1 Accommodations and Modifications for Students with Disabilities What? When? How? Lakshmi Mahadevan, Ph.D. Rick Peterson, Ph.D., LMFT, CFLE Copyright Notice The materials are copyrighted and trademarked as the property of the Texas Education Agency (TEA) and may not be reproduced without the express written permission of TEA, except under the following conditions: 1. Texas public school districts, charter schools, and Education Service Centers may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for the districts and schools educational use without obtaining permission from TEA. 2. Residents of the state of Texas may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for individual personal use only without obtaining written permission of TEA. 3. Any portion reproduced must be reproduced in its entirety and remain unedited, unaltered and unchanged in any way. 4. No monetary charge can be made for the reproduced materials or any document containing them; however, a reasonable charge to cover only the cost of reproduction and distribution may be charged. Private entities or persons located in Texas that are not Texas public school districts, Texas Education Service Centers, or Texas charter schools or any entity, whether public or private, educational or non-educational, located outside the state of Texas MUST obtain written approval from TEA and will be required to enter into a license agreement that may involve the payment of a licensing fee or a royalty. For information contact: Office of Copyrights, Trademarks, License Agreements, and Royalties, Texas Education Agency, 1701 N. Congress Ave., Austin, TX ; phone or ; 1
2 Objectives Definitions of accommodations and modifications Accommodations Modifications Additional strategies Legal Definitions An accommodation is a change that helps a student overcome or work around the disability. A modification means a change in what is being taught to or expected from the student. 2
3 Definitions in the CTE Context Providing Access Accommodations do not change the content or conceptual difficulty of the CTE curriculum. Thus accommodations are simply supports to get the student to the same goal (license, credential, dual credit, practicum etc.). Modifications are techniques for changes in contents, process, and/or learning outcomes for students with an IEP. They are used to allow students to get to some of the same success levels (may exclude the license, credential, dual credit, practicum etc.). Accommodations Break up task into workable and obtainable steps. Provide examples and specific steps to accomplish task. Define the requirements of a completed activity. Gain student s attention before giving directions. Give one direction at a time. Use alerting cues. Accompany oral directions with written directions. 3
4 Accommodations cont d Make frequent checks during work/assignment completion. Arrange for the student to have a "study buddy. Teach memory techniques as a study strategy (e.g. mnemonics, visualization, oral rehearsal, numerous repetitions). Accommodations cont d Seat student in close proximity to the teacher. Reward appropriate behavior (catch student being good). Teach student hand signals and use to tell student when and when not to talk. Establish routines and procedures. Train student for self-monitoring, reinforce improvements, teach self-questioning strategies 4
5 Accommodations cont d Stand close to an inattentive student and touch him or her on the shoulder as you are teaching, wave a pencil, knock on the desk Alternate physical and mental activities. Increase the novelty of lessons by using realia, videos, PowerPoints, flash cards, role play or small group work. Accommodations cont d Provide student the opportunity to leave class for specialized help; Provide visual aids; Provide study guides and practice exams; Use screen readers; 5
6 Accommodations cont d Allow extra time for testing Teach test-taking skills and strategies Allow student to be tested orallyprovide time management tips and skills; Color code items; Provide task reminders; Provide headphones to remove extraneous noises; Provide photocopied notes. Disclosure/Accommodations Disclosure youth should decide when and how much to tell others, and understand how their disability affects their capacity to learn and/or perform effectively; they should also be aware. Accommodations youth should be empowered to determine what environmental adjustments, supports, and services they need in order to access, participate and excel in school, at work, and in the community. 6
7 Examples In Classroom Seek Help Example Discussion 7
8 Modifications Content Modify what students learn Focus on main topics, concepts, or themes Present essential facts and skills Pre-assess student skills, then match learners with appropriate activities Modifications Content cont d Provide students with choices in order to add depth to learning Provide students with additional resources Use activity-based lessons, games, simulations, role-plays Employ interdisciplinary/thematic units in which a common theme is studied in more than one content area 8
9 Modifications Content cont d Create situations for students to solve problems Allow students to make connections to previous knowledge, Let students bring their own questions to learning, investigate to satisfy their own questions and design ways to try out their ideas Modifications Content cont d Employ experiential lessons in which students have the opportunity to experience, reflect, generalize and apply Allow for community-referenced lessons incorporating experiences such as work-study programs and co-ops 9
10 Modifications - Process Modify how students learn Figure out how students make sense of what they learn Examine student learning styles and preferences Modifications - Process Vary the learning process depending upon how students learn Create stations based on student interest and to establish routine. Plan activities that provide a challenge but are within the range of abilities. 10
11 Modifications - Product Modify the end result of student learning Differentiate by providing challenge, variety, and choice Decrease the length of assignments or lessons. Allow opportunities for the student to show their strengths. Modifications Product cont d Grade effort or participation; Limit answer choices on multiple choice tests; Prioritize assignment and activities. Give students choice on activities or the class agenda. Surprise the students Change the space required, number of participants, methods, and rules, etc. 11
12 Modifications Product cont d Encourage students to create their own product assignments as long as the assignments contain required elements Give students options of how to express required learning (e.g., PowerPoint presentations, demonstrations) Use rubrics that match and extend students' varied skills levels Modifications Physical Environment Eliminate clutter Change the seating, lighting, temperature as necessary Provide access to technology Provide materials that reflect a variety of cultures and home settings Substitute lighter and more easily controlled equipment. 12
13 Modifications Social Environment Instruct using small groups Use peer partners Use cross-age tutors Promote cooperation instead of competition. Promote inclusion instead of segregation. Modifications Social Environment Flexible Grouping Group students to allow them to learn the same content of the same difficulty level; Adjust group membership when students within a group show they are able to move on to the next level and have mastered the task; Readiness to move to a different group is dependent on skill and interest. Fluid movement between groups allows for differences even within the individual. In addition, students are not tied to or labeled within one group. 13
14 Modifications Social Environment Reward more, criticize less, and praise good behavior immediately. Change rewards if ineffective at improving behavior. Develop pre-established consequences, make sure discipline fits, and enforce rules consistently. Praise when real effort is exerted (even if unsuccessful). Never praise falsely. Modifications Social Environment Don t accept blame as an excuse for poor performance. Maintain eye contact during verbal instruction. Use humor and personal examples as appropriate. Listen to what the child has to say, and be patient and understanding. Pay attention and repeat back. When a rule is broken, remain calm, state the infraction, and avoid arguing or debating. 14
15 Modifications - Examples Varying Instruction In Lab Settings In Classroom Curriculum Adaptations You already do this Graphic Organizers Employ a visual display that allows students to more easily understand the information presented. Examples include: Organizational charts Network trees Venn diagram Concept mapping Spider maps Cause and effect Sequencing chart Time order chart 15
16 Concept Map Causes: Effect(s): Venn Diagram 16
17 Spider Map Fact Theory Feature Topic/ Concept Supporting Idea Attribute Example Data Quotes Video Summaries Definition Review Teacher Anecdotes Ask Yourself 17
18 Collaborative Tools Clarify definitions of accommodations and modifications. Ask Why CTE? Use CTSP tools Tools cont s Student Profile to trigger thoughts of how to customize access for him or her Program Inventory to stimulate conversation on environmental accommodations and modifications Basic Skills Inventory for individualized accommodations Comprehensive Inventory for modifying content/goals 18
19 Student Profile Tool Student Profile cont d 19
20 Program Inventory Suggestion: Consider ranking and/or percentages Program Inventory cont d 20
21 Program Inventory cont d Program Inventory cont d 21
22 Program Inventory cont d Basic Skills Inventory 22
23 Basic Skills cont d Basic Skills cont d 23
24 Comprehensive Skills cont d Questions? 24
25 Website and Contact Information For more information please go to: Mailing Address: Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Attn: Lakshmi Mahadevan TAMU MS 2251 College Station, TX Phone: Fax:
26 EXAMPLE OF A COMPREHENSIVE SKILLS INVENTORY Food Science Course Rationale: To improve the health and quality of life of Missouri citizens, performance competencies for the Food Science course taught in Family and Consumer Sciences Education programs enable students to: a) construct meaning related to the biochemistry of foods and nutrition; b) solve problems related to foods and nutrition through the application of scientific principles; and, c) assess the impact of food safety and sanitation on the health and well-being of individuals and families. Directions: Evaluate the student by checking the appropriate number or letter to indicate the degree of competency. The rating for each task should reflect employability readiness rather than the grades given in class. Rating Scale: 3 Mastered can work independently with no supervision 2 Requires Supervision can perform job completely with limited supervision 1 Not Mastered requires instruction and close supervision N No Exposure no experience or knowledge in this area N A. Orientation to Food Science Notes: 1. Compare and contrast food science to foodservice management 2. Utilize basic principles of measurement in scientific experimentation (e.g., metrics, formulas, and equations) 3. Demonstrate use, care, and safety of scientific lab equipment 4. Explain the steps in the scientific method 5. Write accurate and complete reports of science experiments 6. Identify the public and private organizations that influence food service, dietetics and nutrition industries 7. Identify career paths related to food science, dietetics and nutrition Other: N B. Sensory Evaluation of Food Notes: 1. Identify qualities that make up the sensory characteristics of food 2. Describe characteristics of sensory evaluation using appropriate terms 3. Determine characteristics that affect food preferences Other: N C. Food Safety and Sanitation Notes: 1. Compare the positive and negative effects of yeast, molds, bacteria and enzymes in foods 2. Identify principles of HACCP (assess hazards, identify critical control points, set up control procedures, monitor critical control points, take corrective actions, develop a record keeping system, verify that the system is working) Food Science Competency Profile (4/98) 1
27 Tools You Can Use Writing IEP Goals for Students with Disabilities As a teacher of students with disabilities, you may be asked to write IEP goals for your students. You will need to use the TEKS for your class and consider the student s present level of performance to write a goal. Goals should be measurable and observable. They should be written in a way that anyone could come into your classroom and observe whether or not the student is meeting the goal. Examples of Goals: Mark will be able to comprehend grade level texts. When Mark is given a grade level text to read, he will be able to answer three comprehension questions about the text with 80% accuracy. When given a story to read, Mark will be able to identify the main idea of the story three out of four times. Mark will be able to solve 25 math problems in 20 minutes with 70% accuracy. List some of the TEKS objectives required for your class: Practice writing goals based on the above objectives.
28 Student Profile: Describe the characteristics of a student with disabilities in your classroom. Goals: What goals do you have for all students in your classroom? What goals would be appropriate for the student described above? Does this student need accommodations, modifications, or both? Accommodations: What accommodations might work best for this student? Modifications: What modifications might be most appropriate for this student?
29 Accommodations: Accommodations are used when students with disabilities are working on the same goals as all students in the class. Accommodations do not change what the student will be responsible for mastering. Examples: Extra time on assignments Oral exams Small group instruction Study guides Graphic organizers Immediate feedback What are some accommodations that you might consider using in your classroom? Modifications: Modifications are used to make changes to the content that a student with a disability may be responsible for learning. In other words, students may not be required to master the same objectives, or they may have a different level of instruction. Examples: Selected TEKS objectives, some of which may be at a different level Shortened assignments Alternate curriculum Fewer TEKS objectives to be mastered What are some modifications that you might consider using in your classroom?
30 Accommodations: Accommodations are used when students with disabilities are working on the same goals as all students in the class. Accommodations do not change what the student will be responsible for mastering. Examples: Extra time on assignments Oral exams Small group instruction Study guides Graphic organizers Immediate feedback What are some accommodations that you might consider using in your classroom? Modifications: Modifications are used to make changes to the content that a student with a disability may be responsible for learning. In other words, students may not be required to master the same objectives, or they may have a different level of instruction. Examples: Selected TEKS objectives, some of which may be at a different level Shortened assignments Alternate curriculum Fewer TEKS objectives to be mastered What are some modifications that you might consider using in your classroom?
31 Program Inventory Example (Take to IEP Meetings) Program Title Textbook Title/Author Instructor Reading Level 1 = Used Often 2 = Used Less Frequently Information Input (Instructional Methods) Information Sources Textbook Worksheets Lecture Discussion Audio-visual material Audiotape Concrete experience Other Structure Directed Independent Peer tutor One on one adult Small group Large group/class Other Information Output (Types of Assignments) Test Format Short Answer Essay Multiple Choice True-False Matching Computation Word problems/math Other Assignments Worksheets Short Papers Term Papers Demo/lab projects Oral reports Group discussion Computation Word problems/math Maps, charts, graphs Other Grading Criteria (Click for Video) Extra Credit Source: Sarkees-Wircenski, M. & Scott, J.L. (2003). Special populations in career and technical education. Homewood, IL: American Technical Publishers, Inc. 1
32 Basic Skills Inventory (Use before determining placement) Program Title Textbook Title/Author Instructor Reading Level PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS (Check only high-priority requirements) ACADEMIC SKILLS NEEDED Becoming interested Paying attention to the spoken word Paying attention to the printed word Following directions Keeping track of materials, assignments Staying on task Completing tasks on time Working in groups Working independently Learning by listening Expressing him/herself verbally Spelling Seeing relationships Understanding cause and effect; anticipating consequences Drawing conclusions/making Inferences Remembering Notetaking Outlining Independent researching Measuring Other OTHER PREREQUISITES BEHAVIORAL SKILLS NEEDED Coming to class on time Coming to class prepared Following directions Staying in seat Staying on task Completing tasks on time Understanding/following safety rules Asking questions or for help when needed Working in groups Working independently Other ATTENDANCE POLICY HOMEWORK POLICY OTHER PROGRAM RULES MAKE-UP WORK POLICY Source: Sarkees-Wircenski, M. & Scott, J.L. (2003). Special populations in career and technical education. Homewood, IL: American Technical Publishers, Inc. 2
33 Student Profile: Describe the characteristics of a student with disabilities in your classroom. Goals: What goals do you have for all students in your classroom? What goals would be appropriate for the student described above? Does this student need accommodations, modifications, or both? Accommodations: What accommodations might work best for this student? Modifications: What modifications might be most appropriate for this student?