Models for an Adapted and for a Modified Program

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1 Models for an Adapted and for a Modified Program Students are assessed to the prescribed learning outcomes Students receive letter grades Adapted Program Instructional practices: Options for: Giving instructions Delivering information Organizing information Taking notes Studying and remembering information Organizing classroom environments Using assistants Students follow the prescribed curriculum for the grade Instructional practices specific to certain areas: Reading Writing Spelling Math Assessment practices Students are assessed in reference to the goals and objectives in their IEP s Modified Program Curricular changes Instructional practices Assessment practices Students follow a substantially different curriculum

2 Definitions for an Adapted and for a Modified Program An Adapted Program An adapted program retains the learning outcomes of the prescribed curriculum, but adaptations are provided so the student can participate in the program. These adaptations can include alternate formats (eg. Braille, books-on-tape), instructional strategies (eg. use of interpreters, visual cues, aids), and assessment procedures (eg. oral exams, additional time). Students on adapted programs are assessed using the standards for the course/program and can receive full credit for their work. School personnel should document the adaptations provided for the student. A Modified Program A modified program has learning outcomes that are substantially different from the prescribed curriculum, and specifically selected to meet the student s special needs. For example, a Grade 9 student in a modified math program could be focusing on functional computational skills in the context of handling money and personal budgeting. Or, in language arts, a Grade 5 student could be working on recognizing common signs and using the phone. In these examples the learning outcomes are substantially different from those of the curriculum for most other students. The student s program may include some courses that are modified and others that are adapted. The student s transcript should include those courses that are modified.

3 Expository mode: This is the teaching strategy most often used by teachers. Teaching Techniques Adaptations Lecture Provide lecture outlines. Provide copy of lecture notes. Use transparencies to provide visual presentation. Telling Sound filmstrip Explanation Audio recording Motion pictures Discussion Keep lecture short. Be specific about information given. Be sure you have students attention. For students with short attention spans, give information in small segments. Provide visuals when possible. Give earphones to students easily distracted by sounds. Keep explanations simple and direct. Give them in simple declarative sentences. Provide outline of explanation. Present recordings with visuals. Give earphones to students easily distracted by sounds. Orient students to movie before showing. Be sure length is appropriate. Place students with auditory problems close to sound. Review main points of films. Provide brief outline of mains points. Ask questions you know students can answer. Keep discussion short. As point are made, list them on board or transparency. Divide class into groups for brief discussions. Keep students on topic. Involve everyone on appropriate levels. Use organizer to group ideas and show conclusion drawn.

4 Inquiry mode: involves asking questions and seeking information and allows more teacherstudent interaction. For students who require adaptations, more teacher involvement is critical in this type of learning situation. Asking questions is a natural part of the teacher s instructional method; in adapting for student s needs, a teacher needs to be very aware of the level of questions being since the questions being asked should reflect the specific level of learning for the student. Teaching Techniques Adaptations Asking questions Use appropriate wait time. Ask questions on appropriate level of taxonomy scale; vary questions to meet different taxonomy levels of students. Call student s name before directing a question to him or her. Do not embarrass students by asking questions they cannot answer. Stating hypotheses Coming to conclusions Interpreting Classifying Self-directed study Testing hypotheses Observing Synthesizing Have students choose from two or three hypotheses. Instead of having to formulate their own. Provide model for writing hypothesis. Present alternative conclusions. List information needed for conclusions. Assign peer tutor to help. Present alternative interpretations. Use concrete instead of abstract concepts. Provide a visual display with models. Give specific directions about what to do. Make directions short, simple, and few. Collect and place resources for study in one area. Assign peer tutor. Give explicit directions about how and what to observe. Provide sequential checklist of what will happen so that student sees steps. Have student check off each step observed. Assign peer tutor to help. Provide model of whole or completed assignment.

5 Demonstration mode: This involves: showing, doing and telling. Modeling is one of the most effective methods of teaching for students who require adaptations. Models may include maps, charts, gloves or verbal models. Teaching Techniques Adaptations Experiments Provide sequential directions. Have student check off each completed step. If teacher demonstrates, let student assist. Be sure student fully understands purpose, procedures, and expected outcome of experiment. Set up incidental learning experiences. Display materials. Model the activity. Provide an outline and a handout/checklist. Make a list of lab procedures and assign a lab procedure. Tape instructions and video tape demonstrations. Exhibits Assign projects according to student s instructional level. Have student select project topic from a short list. Provide directions and list of materials needed. Be sure project does not require skills the student lacks. Have student display his or her exhibits. Simulations Do not embarrass student by requiring him or her to do something student cannot do. Make sure student understands directions, terms used, and expected outcome. Games Design games in that acquisition of skills, not winning, is the priority. Make directions simple. Highlight important directions with colour codes. With peer tutor, let student prepare own game. Design games that emphasize skills needed by student. Modeling Model only one step at a time. Use task analysis on steps. Use visual models when possible. Exaggerate the presentation to make the concept being modeled clear. Use several short time spans rather than one long demonstration. Model in hierarchical sequence. Use video modeling for student to replay. Perform in same manner as the first presentation. Provide a lecture outline that the student may take notes on. Field trips Prepare students by explaining destination, purpose, expected behaviour, and schedule. Provide a checklist of expectations.

6 Activity mode: students learn by doing. Teachers provide students with actual experiences of concepts. Teaching Techniques Adaptations Role playing Be sure student understands role. Short lines or no lines at all may be best. Respect privacy of student who does not want role. Let such a student assist another role player. Constructing Preparing exhibits Dramatizing Processing Group work Game/contest Select project for student or have them select from a short list. Try to use projects that include special education objectives. Provide sequential checklist. Assign peer tutor to help. Use alterations suggested for constructing. Respect privacy of those who do not want parts. Let such students help others prepare sets, and so on. Clearly state steps. Make steps sequential and short. List steps on board. Assign peer tutor. Select activity that student can succeed at. Use variety of grouping procedures. Be sure game matches lesson objective. Check game to see if required decision-making skills match student s ability level. List rule clearly on board. Keep pace appropriate. Assign a buddy. Provide feedback for game skills as well as for social skills used.

7 BCSTA b a c k g r o u n d e r The term students with special needs, covers a wide range of individual circumstances, including learning disabilities and disabilities of an intellectual, physical, sensory, emotional or behavioural nature, as well as exceptional gifts or talents. Individual students are sometimes assessed by district staff to determine the nature and extend of the child s needs. This is done with professionals from the community. In BC, each student with a special need has a learning program tailored specifically to suit that need. In most cases, students with special needs follow an adapted or modified program. Adapted programs An adapted program is used when a student has a learning, intellectual, physical, sensory, emotional or behavioural disability. These students continue to work towards the expected learning outcomes. Adaptations are provided, however, so the student can participate in the program. Students are assessed using the same course/program standards as other students and are eligible to receive credit towards graduation. Report cards and transcripts do not include any special designation. Adaptations may include: Organizers that help students follow classroom lectures; Test and assignment extensions; Use of a computer for written assignments; Alternatives to written assignments to demonstrate understanding; Separate setting for tests and exams; and Supervised breaks for tests and exams. Special Needs Student Classification Students who have a disability of an intellectual, physical, sensory, emotional or behavioural nature, have a learning disability or have exceptional gifts or talents are considered as having special needs and are provided with a supplemental program by the school to assist the student in achieving a Dogwood Certificate and/or other outcomes as specified in the student s Individual Education Plan (IEP). When reporting the counts of Students with Special Needs, all twelve Special Needs categories are included: Category A Physically Dependent Category B Deaf /Blind Category C Moderate to Severe/Profound Intellectual Disability Category D Physical Disability/Chronic Health Impairment Category E Visual Impairment Category F Deaf or Hard of Hearing Category G Autism Category H Intensive Behaviour Interventions/Serious Mental Health Category K Mild Intellectual Disability Category P Gifted Category Q Learning Disability (formerly category J) Category R Moderate Behaviour Support/Mental Illness (formerly categories M and N). When reporting the performance of Students with Special Needs, five groupings of Students with Special Needs are included. The five groupings reflect those who are working towards a Dogwood and for whom the ministry s student achievement measures are most meaningful. These are: Sensory Disabilities (categories E and F) Learning Disabilities (category Q) Behaviour Disabilities (categories H and R) Mild Intellectual Disabilities (category K0 Gifted (category P) On Special Needs Education Adaptations for provincial examinations Provincial examinations can be adapted through an adjudication process administered by the Ministry of Education. When an exam is adapted, the exam content remains unchanged, though the exam conditions may be altered. For example, students may be given more time to write exams. The adapted exam format may be adapted, or alternate means of recording questions may be provided.

8 BCSTA b a c k g r o u n d e r On Special Needs Education Predictable and unpredictable circumstances It is the principal s job to apply for an exam adaptation on a student s behalf. Applications are submitted for predictable or unpredictable circumstances. Predictable circumstances Students with special needs are generally identified well in advance, and their needs are documented in Individual Education Plans (IEPs). An IEP is a plan that outlines program modifications or adaptations that will be provided to a special needs student. It is a tool for collaborative planning among the school, parents/guardians, student (where appropriate) and any other personnel or agencies. Generally, adaptations used in the classroom (eg Braille format for blind students) can be used during provincial examinations. Unpredictable circumstance These are unforeseen events such as a serious illness, injury, or extreme personal difficulty. Only the ministry can authorize these adaptations to provincial examination procedures. Adaptations for the Foundation Skills Assessments (FSA) Districts and schools are responsible for adapting the FSA to include as many students as possible. To this end, administrators are instructed that students with special needs may need the same type of support and adaptations that have been provided during classroom assignments and for tests, as documented on the students IEPs. Modified programs Students on a modified program are not expected to meet prescribed learning outcomes. Instead, programs are modified specifically to meet their unique needs and abilities are outlined in IEPs. A student may have an IEP in some courses, and not in others; in courses for which a student does not have an IEP, the standard reporting guidelines apply. Students on a modified program do not write provincial exams and are evaluated using written comments rather than with letter grades or percentage marks. They are not eligible to receive a graduation certificate. They do, however, receive a District School Completion Certificate indicating they have achieved the goals set out in their IEP. Examples of program modifications include: All students with modified programs or special needs, except those who require only minor program adaptations, must have an IEP. An IEP is a written plan that describes program modifications and/or adaptations and services to be provided. IEPs are developed, implemented and monitored by school staff in consultation with the student and outside agencies such as social services. Parents/guardians must be invited to participate in the planning process and should receive a copy of the IEP. The principal is ultimately responsible for implementation of education programs, including IEPs. Additional resources for students with special needs Looking for more information and resources on teaching students with special needs? The Ministry of Education has published a series of resources documents on subjects including: Accessibility/Equipment/Facilities Assistive Computer Technology Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Autism Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Gifted Students Resource Guide Mental Health Occupational Therapy/Physiotherapy Speech Language Pathology Students with Special Needs How Are We Doing? Province-Public Schools Only These are published online at:

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