1 GUIDELINES FOR THE IEP TEAM DATA COLLECTION & Progress Monitoring Decisions about the effectiveness of an intervention must be based on data, not guesswork. Frequent, repeated measures of progress toward the specified goal are collected. Best practice would indicate that data relevant to the presenting problem or behaviors of concern are collected at least once or twice per week. Data collection procedures are valid and reliable, individually tailored, and quantified. Results are graphed. What is progress monitoring? Progress monitoring is a scientifically based practice that is used to assess students academic performance and evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. Progress monitoring can be implemented with individual students or an entire class. How does progress monitoring work? To implement progress monitoring, the student s current levels of performance are determined and goals are identified for learning that will take place over time. The student s academic performance is measured on a regular basis (weekly or monthly). Progress toward meeting the student s goals is measured by comparing expected and actual rates of learning. Based on these measurements, teaching is adjusted as needed. Thus, the student s progression of achievement is monitored and instructional techniques are adjusted to meet the individual students learning needs. What are the benefits of progress monitoring? When progress monitoring is implemented correctly, the benefits are great for everyone involved. Some benefits include: accelerated learning because students are receiving more appropriate instruction; more informed instructional decisions; documentation of student progress for accountability purposes; more efficient communication with families and other professionals about students progress; fewer Special Education referrals higher expectations for students by teachers; and increase in student performance
2 Overall, the use of progress monitoring results in more efficient and appropriately targeted instructional techniques and goals, which together, move all students to faster attainment of important state standards of achievement. Who should be practicing progress monitoring? All educators should be implementing progress monitoring. Whether you are a regular educator, special educator, related service provider, administrator, or family member, you should be interested in implementing research-based progress monitoring practices in order to improve academic achievement for children. Are there other names for progress monitoring? Progress monitoring is a relatively new term. Some other terms you may be more familiar with are Curriculum-Based Measurement and Curriculum-Based Assessment. Whatever method you decide to use, it is most important that you ensure it is a scientifically based practice that is supported by significant research. The Keys to Effective Programming Comprehensive evaluation to determine strengths & weaknesses and identify needs Explicitly stated present levels of performance Appropriate and measurable goals Effective instructional methods Continuous progress monitoring Comprehensive Evaluation Individual standardized tests Curriculum- based assessments Current classroom-based, local, & state assessments Work samples Interviews Observational data Rating scales, if appropriate Running records Review of records Explicit and Specific Present Levels Quantitative baseline data in very specific terms Academic, developmental and functional performance- includes behavior The starting point for development of the entire IEP o Transition plans
3 o Goals and objectives o Accommodations- classroom and testing o Supplementary aids and services o LRE Appropriate Measurable Goals Flow form the present levels Specifically identify the targeted skill or behavior Include method of evaluation Progress monitor Measurable Objectives for Progress Annual goal (minus) Current performance / (divided by) number of weeks between baseline and goal = (equals) measurable objectives for progress Effective Instructional Methods Standards Based Instruction Research and evidence based interventions Differentiated Instruction Positive Behavioral supports Interventions directly tied to student needs Continuous Progress Monitoring Assess student s performance regularly Evaluate effectiveness of instruction and interventions Compare expected rates to actual rates of improvement Adjust instruction or intervention How do we do it? The method of monitoring progress toward the intervention goal is important for databased decision making. The same kind of assessment information gathered during data collection and problem analysis (establishing baseline) is used to monitor progress and determine the effectiveness of the intervention(s). Data to be collected for progress monitoring purposes must be quantifiable (counted) and graphed against an aim line (the line between the baseline and the goal). Progress monitoring data, collected one or two times per week, is graphed as a data point and trend lines are drawn between data points. The team or individual responsible for implementing the intervention uses this information to make decisions as to the effectiveness of the plan, and adjusts accordingly. Data collection is done consistently throughout the
4 duration of the intervention and is documented on the Intervention form graph. If the Intervention form is not used, another graphic data collection display must be used. Progress monitoring data collected during the intervention needs to be reviewed. Systematic progress monitoring includes regular and frequent data collection, analysis of individual performance over time, and modification of interventions as frequently as is necessary to ensure success. A primary cause of failed interventions is incomplete or inaccurate implementation of the plan. To maintain integrity of the plan, periodic checks by the LEA/AEA support personnel are recommended. These checks logically occur as personnel help collect or organize progress monitoring data. What questions should the team use to guide decision making? How will the Team know that the intervention is working? How will the Team know if the intervention is not working? How will the person responsible for implementation show others that the intervention is working (or not)? How will the team know if the intervention needs fine tuning? How will the team know if the intervention needs to be changed? What should it look like if we are doing it right? Examples of Progress Monitoring Weekly frequency of incidents of physical aggression toward peers during recess. Baseline number of incidents collected for three days prior to implementation of intervention. Recess monitor reports number of incidents to teacher who records on daily chart. Dolch word drill intervention activities monitored by the interventionist through weekly checks of number of words retained from list studied each week. Monthly maintenance checks also conducted to assess the student s ability to maintain long term recognition of words learned earlier. Practicing single digit math facts monitored during the next six weeks. Parent practice 15 minutes nightly. Baseline and post testing of number of facts mastered by target student and class average done by teacher to determine rate of progress and mastery. Non-examples Student was aggressive toward peers a lot during recesses this month. We ll keep an eye on him at recess. Dolch words are being worked on. Mastery of the number of words learned checked at the end of first and third quarters when all students are checked. Single digit math facts worked on when time permits and reviewed informally by teacher on intermittent basis.
5 Questions and Answers: 1. What if the behavior or problem cannot be counted or graphed? If you are having difficulty quantifying the behavior, chances are that you have not adequately described it in concrete, observable terms. Consider returning to the Goals and Objective section of the IEP and the Behavior Intervention Plan to re-define the problem in a way that can be measured by frequency (how many?), duration (how long?), intensity (how bad?). Also consider the use of a rubric in those situations where you are looking at several facets of a behavior that may each occur on a continuum of quality, and that do not lend themselves to frequency counts. 2. Who is responsible for collecting progress monitoring data? The Team should determine the type of progress monitoring data to be collected, the frequency of collection, and who shall be responsible for collection and recording. The method of data collection should be agreed to before the intervention is implemented. Ideally, the person who is responsible for implementation should also collect performance data. Intervention Design and Implementation The design and implementation of interventions includes consultation with general education support and instructional personnel working collaboratively to improve an individual s educational performance. Intervention activities are documented and reflect measurable, goal-directed attempts to resolve the presenting problem or behaviors of concern. How do we do it? Step 1. Write a goal(s) for the intervention. Consider baseline information collected during Data Collection and Problem Analysis. Determine a goal that is meaningful, measurable, monitorable, and useful in decision-making. Be certain that the goal statement includes conditions, learner behavior, and criteria. Useful questions might include, What is the expected outcome? What level of performance will the student need to reach in order to meet expectations? What level of performance can we live with (short of expectations)? Step 2. Discuss intervention options. Interventions are designed based on the preceding analysis, defined problem, parent input, and professional judgments about the potential effectiveness of interventions. A systematic, data-based process for examining all that is known about the presenting problem or behaviors of concern is used to identify interventions that have a high likelihood of success. Group facilitation strategies should be used to brainstorm ideas (e.g., use a three minute process to think, write, and share, in a round robin fashion, possible interventions to address the problem). When identifying strategies, all collaborative problem solving participants assume responsibility for contributing ideas and considering options. The
6 intent is to generate and explore a wide range of possible strategies for consideration by the team. Throughout the process, team members should keep in mind the desired outcome, feasibility of suggested interventions, and the resources needed for implementation. Step 3. Select one or two intervention options for implementation. The intervention(s) must be directly related to the problem behavior. Factors that contribute to the mismatch between current and expected levels of performance must be considered. Consideration should be given to alterable characteristics of both the individual and the environment (modifying instructional strategies, adapting curriculum materials, and changing relevant behaviors of the student, teacher, others.) Step 4. Write the intervention as an action plan. Determine procedures (skills to be taught, instructional strategies to be used, etc.), arrangements (location of instruction, schedule, time, materials to be used, etc.) and person(s) responsible. Step 5. Implement the plan as written. What questions should the team use to guide decision making? What needs to be changed (environment, instructional strategies, curriculum materials, behaviors) and how could it be done? What effective, research based strategies could be used to address this problem? How can we learn about them? What resources are available to help resolve this problem? What are the most natural, least intrusive, least restrictive, and most effective strategies for accomplishing the desired change? To what extent do these strategies fit with current classroom routine and teaching practices? What positive effects, if any, are likely to result for other students if this strategy is used? What negative effect? How will the intervention occur to improve the situation? (Consider who will do what, when, where, and how?) How can the entire team best support the intervention and the person responsible for the intervention during its implementation?
7 What should it look like if we are doing it right? Examples of Intervention Design and Implementation Student will continue with the same reading series, same story as peers, and will be present in class during reading instruction. Volunteer will read story aloud to student 1x per day. (5 minutes of recess time.) 15 minutes daily work with phoneme segmentation activities in small group setting. Vocabulary from reading series stories will be pre-taught (15 minutes 3x weekly, small group). Additional daily opportunities to discuss what has been read in small group or one-to-one interaction with teacher. Non-examples Parent conference, encourage reading at home. Student will receive a token each time she raises her hand to answer teacher question instead of blurting out the answer. Exchange tokens at the end of day for computer time. Due to Katie s anxiety, she will not be called on to respond in class. Teacher may check for understanding in private conversation. Avoid admonitions to look at me when disciplining. When Katie volunteers to respond in class, wait time of additional seconds may be necessary. Reward system for appropriate behavior in class. Student allowed additional 5 minutes for math tests. If necessary to accommodate time, tests may be taken in special ed room. Additional drill and practice on basic math facts provided for 15 minutes daily. Spelling words for student will consist of only 6 of the 8 weekly words and no challenge words. Incorporate spelling practice with phoneme segmentation activities (teach strategy of segmenting word verbally before and during the actual writing of the word. Teach recheck strategy by comparing letter string to phoneme segments of each spelling word. Extended test time. Decrease spelling list.
8 John will be taught appropriate strategies for dealing with negative comments from peers at recess. Counselor will work individually with John to develop social stories for recess behavior. If an incident occurs at recess, counselor will process with John immediately after to discuss appropriate strategies and plan for next recess. Send a note home. Go to principal s office and call Mom. Questions and Answers: 1. What is the definition of intervention? Intervention is a goal oriented strategy designed to decrease the gap between a student s current performance and that of his/her peers or classroom expectations. Interventions focus on alterable characteristics of the environment, and may include: changes in classroom management or environment, instructional or curriculum modifications, in-school counseling, extra help for skill development, changes in teaching methods, changes in program, disciplinary techniques, etc. 2. What is the difference between an accommodation and a modification? An accommodation is any support or service provided to help a student access the general education curriculum and validly demonstrate learning. Examples might include teacher prepared notes, peer readers, extended testing time, etc. Accommodations do not alter the content of what students are expected to learn, but rather allow different ways to access and demonstrate learning. Modifications refer to changes made in the content or performance standards for some students. Examples might include modified assignments or performance expectations, reading a book at a lower instructional level than the rest of the class, etc. Modifications alter the content of what some students are expected to learn. 3. Is special education an appropriate intervention during General Education Intervention? No. Special Education is a service provided to students with disabilities who require specially designed instruction in order to access and progress in the general education curriculum. However, special education personnel can be instrumental in intervention design and implementation, due to their specialized expertise.
9 4. How long should an intervention last? Best practice suggests that an intervention should be implemented for six to nine weeks before any judgment regarding effectiveness can be reliably made. Effective interventions should continue as long as the student continues to be successful. If the intervention is shown to be effective, but requires continued and substantial effort that may include the provision of special education, a full and individual evaluation should be conducted. If the problem or behavior of concern is shown to be resistant to well designed and implemented general education interventions, then a full and individual evaluation should be conducted. DATA COLLECTION and PROBLEM ANALYSIS Specifically, the problem is now defined based on the mismatch between what people expect of the student and his/her current level of performance. Teacher expectations should be based on Georgia Performance Standards (GPS), district benchmarks, grade level criteria, and comparison with peers. The behavior described in the Individualized Education Plan (IEP) is quantified (given a numerical value) so that it can be observed and measured. How do we do it? A fundamental principle underlying a collaborative problem solving approach is that learning is the result of the interaction between the learner and the environment. Both the individual and the environment are examined through systematic data collection. The Team should consider: Child variables, such as current skills and behaviors, learning styles, response styles, performance vs. skill deficit, etc. Curricular variables such as scope and sequence of objectives Instructional variables, such as teaching strategies, opportunity to respond, practice time, feedback procedures. Classroom context, such as class size, physical arrangement and structure, equipment and materials, etc. Peer intervention and support. Teacher interaction, such as teaching strategies, classroom management, classroom directions, and feedback format. School and/or district variables, such as policies and resources available. Family variables, such as stressors, interactions, and parenting skills. Community variables. What questions should the team use to guide decision making? What is the expected level of performance for this behavior in comparison to peers, classroom criteria, standards and benchmarks?
10 What is the student s actual level of performance for this behavior in comparison to peers, classroom criteria, standards and benchmarks? Why is the problem situation occurring? What factors could be contributing to the mismatch that exists between actual and desired level of performance for the target behaviors? What should it look like if we are doing it right? Examples of Data Collection and Problem Analysis Student is reading 20 wpm and avg of class is 60 wpm on grade level materials. Student uses average of 25 words to retell a story he has read, class average is 85 words used. Weak vocabulary skills seem to have most influence on comprehension. Can answer average of 2 out of 10 comprehension questions from a grade level passage. Peers average 8 of 10 correct. Average scores on reading unit tests 2 of 10 correct on 5 of last 6 unit tests. Typical peer 8/10 on last 6 unit tests. Talking without permission 10 times per day compared to one time for average student. Appears to blurt out because he can t remember if he has to wait. Takes an average of 5 minutes to begin paper/pencil tasks (average peer less than 1 minute). Takes average of 20 minutes longer than peers to complete written assignments. Attention controls for written work output appear to be weak. Non-Examples Student doesn t read fast as classmates. Current grade in reading is D. Will really have trouble next year. 64% average. Comprehension: 20% Doesn t know what he s read Talks without permission all the time. Works very slowly. Daydreams when he should be working. What should it look like if we are doing it right? Examples of Data Collection and Problem Analysis Non-Examples
11 Student is reading 20 wpm and avg of class is 60 wpm on grade level materials. Student uses average of 25 words to retell a story he has read, class average is 85 words used. Weak vocabulary skills seem to have most influence on comprehension. Can answer average of 2 out of 10 comprehension questions from a grade level passage. Peers average 8 of 10 correct. DIBELS phoneme segmentation score was 7 (Winter). Should be at by now. May need to strengthen phonemic awareness skills. Average scores on reading unit tests 2 of 10 correct on 5 of last 6 unit tests. Typical peer 8/10 Student doesn t read fast as classmates. Current grade in reading is D. Will really have trouble next year. 64% average. Comprehension: 20% Doesn t know what he s read on last 6 unit tests. John averages aggressive acts per 15 minute recess, typical peer averages 1 or 2. Problem is worse if activity is unstructured. During structured activities/games, John averages 3 aggressive acts per recess. Talking without permission 10 times per day compared to one time for average student. Appears to blurt out because he can t remember if he has to wait. Takes an average of 5 minutes to begin paper/pencil tasks (average peer less than 1 minute). Takes average of 20 minutes longer than peers to complete written assignments. Attention controls for written work output appear to be weak. Talks without permission all the time. Works very slowly. Daydreams when he should be working.
12 Content of Assessment Domains INSTRUCTION This domain includes: instructional decision making regarding selection and use of materials instructional decision making regarding placement of students in materials progress monitoring clarity of instructions communication of expectations & criteria for success direct instruction with explanations and cues sequencing of lesson designs to promote success variety of practice activities pace of presentation of new content CURRICULUM This domain includes: long range direction for instruction instructional philosophy/approaches instructional materials intent stated outcomes for the course of study arrangement of the content/ instruction pace of the steps leading to the outcomes general learner criteria as identified in the school improvement plan, LEA curriculum and benchmarks ENVIRONMENT This domain includes: physical arrangement of the room furniture/equipment rules management plans routines expectations peer context peer and family influence task pressure LEARNER This is the last domain to consider, and is addressed when: the curriculum and instruction are appropriate, the environment is positive This domain includes student performance data: academic social/behavioral
13 RIOT Procedures Assessment data across each of these domains should be gathered from multiple sources. Data can be gathered through Reviews, Interviews, Observations, and finally Tests if needed. This set of procedures is referred to as RIOT. Although RIOT is a catchy acronym, the order of the letters is significant. The least intrusive and time intensive procedures should be utilized first. If the needed information can be obtained through reviews and interviews, there may be no need to do observations or tests to answer some assessment questions. It is important to remember that a single source of data is not sufficient for making significant educational decisions rather; decisions should be based on convergent data. The following pages contain a series of matrixes illustrating RIOT procedures to utilize across each of the four domains. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list; rather it is a sampling of assessment activities.