Urbanization Grade Nine

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1 Ohio Standards Connection: Geography Benchmark B Analyze geographic changes brought about by human activity using appropriate maps and other geographical data. Indicator 4 Explain the causes and consequences of urbanization including economic development, population growth and environmental change. Lesson Summary: Great Britain during the Industrial Revolution will serve as a case study for this lesson. Students will research how and why economic development, population growth and environmental change affected, and were affected by, the Industrial Revolution. Visual aspects of the lesson will help students actually see the changes wrought by the Industrial Revolution. Estimated Duration: One hour and 30 minutes Commentary: An educator who used this lesson as part of the field test noted that the pre-assessment activity worked well because students could use their knowledge of the local area to answer the questions. Pre-Assessment: Ask the following questions. Have students respond verbally. Record the answers on a chalkboard or marker board. (10-15 min.) 1. Think of a village or city near where you live. What is the approximate population of that municipality? 2. What factors might cause the population of that village or city to increase significantly? 3. How would the village or city change if the population doubled? Scoring Guidelines: While recording student answers in response to question two, note those answers that reflect ideas pertaining to economic development, population growth and environmental change as factors contributing to the growth of the identified area. While recording student answers in response to question three, note those answers that reflect ideas about the impact of growth in a municipality on economic development, population growth and environmental change. 1

2 Use the student responses to determine if students are thinking in terms of the three categories included in the indicator. Instruction can be adjusted if students need directions about the categories. Students needing individualized instruction should also be identified. Post-Assessment: Ask students to write a newspaper article that shows their understanding of the reasons British cities grew during the Industrial Revolution and the consequences of that growth. The assignment and rubric are on Attachment C. The headline for the article is: Cities are Growing Rapidly. Each article should explain the causes and consequences of urbanization during the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain. The essay should include specific examples of causes and consequences in each category below: a. Economic development; b. Population growth; c. Environmental change. Scoring Guidelines: See Attachment C for the grading rubric. See Attachment D for possible answers. Instructional Procedures: Day One Instructional Tip: Students should have completed a reading in their textbook or some other source on the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain before beginning this lesson. 1. Use a historical map to locate a city in Great Britain that became an industrial center during the Industrial Revolution. 2. Ask students What factors related to economic development, population growth and environmental change would contribute to the growth of industrial centers during the 1700s such as the one on the map? Have students reflect upon responses from the preassessment activity that might be relevant to the 1700s in Great Britain. Review the correct responses by asking students to volunteer their answers. Have students make notes based on this debriefing. Correct any misinformation or misconceptions. (Possible answers might include increased profits from the enclosure movement with resulting changes in agricultural production, rapid increases in population, and enhanced abilities to utilize sources of energy in the environment.) 3. Draw a T-chart on a chalk or marker board. On the left side put the word rural. On the right side put the word urban. Ask for volunteers to give examples of what you would find in each area. (See Attachment A for an example.) Direct students to write a journal entry or a paragraph explaining why people might move from rural areas to urban areas. 4. Direct students toward a passage in the text or a reading on the changes in Great Britain as a result of the Industrial Revolution. 2

3 5. Distribute Attachment B, Urbanization Activity Sheet, and review the directions with the class. Answer any questions students may have about the assignment. 6. Provide students with the remainder of class time to begin the activity sheet. They may use additional print or electronic resources to find their answers. Assign the remainder of the worksheet for homework. Day Two 7. Check to make sure the activity sheet is completed. Review the correct responses by asking students to volunteer their answers (see Attachment D for possible answers). Correct any misinformation or misconceptions. 8. Distribute Attachment C, Post-Assessment, and allow students a few minutes to read the handout. 9. Answer any clarifying questions students may have about the post-assessment task or the accompanying rubric. 10. Assign the post-assessment task for homework and establish a due date. Differentiated Instructional Support: Instruction is differentiated according to learner needs, to help all learners either meet the intent of the specified indicator(s) or, if the indicator is already met, to advance beyond the specified indicator(s). Develop a graphic organizer of pre-assessment information for students to use in responding to the lesson question about relevant economic development, population growth and environmental change factors of the 1700s in Great Britain. Challenge students to investigate a different city such as Pittsburgh or Cologne to determine when it industrialized. Compare the factors related to industrialization in that city with developments in Great Britain s cities. Have students with writing difficulties record their answers on a tape recorder or have another student record their answers. Have students experiencing difficulties with summarizing assist with the pre-assessment activity by capturing the essentials of the verbal responses and recording them on the chalk or marker board. Extensions: Have students create their own cities by using computer simulation software or hand drawings. Have students research careers in urban planning. Display pictures of cities in Great Britain during the Industrial Revolution and help students notice important details related to urbanization. Homework Options and Home Connections: Have students interview family members or acquaintances who have lived in urban areas and ask about economic, living and environmental conditions where they lived. 3

4 Interdisciplinary Connections: English Language Arts The class could read excerpts from works of fiction or nonfiction concerning urbanization. Materials and Resources: The inclusion of a specific resource in any lesson formulated by the Ohio Department of Education should not be interpreted as an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. The Ohio Department of Education does not endorse any particular resource. The Web addresses listed are for a given site s main page, therefore, it may be necessary to search within that site to find the specific information required for a given lesson. Please note that information published on the Internet changes over time, therefore the links provided may no longer contain the specific information related to a given lesson. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students. For the teacher: Historical map of Great Britain at the time of the Industrial Revolution, chalkboard or marker board. For the students: Writing materials, textbooks, print resources, computer access. Vocabulary: urbanization industry population economic environment urban rural enclosure movement economic development Industrial Revolution Technology Connections: Computer simulation software can be utilized for city planning and building. Research Connections: Marzano, R. et al. Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Activating prior knowledge is critical to learning new concepts. Note-taking helps students identify and understand the most important aspects of what they are learning. 4

5 General Tips: Urbanization is still taking place. Help students to understand that it is not associated only with the Industrial Revolution. Attachments: Attachment A, T-Chart example Attachment B, Urbanization Activity Sheet Attachment C, Post-Assessment Attachment D, Post-Assessment Possible Answers 5

6 Attachment A T-Chart Example Characteristics of Rural and Urban Areas Rural Urban open spaces farms farm animals pastures crops fresh air many people large buildings factories business/commercial district pollution theatres/entertainment public transportation and other public services 6

7 Attachment B Urbanization Activity Sheet Name Date Part A Directions: Use textbook, print or computer resources to define the following terms. Be sure to include the appropriate definition for words with more than one meaning. Vocabulary 1. urbanization- 2. industry- 3. population- 4. economic- 5. environment- 6. urban- 7. rural- Part B Directions: Use your notes from this lesson, along with textbook, print or computer resources to find the answers to the following questions. Remember to answer in complete sentences. 1. Identify one economic development which helped to bring about urbanization in Great Britain during the 1700s. Explain how this occurred. 2. Identify one economic development that was brought about by urbanization in Great Britain during the 1700s and 1800s. Explain how this occurred. 3. Identify how population growth helped bring about urbanization in Great Britain during the 1700s. Explain how this occurred. 4. Identify how population growth was impacted by urbanization in Great Britain during the 1700s and 1800s. Explain how this occurred. 5. Identify how environmental change contributed to the urbanization of Great Britain during the 1700s. Explain how this occurred. 6. Identify how urbanization in Great Britain during the 1700s and 1800s brought about environmental change. Explain how this occurred. 7

8 Name Attachment C Post-Assessment Date Directions: Write a newspaper article that shows your understanding of the reasons cities grow and the consequences of that growth. The headline for the article is: Cities are Growing Rapidly. Your article should explain the causes and consequences of urbanization during the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain. The essay should include specific examples of causes and consequences in each category below: a. Economic Development; b. Population Growth; c. Environmental Change. The rubric on the next page explains how you will be graded for this project. 8

9 Attachment C (continued) Grading Rubric Possible Points Economic Development 4 Provides a thorough the causes and the consequences of Population Growth Provides a thorough the causes and consequences of Environmental Change Provides a thorough the causes and consequences of Your Points 3 Provides a thorough consequence AND a partial the other. Provides a thorough consequence AND a partial the other. Provides a thorough consequence AND a partial the other. 2 Provides a thorough consequence OR provides partial both. Provides a thorough consequence OR provides partial both. Provides a thorough consequence OR provides partial both. 1 Provides a partial either a cause or consequence. Provides a partial either a cause or consequence. Provides a partial either a cause or consequence. 0 Provides minimal or no explanation as to a cause or a consequence of Provides minimal or no explanation as to a cause or a consequence of Provides minimal or no explanation as to a cause or a consequence of Your Total: 9

10 Attachment D Post-Assessment Possible Answers a. Economic Development Cause of urbanization - increased profits from the enclosure movement with resulting changes in agricultural production meant farmers could sustain large urban populations Consequence of urbanization cities brought together large populations of laborers to perform the various tasks in new industries b. Population Growth Cause of urbanization - rapid increases in population created a demand for housing that was answered by urban growth Consequence of urbanization crowded living conditions in cities led to increased incidents of disease and death c. Environmental Change Cause of urbanization - enhanced abilities to utilize sources of energy in the environment allowed large industrial enterprises to develop and draw laborers to cities Consequence of urbanization increased pollution due to conditions such as poor sanitation and increased burning of coal 10

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