Using the Periodic table: Main Group. Using the Periodic Table:Transition Group. Binary Compounds: Names, Formulae

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1 Using the Periodic table: Main Group Main Group Elements 1 Using the Periodic Table:Transition Group Transition Metals Form various cations by loss of electrons e.g. Fe 2+ / Fe 3+, Cu + / Cu 2+ Cr 2+ / Cr 3+ 2 Binary Compounds: Names, Formulae RULE for formula continued: if cation has two or more possible charges Roman numerals immediately after the cation to indicate its charge These are typically Transition Metals Cu + Cu 2+ Cu Cu 2 Copper (I) Chloride Copper (II) Chloride 3 1

2 Binary Compounds: Names, Formulae RULE for formula continued: if cation has two or more possible charges Roman numerals immediately after the cation to indicate its charge These are typically Transition Metals Fe Fe 3+ 2 Fe Iron (II) xide Fe 3+ Fe Iron (III) xide 4 Covalent bonding Electrons are shared, not transferred Usually occurs between non-metals Some elements are always sharing 5 Covalent bonding: Diatomic Elements 2 N 2 2 The alogens F 2 2 Br 2 I 2 At 2 6 2

3 Naming Binary Covalent Compounds RULE for naming Most metallic element / space / least metallic element 7 Using the Periodic Table Naming order: Metal first, Non-Metal second Periodic table Least Metallic Most Metallic Metallic character decreases across and up PT 8 Binary Covalent Compounds RULE for naming continued When more than one binary compound from the two elements is possible, use the prefixes mono-, di-, tri- etc. C carbon monoxide C 2 S 2 Carbon dioxide Sulfur dioxide Carbon (II) xide S 3 N 2 Sulfur trioxide Dinitrogen oxide 9 3

4 Naming: No Redundancies RULE for naming continued When more than one atom of an element is present in each molecule, it is not stated in the name when it is already implied by what we know about combining capacities. E.g. Cu 2+ Cu 2 Copper (II) Dichloride Copper (II) Chloride 10 Naming: No Redundancies RULE for naming continued When more than one atom of an element is present in each molecule, it is not stated in the name when it is implied by what we know about combining capacities. E.g. Br Aluminium Bromide Al 3+ Aluminium (III) Tribromide Br Br AlBr : Naming: Polyatomic ions Ions that themselves are composed of two or more atoms with covalent bonding Formulae are written like molecular formulae with superscripted charge N 4 + Ammonium ion + N N 4 Ammonium chloride 12 4

5 Naming: Polyatomic ions If the polyatomic ion is present more than once, brackets are required in the formula N 3 iron (III) nitrate Fe(N 3 ) 3 Fe 3+ N N N 13 8: Naming: Polyatomic ions S aluminium sulfate S Al 2 (S 4 ) 3 2- Al Al 3+ S S 14 CEMICAL EQUATINS: Representing chemical change Chemical change results in pure substances transforming into other pure substances. A chemical reaction occurs when at least one chemical involved changes its elemental composition 15 5

6 Equation Components + used if there is more than one reactant or product React together to yield + Na 2 + Na REACTANTS Species that exist before the reaction occurs PRDUCTS Species formed from the reaction 16 Law of conservation of Mass During a reaction there is no detectable gain or loss of mass i.e. mass is conserved Cannot make / destroy atoms Same number and type of atoms at beginning and end of reaction + Na 2 + Na 17 Coefficients: Indicating how many of each component A coefficient indicates more than one molecule of that species 2 + Ca() Ca 2 N.B.: and 2 formulae unchanged 18 6

7 Coefficients vs. Formulae subscripts Coefficients: Indicating how many of each component 2 + Ca() Ca Ca 2+ Ca Balancing chemical equations: 1. Write the unbalanced equation showing the reactants and the products with the correct formulae 2. Adjust the coefficients on each side to give equal numbers of atoms of each element 3. Adjust the coefficients on each side to give equal numbers of charges on each side 4. In 2 and 3, Do not change formulae 21 7

8 Balancing chemical equations Solid mercury(ii) oxide decomposes on heating to liquid mercury metal and oxygen gas 2 g (s) 2 g (l) + 2(g) 22 Balancing chemical equations Propane gas is reacted with oxygen gas to produce liquid water and carbon dioxide. C 3 8(g) + 5 2(g) 3 C 2(g) (l) 23 Balancing chemical equations Solid zinc sulfide is reacted with oxygen gas to produce zinc oxide and sulfur dioxide 2 ZnS (s) + 3 2(g) 2 Zn (s) + 2 S 2(g) 24 8

9 Balancing chemical equations 2 ZnS (s) + 3 2(g) 2 Zn (s) + 2 S 2(g) Zn 2+ S 2 Zn 2+ 2 Zn 2+ S 2 Zn 2+ 2 S S 25 Balancing chemical equations Sodium hydroxide solution is reacted with dilute phosphoric acid to produce sodium phosphate and water 3Na (aq) + 3 P 4(aq) Na 3 P 4(aq) Indicating state of reactants, products Na (aq) means common salt sodium chloride, dissolved in water Na (l) means common salt raised to a temperature high enough for the salt to melt >801C (g) (aq) is hydrogen chloride gas is hydrochloric acid 27 9

10 BRING RTE LEARNING D IT NW!!! NAMES F PLYATMIC INS i.e., sulfate = S 42, nitrate = N 3 etc (see table in manual) DIATMIC ELEMENTS i.e., ydrogen = 2, Nitrogen = N 2 etc 28 10

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