Elements of a Novel and Narrative Writing Grade 10

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1 Ohio Standards Connection Literary Text Benchmark B Explain and analyze how the context of setting and the author s choice of point of view impact a literary text. Indicator 2 Analyze the features of setting and their importance in a literary text. Indicator 8 Analyze the author s use of point of view, mood and tone. Benchmark C Identify the structural elements of the plot and explain how an author develops conflicts and plot to pace the events in literary text. Indicator 3 Distinguish how conflicts, parallel plots and subplots affect the pacing of action in a literary text. Writing Applications Benchmark A Compose narratives that establish a specific setting, plot and a consistent point of view, and develop characters by using sensory details and concrete language. Lesson Summary: After completing a novel unit, students demonstrate their understanding of literary elements such as plot, characterization, setting, point of view, conflicts, mood, tone and imagery by writing a narrative that includes a character from the novel set in each student s favorite place. Estimated Duration: Five hours Commentary: From this lesson, students learn the impact of setting on characters in a variety of situations. Students carry this knowledge with them to analyze, for example, the impact of war settings or technology on the behavior of the characters. I liked using the imagery and setting graphic organizer. I think this made the students really think more about specific details of the setting. I like that students individual interests (favorite character, setting) are used to motivate new writing. Good variety of cooperative grouping and commendable integration of reading and writing. Pre-Assessment: Use the Pre-Assessment Chart, Attachment A to make observations of previous literature discussions and/or products. Instructional Tip: Use the pre-assessment chart to determine student understanding, not for a grade. The pre-assessment could be used before reading the novel. Scoring Guidelines: Use the Pre-Assessment Chart, Attachment A, to make observations of previous literature discussions and/or products. Post-Assessment: Use the Narrative Assignment and Rubric, Attachment C. 1

2 Indicator 1 Write narratives that: a. sustain reader interest by pacing action and developing an engaging plot (e.g., tension and suspense); b. use a range of strategies and literary devices including figurative language and specific narration; and c. include an organized, well developed structure. Scoring Guidelines: Using the Narrative Assignment and Rubric, evaluate the student narrative. The rubric can be extended to give point-value grades to each category or a letter grade can be assigned, whatever is customary. Instructional Procedures: Day One 1. Students use a recently completed novel. Begin the class period with a five-minute free write that assigns students to describe their favorite main character. Instruct them to include as many details as they can remember and their rationale for choosing the character. Some students may need to review their notes and book. 2. Review point of view. Discuss direct and indirect characterization. (See Step 4 below.) Model examples of each. Ask students to discuss the point of view of the novel just completed. 3. Arrange students in groups, matching them with other students who chose the same character in their free write. Try to limit group size to three. Those students who prefer to work independently may choose to do so. Instruct each group to choose a reporter to present findings to the class. 4. In their groups, students research the development of the favorite main characters. Assign each student one of the three categories: a. What the author says about the character (direct characterization) b. What other characters say, think and do in connection with this character (indirect characterization) c. What the character thinks and does (indirect characterization) 5. Students find specific examples from the novel for their category. They copy the quotation from the selection along with its page number. Also, instruct students to copy their findings on a transparency. 6. Students present their findings using the overhead projector and explain their choices. 7. Start the class period with a five-minute free write. Students describe their favorite places in this assignment. (This is a personal favorite place not from the novel.) Instruct them to use as many sensory details as possible. 2

3 Day Two 8. Review with students the terms imagery and setting. Explain that sensory details in the free write provide imagery. Also, explain that setting serves a purpose beyond time and place. List for students these functions of setting: a. As background for action can provide a historical setting or show the absurdity of the situation of the characters. b. As an antagonist helps develop the conflict of the story. c. For atmosphere can stage a certain mindset in the reader. d. To reveal personality traits of the character chaos in the setting may reveal confusion in the character. e. To reinforce theme can further illustrate the central idea of the novel. 9. Put students in learning pairs. Assign each pair a chapter of the novel. (Choose chapters in which the setting provides one of the functions introduced.) 10. Ask students to reread the chapter noting sensory details regarding the setting. Distribute the Imagery and Setting Graphic Organizer, Attachment B. Tell them to group these details according to sense. 11. Facilitate class discussion on the role of imagery in the development of setting. 12. From this second reading and analysis of imagery, instruct students to choose one of the five functions of setting as reviewed with the class. They can use their notes and the graphic organizer to prepare their information for presentation to the class. 13. Have students present their choice to the class citing examples from the text to support their claims. Day Three 14. Start the class period with a five-minute free write recalling each student s favorite character and the problems that character confronted throughout the course of the novel. 15. Review the elements of plot, subplot and conflict. Focus on the critical role of conflict in plot development. 16. Ask students to list on paper the conflicts in the novel. 17. Ask students to volunteer examples from their lists. Compile the conflicts on the board or chart paper. Remind students to go beyond universal conflicts (i.e., man vs. man) to identify specific conflicts within the novel. 18. Have students identify the conflict involving their favorite main character. 19. Group students so that different characters are represented in each group. Have each group choose a recorder and a reporter. Ask students to discuss with each other how the subplots in which the various characters are involved impact the text. Have the recorder summarize subplots and their importance. Then, ask each reporter to present the summary to the class. Day Four 20. Start the class period with a five-minute free write. Recalling their favorite places, students describe how their favorite characters would react to those locations. 21. Distribute the Narrative Assignment and Rubric, Attachment C. Instruct students to write a narrative placing their favorite character from the novel into the students 3

4 favorite place. Explain that the point of the assignment is to predict what the character might do when faced with the same conflict (from the novel) in a different setting. 22. Allow students time to begin work on the narrative in class. Be available to answer any questions. 23. Instruct students to complete rough drafts by the next class day. Day Five 24. Follow customary revision and editing guidelines used in your class or follow procedure from lesson, Self and Peer Evaluation of Written Work. 25. Instruct students to bring in new drafts for editing on the next class day. Day Six 26. Continue editing procedure typically used in your class to prepare final or deadline drafts. Instructional Tip: A review of the rubric could be held on the day before the editing process. 27. Remind students to bring in their final draft the next class day. Differentiated Instructional Support: Instruction is differentiated according to learner needs to help all learners either meet the intent of the specified indicator(s) or, if the indicator is already met, to advance beyond the specified indicator(s). Written notes on literary terminology may be provided for students. Novels can be different based on students ability levels. If different novels are used, grouping could be based on the novel rather than on characters. Extended time for drafts can be given to students legitimately requiring it. Provide students with sample narratives from other novels. Provide guided questions for each assignment. Provide modeled examples to students. Group students based on skills. Extensions: Provide examples of narrative essays to the students to read together and discuss. Use short stories with vivid settings or significant character development as examples for each exercise. Homework Options and Home Connections: Drafts can be written at home. If parents know about students favorite places, students could ask their parents to help recall more sensory images of the place. Discuss a parent or sibling s favorite place. Students put favorite characters in their favorite TV shows or music videos and write narratives describing them. 4

5 Interdisciplinary Connections: Social Studies If the novel chosen is a historical one, the characters would react differently in a modern setting. Students could research the era and consider the differences between the dates. Class discussion and writing could be done about what would be different and how the character might react. History Standard Benchmark: B. Explain the social, political and economic effects of industrialization. Indicators vary by period in which the novel is set. People in Societies Standard Benchmark: A. Analyze the influence of different cultural perspectives on the actions of groups. Indicators vary by content. Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities Standard Benchmark: A. Analyze ways people achieve governmental change, including political action, social protest and revolution. Indicators vary by content. Materials and Resources: The inclusion of a specific resource in any lesson formulated by the Ohio Department of Education should not be interpreted as an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. The Ohio Department of Education does not endorse any particular resource. The Web addresses listed are for a given site s main page, therefore, it may be necessary to search within that site to find the specific information required for a given lesson. Please note that information published on the Internet changes over time, therefore the links provided may no longer contain the specific information related to a given lesson. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students. For the teacher: overhead projector, transparencies, colored overhead markers, pre-assessment chart, chart paper For the students: narrative assignment and rubric, imagery and setting graphic organizer Vocabulary: conflict direct characterization indirect characterization imagery narrative setting plot subplot Technology Connections: Students may compose, revise and edit narratives on computers. Students may research historical and political settings of their novels on the Internet. 5

6 Related Benchmark: Literary Text Standard Benchmark: A. Analyze interactions between characters in literary text and how the interactions affect the plot. Indicator: 1. Compare and contrast an author s use of direct and indirect characterization, and ways in which characters reveal traits about themselves, including dialect, dramatic monologues and soliloquies. Research Connections: Arter, Judith and Jay McTighe. Scoring Rubrics in the Classroom: Using Performance Criteria for Assessing and Improving Student Performance. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin Press, An analytical trait rubric divides a product or performance into essential traits or dimensions so they can be judged separately one analyzes a product or performance for essential traits. These manage to: Judge complex performances involving several significant dimensions. Break performances into traits in order to more readily grasp the components of quality. Provide more specific feedback to students, parents and teachers. Marzano, Robert J., Jane E. Pollock and Debra Pickering, Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, Alexandra, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Nonlinguistic representations or imagery helps students think about and recall knowledge. This includes. creating graphic representations (organizers). Zemelman, Steven, Harvey Daniels and Arthur Hyde. Best Practice: New Standards of Teaching and Learning in America's Schools. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, Small group activities Manifestations Partner/Buddy reading Peer Response and Editing Reading Circles/Text Sets Study Teams Group Investigations Centers Reflective assessment Present students with explicit guidance in identifying similarities and differences. Ask students to independently identify similarities and differences. Represent similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form. Attachments: Attachment A, Pre-Assessment Chart Attachment B, Imagery and Setting Graphic Organizer Attachment C, Narrative Assignment and Rubric 6

7 Elements of a Novel and Narrative Writing - Grade 10 Attachment A Pre-Assessment Chart Based on your observation of students thus far, assess the following: Student Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4 Student 5 Student 6 Student 7 Student 8 Student 9 Student 10 Student 11 Student 12 Student 13 Student 14 Student 15 Student 16 Student 17 Student 18 Student 19 Student 20 Understands Characterization Understands Plot Understands Imagery Understands Setting Completed Reading of Novel 7

8 Elements of a Novel and Narrative Writing - Grade 10 Attachment B Imagery and Setting Graphic Organizer Group Members: Chapter Number Pages SENSE Seeing EXAMPLES FROM CHAPTER Hearing Tasting Touching Smelling How do these images affect the mood of the chapter? How do these images affect the tone of the chapter? What is the function of setting in this chapter? Why? 8

9 Elements of a Novel and Narrative Writing - Grade 10 Attachment C Narrative Assignment and Rubric Write a narrative involving a conflict your favorite character faces. Make the setting of the narrative your favorite place (your bedroom, a hangout, the mall, a relative or friend s house, etc.). LITERARY ELEMENT Level Four Level Three Level Two Level One Plot and Conflict Imagery Structure Setting Characters Well developed; engaging; action is well paced Vivid description; strong use of figurative language Organized and well developed; exceeds standard requirements Exceeds standard requirements; specific and vivid Well developed; with vivid details and concrete language Developed, but could be more engaging; pacing is slow Description includes figurative language Organized, but needs more development; meets standard requirements Meets the standard requirements; specific, but needs elaboration Developed; portrays character with a limited adjustment to new setting Evident, but weak Evident, but weak Organized, but weak Mentioned, but not developed Developed, but not past the literary text Not Evident Not Evident Disorganized Not Evident Underdeveloped Comments: 9

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