SE describes the traditional problem-solving process used in mathematics and science. Students are expected to use this process in a grade appropriate manner when solving problems that can be considered difficult relative to mathematic maturity. The phrase as appropriate is included in the TEKS. This implies that students are assessing which tool(s) to apply rather than trying only one or all accessible tools. Paper and pencil is included in the list of tools that still includes real objects, manipulatives, and technology. Communication includes reasoning and the implications of mathematical ideas and reasoning. The list of representations is summarized with multiple representations with specificity added for symbols, graphs, and diagrams. The use of representations includes organizing and recording mathematical ideas in addition to communicating ideas. As students use and create representations, it is implied that they will evaluate the effectiveness of their representations to ensure that they are communicating mathematical ideas clearly. Students are expected to use appropriate mathematical vocabulary and phrasing when communicating mathematical ideas. The TEKS allow for additional means to analyze relationships and to form connections with mathematical ideas past forming conjectures about generalizations and sets of examples and nonexamples. Students are expected to form conjectures based on patterns or sets of examples and nonexamples. The TEKS expect students to validate their conclusions with displays, explanations, and justifications. The conclusions should focus on mathematical ideas and arguments. Displays could include diagrams, visual aids, written work, etc. The intention is to make one s work visible to others so that explanations and justifications may be shared in written or oral form. Precise mathematical language is expected. For example, students would use vertex instead of corner when referring to the point at which two edges intersect on a polygon Texas Education Agency. All Rights Reserved 2015 Mathematics TEKS: Updated May

6 TEKS: Number and Operations. This SE extends K(2)(C) where students are asked to recognize small quantities in organized and random arrangements. The number of items should be ten or less. 1(2)(A) Number and operations. The student applies mathematical process standards to represent and compare whole numbers, the relative position and magnitude of whole numbers, and relationships within the numeration system related to place value. The student is expected to recognize instantly the quantity of structured arrangements. When paired with 1(1)(G), a student may be asked to explain the thinking he or she used to subitize the number. Structured arrangements include ten frames and the arrangements of dots on random number generators. For example, when shown an arrangement with two parts, a student might justify his or her thinking by saying, I recognize five, and then I added two more. 1(2)(B) Number and operations. The student applies mathematical process standards to represent and compare whole numbers, the relative position and magnitude of whole numbers, and relationships within the numeration system related to place value. The student is expected to use concrete and pictorial models to compose and decompose numbers up to 120 in more than one way as so many hundreds, so many tens, and so many ones. 1(2)(C) Number and operations. The student applies mathematical process standards to represent and compare whole numbers, the relative position and magnitude of whole numbers, and relationships within the numeration system related to place value. The student is expected to use objects, pictures, and expanded and standard forms to represent numbers up to (2)(D) Number and operations. The student applies mathematical process standards to represent and compare whole numbers, the relative position and magnitude of whole numbers, and relationships within the numeration system related to place value. The student is expected to generate a number that is greater than or less than a given whole number up to (2)(E) Number and operations. The student applies mathematical process standards to represent and compare whole numbers, the relative position and magnitude of whole numbers, and relationships within the numeration system related to place value. The student is expected to use place value to compare whole numbers up to 120 using comparative language. 1(2)(F) Number and operations. The student applies mathematical process standards to represent and compare whole numbers, the relative position and magnitude of whole numbers, and relationships within the numeration system related to place value. The student is expected to order whole numbers up to 120 using place value and open number lines. 1(2)(G) Number and operations. The student applies mathematical process standards to represent and compare whole numbers, the relative position and magnitude of whole numbers, and relationships within the numeration system related to place value. The student is expected to represent the comparison of two numbers to 100 using the symbols >, <, or =. This use of structured arrangements builds students conceptual understandings of the part-whole relationship of numbers (5 and 2 compose to 7) and basic facts (5 + 2 or 2 + 5). These concrete and pictorial models are used to compose and decompose numbers in more than one way as a means to describe the value of whole numbers. So many hundreds, so many tens, and so many ones" may include using models to decompose 67 into 5 tens and 17 ones. It may also include models to decompose 67 into the sum of 50, 10, and 7. This SE allows students to incorporate 1(1)(D) through the use of multiple representations of a number by using concrete models, pictorial models, standard form (119), and expanded form (119 = ). This SE extends K(2)(F) where students are expected to generate a number that is one more or one less than another number up to 20. Students may be expected to use comparative language such as greater than, less than, or equal to in order to compare numbers using place value. For example, given the numbers 87 and 64, a student would describe 64 as having the lesser value because the value of the 6 in the tens place is 60, while having an 8 in the tens place is 80, and 60 is less than 80. In comparing numbers up to 120, one may use the hundreds, tens, and ones places with a set of whole numbers like 118, 108, 98, and 89. Students may be expected to use place value to order numbers based on the value of the digits and use an open number line, which builds to 2(2)(E). The use of an open number line supports student understanding related to the magnitude of number and the place-value relationship among numbers when locating a given number. Students are expected to extend their understanding of comparing numbers using comparative language in 1(2)(E). In this SE, student are expected to compare two numbers using the symbols >, <, or =. This SE complements 1(2)(D), 1(2)(E), and 1(2)(F) Texas Education Agency. All Rights Reserved 2015 Mathematics TEKS: Updated May

8 TEKS: Number and Operations. 1(4)(A) Number and operations. The student applies mathematical process standards to identify coins, their values, and the relationships among them in order to recognize the need for monetary transactions. The student is expected to identify U.S. coins, including pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters, by value and describe the relationships among them. 1(4)(B) Number and operations. The student applies mathematical process standards to identify coins, their values, and the relationships among them in order to recognize the need for monetary transactions. The student is expected to write a number with the cent symbol to describe the value of a coin. 1(4)(C) Number and operations. The student applies mathematical process standards to identify coins, their values, and the relationships among them in order to recognize the need for monetary transactions. The student is expected to use relationships to count by twos, fives, and tens to determine the value of a collection of pennies, nickels, and/or dimes. This SE extends K(4) by asking students to describe the relationship among the coins. For example, a quarter may be thought of as having the same value as 5 nickels or 25 pennies. Students should be familiar with the basic attributes of each coin regardless of if the coin has traditional or other images. The SE expects students to label the value of a coin with the cent symbol, such as a dime has a value of 10. To use the relationships among the coins with connections to skip count, one may count nickels by fives and dimes by tens. One may count two pennies together to count by twos. A collection of coins used for skip counting should not include quarters in grade 1. With a collection of pennies, nickels, and dimes, a student may begin counting by tens to determine the value of the dimes, continue from that amount counting by fives to determine the value of the dimes and the nickels, and count by ones or twos to include the pennies in the value of the collection. The maximum value of the collection is 120 cents Texas Education Agency. All Rights Reserved 2015 Mathematics TEKS: Updated May

9 TEKS: Algebraic Reasoning. 1(5)(A) Algebraic reasoning. The student applies mathematical process standards to identify and apply number patterns within properties of numbers and operations in order to describe relationships. The student is expected to recite numbers forward and backward from any given number between 1 and (5)(B) Algebraic reasoning. The student applies mathematical process standards to identify and apply number patterns within properties of numbers and operations in order to describe relationships. The student is expected to skip count by twos, fives, and tens to determine the total number of objects up to 120 in a set. 1(5)(C) Algebraic reasoning. The student applies mathematical process standards to identify and apply number patterns within properties of numbers and operations in order to describe relationships. The student is expected to use relationships to determine the number that is 10 more and 10 less than a given number up to 120. This SE extends K(5) where students are expected to recite numbers up to at least 100 by ones and tens beginning with any given number. When reciting by tens, kindergarten students counted only multiples of 10: 60, 70, The focus of the counting is on determining the total number of objects in a set. This SE supports 1(4)(C) where students skip count to find the value of a collection of coins. The relationship that students use should focus on place value. For example, 99 = If a student wants a number that is 10 more than 99, the student can think ( ) + 9 or or 109. This SE supports 1(2)(D) and builds to 2(7)(B). For this SE, the student is not asked to solve the word problem. The student is asked to represent the context of the word problem using objects, pictures, and number sentences (equations). 1(5)(D) Algebraic reasoning. The student applies mathematical process standards to identify and apply number patterns within properties of numbers and operations in order to describe relationships. The student is expected to represent word problems involving addition and subtraction of whole numbers up to 20 using concrete and pictorial models and number sentences. Based upon 1(3)(B), these word problems may include the unknown as any one of the terms. For example, Phoung has 12 pencils. She has some red pencils and 8 yellow pencils. How many red pencils does Phoung have? 12 pencils 12 = 8 +? 8 yellow pencils? red pencils This SE requires students to understand that the equal sign does not necessarily mean find the answer. 1(5)(E) Algebraic reasoning. The student applies mathematical process standards to identify and apply number patterns within properties of numbers and operations in order to describe relationships. The student is expected to understand that the equal sign represents a relationship where expressions on each side of the equal sign represent the same value(s). 1(5)(F) Algebraic reasoning. The student applies mathematical process standards to identify and apply number patterns within properties of numbers and operations in order to describe relationships. The student is expected to determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation when the unknown may be any one of the three or four terms in the equation. For example, in the problem = [ ], the relationship may be = 9 or = In both of these number sentences, the expressions on each side of the equal sign have a value of 9. The understanding of this SE helps support 1(5)(F) as students are asked to determine the unknown equation (number sentence). When paired with 1(1)(G), students may be expected to explain that = because the sum on each side of the equal sign is 8. This SE allows students to apply their understanding of 1(5)(E). Examples of equations with three terms and one unknown include 6 + [ ] = 14, 14 [ ] = 6, or 14 6 = [ ]. Examples of equations with four terms include 6 + [ ] = Texas Education Agency. All Rights Reserved 2015 Mathematics TEKS: Updated May

10 TEKS: Algebraic Reasoning. 1(5)(G) Algebraic reasoning. The student applies mathematical process standards to identify and apply number patterns within properties of numbers and operations in order to describe relationships. The student is expected to apply properties of operations to add and subtract two or three numbers. This SE may require students to apply the understanding of properties of operations to problem situations when incorporating 1(1)(A) and 1(1)(C). For example, there are 2 books on Ms. Smith s desk. After lunch, she placed 9 more books on her desk. How many books are on Ms. Smith s desk now? A student may solve this problem using the commutative property of addition. The problem may be solved as = 11, or a student may understand that = 11 and could use this to solve the problem. A student may also use a place-value strategy such as make 10. For example, = 2 + (8 + 1) = (2 + 8) + 1 = = 11 The SE also includes the addition and subtraction of three numbers. For example, students may be expected to add as 3 + (7 + 1) + 6 = (3 + 7) = 10 + (1 + 6) = = 17. The application of the properties of operations allow for the grouping and regrouping of numbers to develop a strong sense of place value and for creating groups of tens and ones Texas Education Agency. All Rights Reserved 2015 Mathematics TEKS: Updated May

11 TEKS: Geometry and Measurement. 1(6)(A) Geometry and measurement. The student applies mathematical process standards to The student is expected to classify and sort regular and irregular two-dimensional shapes based on attributes using informal geometric language. 1(6)(B) Geometry and measurement. The student applies mathematical process standards to The student is expected to distinguish between attributes that define a two-dimensional or three-dimensional figure and attributes that do not define the shape. 1(6)(C) Geometry and measurement. The student applies mathematical process standards to The student is expected to create two-dimensional figures, including circles, triangles, rectangles, and squares, as special rectangles, rhombuses, and hexagons. 1(6)(D) Geometry and measurement. The student applies mathematical process standards to The student is expected to identify two-dimensional shapes, including circles, triangles, rectangles, and squares, as special rectangles, rhombuses, and hexagons and describe their attributes using formal geometric language. 1(6)(E) Geometry and measurement. The student applies mathematical process standards to The student is expected to identify three-dimensional solids, including spheres, cones, cylinders, rectangular prisms (including cubes), and triangular prisms, and describe their attributes using formal geometric language. 1(6)(F) Geometry and measurement. The student applies mathematical process standards to The student is expected to compose two-dimensional shapes by joining two, three, or four figures to produce a target shape in more than one way if possible. 1(6)(G) Geometry and measurement. The student applies mathematical process standards to The student is expected to partition two-dimensional figures into two and four fair shares or equal parts and describe the parts using words. 1(6)(H) Geometry and measurement. The student applies mathematical process standards to The student is expected to identify examples and non-examples of halves and fourths. Students are expected to classify and sort two-dimensional shapes, including rectangles, squares as special rectangles, rhombuses, hexagons, and regular and irregular triangles. Shapes may include figures with curved edges and hexagons other than regular hexagons. The language of the SE does not exclude these figures. Students may use informal language such as corners, sides, curved, straight, etc. as they classify and sort figures. When paired with 1(6)(D), the expectation is that students distinguish between attributes in order to identify two-dimensional shapes. For example, a closed figure with three sides is a triangle. A triangle is not defined by its orientation or color. When paired with 1(6)(E), the expectation is that students distinguish between attributes in order to identify three-dimensional shapes. For example, a solid with exactly six rectangular faces is a rectangular prism. A prism is not defined by its orientation or color. Students may create two-dimensional figures by using materials, sketching figures, cutting figures out of paper, etc. This SE provides a foundation for 2(8)(A) in which students create two-dimensional figures based on given attributes. The SE adds rhombuses and hexagons to the list of two-dimensional geometric shapes found in K(6)(A). Students are expected to use formal geometric language such as vertex and side. Students are expected to identify and describe attributes of specified three-dimensional geometric figures. The SE adds triangular prisms to the list of three-dimensional geometric solids found in K(2)(B). Students are expected to use formal geometric language such as vertex, edge, and face. This SE provides a foundation for 2(8)(D) where students are asked to compose a shape with given properties or attributes. For example, a student may be asked to produce a rectangle as the target shape. A student may join two square tiles to make a rectangle or may join four square tiles to make a rectangle. For this SE, two dimensional figures include circles and rectangles. The student may be expected to partition the figures into two or four equal parts as opposed to being given a shape that is already partitioned and being asked to describe the fraction. Student may be expected to describe the parts using words such as halves, fourths, or quarters and phrases such as half of. The focus of this SE is on the fair sharing or equal parts of the two-dimensional figure. A non-example of a half would be a two-dimensional figure that has been partitioned into two unequal parts Texas Education Agency. All Rights Reserved 2015 Mathematics TEKS: Updated May

12 TEKS: Geometry and Measurement. 1(7)(A) Geometry and measurement. The student applies mathematical process standards to select and use units to describe length and time. The student is expected to use measuring tools to measure the length of objects to reinforce the continuous nature of linear measurement. 1(7)(B) Geometry and measurement. The student applies mathematical process standards to select and use units to describe length and time. The student is expected to illustrate that the length of an object is the number of samesize units of length that, when laid end-to-end with no gaps or overlaps, reach from one end of the object to the other. 1(7)(C) Geometry and measurement. The student applies mathematical process standards to select and use units to describe length and time. The student is expected to measure the same object/distance with units of two different lengths and describe how and why the measurements differ. 1(7)(D) Geometry and measurement. The student applies mathematical process standards to select and use units to describe length and time. The student is expected to describe a length to the nearest whole unit using a number and a unit. 1(7)(E) Geometry and measurement. The student applies mathematical process standards to select and use units to describe length and time. The student is expected to tell time to the hour and half hour using analog and digital clocks. This SE includes non-standard measuring tools that illustrate the continuous nature of length. Examples of tools may include real-world objects such as adding machine tape, ribbon, or string. Units of length may include manipulatives such as proportional rods and objects such as paperclips and craft sticks. In describing how and why the measurements differ, students are expected to describe the relationship between the size of the unit and the number of units needed to measure the length of an object. For example, a student may say, I measured the distance with the white rods and the yellow rods. It took more white rods to measure the distance than yellow rods. The white rods are shorter, so I had to use more to measure the length. This SE provides support for 2(9)(E) where students are asked to describe the inverse relationship between the size of the unit and the number of units needed to equal the length of an object. When students measure length using manipulatives or objects that are linear in nature, they should use a number and a label to identify the length, such as 5 yellow rods or 5 craft sticks. The phrase half hour also indicates that students would recognize that 1:27 is closer to 1:30 than 1:00, so the time would be estimated as 1:30. When looking at an analog clock, students may compare the location of the minute hand between 12 and 6 to determine if a time is closer to an hour, such as 1:00, or closer to a half hour, such as 1:30. Because students begin work with fraction concepts such as halves in grade 1, it is appropriate to focus on 30 minutes as an indicator of a half hour Texas Education Agency. All Rights Reserved 2015 Mathematics TEKS: Updated May

13 TEKS: Data Analysis. 1(8)(A) Data analysis. The student applies mathematical process standards to organize data to make it useful for interpreting information and solving problems. The student is expected to collect, sort, and organize data in up to three categories using models/representations such as tally marks or T-charts. 1(8)(B) Data analysis. The student applies mathematical process standards to organize data to make it useful for interpreting information and solving problems. The student is expected to use data to create picture and bar-type graphs. 1(8)(C) Data analysis. The student applies mathematical process standards to organize data to make it useful for interpreting information and solving problems. The student is expected to draw conclusions and generate and answer questions using information from picture and bar-type graphs. Students are expected to collect data, sort, and organize the data using models and representation such as T-charts and tally marks. The data collection takes place in response to a question. Pairing with 1(8)(B), the student will use the organized data to create a picture or bar-type graph. A picture graph is a graph that uses one picture to represent each piece of data. A bar-type graph may be partitioned into sections so that first graders may use one-to-one correspondence to count the spaces as opposed to use the length as the bar as required in 2(10)(A). The limitations of three categories found in 1(8)(A) applies to this SE. Students extend to 4 categories in grade 2. Data values should align to the Number and Operations standards for grade 1. Answers to questions should align to the Number and Operations standards for grade Texas Education Agency. All Rights Reserved 2015 Mathematics TEKS: Updated May

14 TEKS: Personal Financial Literacy. 1(9)(A) Personal financial literacy. The student applies mathematical process standards to manage one's financial resources effectively for lifetime financial security. The student is expected to define money earned as income. 1(9)(B) Personal financial literacy. The student applies mathematical process standards to manage one's financial resources effectively for lifetime financial security. The student is expected to identify income as a means of obtaining goods and services, oftentimes making choices between wants and needs. 1(9)(C) Personal financial literacy. The student applies mathematical process standards to manage one's financial resources effectively for lifetime financial security. The student is expected to distinguish between spending and saving. 1(9)(D) Personal financial literacy. The student applies mathematical process standards to manage one's financial resources effectively for lifetime financial security. The student is expected to consider charitable giving. Emphasis for this SE should be on the idea that income is earned. This SE builds on K(9)(A) and supports 1(9)(B). This SE builds on K(9)(D) as well as 1(9)(A). This SE builds 2(11)(A) and 3(9)(E). This SE build to 3(9)(F) Texas Education Agency. All Rights Reserved 2015 Mathematics TEKS: Updated May

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