# 9. The Pails of Water Problem

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1 9. The Pails of Water Problem You have a 5 and a 7 quart pail. How can you measure exactly 1 quart of water, by pouring water back and forth between the two pails? You are allowed to fill and empty each pail as many times as needed. [Try to solve this problem before reading further!] Here is one solution: 5-quart 7-quart Explanation 0 0 both pails start out empty 5 0 fill 5-quart pail 0 5 empty 5-quart pail into fill 5-quart pail a second time 3 7 pour 2 quarts from 5-quart pail to fill up empty 7-quart pail 0 3 transfer 3 quarts from 5-quart pail into fill 5-quart pail a third time 1 7 pour 4 quarts from 5-quart pail to fill up empty 7-quart pail a second time. This leaves exactly one quart in the 5-quart pail. Notice that we filled the 5-quart pail three times and emptied the 7-quart pail twice. A little thought convinces us that the method given above can be written more succintly as: = 1. Now suppose you wish to obtain one quart with a 7-quart and a 19-quart pail. [Try this before reading further!] The secret is to fill the 19-quart pail two times from the 7-quart pail, thereby effectively converting the 19-quart pail into a 5-quart pail. The associated equation is 5 = But we know how to solve the problem with quart sizes of 7 and 5. So we can use our previous solution for 5 and 7 to get a solution for 7 and 19. Here s how it works: 12

2 9. THE PAILS OF WATER PROBLEM 13 1 = solution for 5 and 7 = 3 (19 2 7) 2 7 substituting 5 = = expand the parentheses = gather the 7 s together The solution is to fill the 19-quart pair three times, a total of 57 quarts, and empty it into the 7-quart pail eight times, a total of 56 quarts. The difference is precisely 1 quart. Let s solve the Pails of Water Problem (POW) with the numbers 100 and 77. First, we divide 77 into 100. Since 77 goes into 100 one time, with remainder 23, we write 23 = and record this equation for later use. Now we have reduced the POW problem to the numbers 77 and 23. But these numbers are still too big; it is not obvious how to get 1 from the numbers 77 and 23. So we reduce again. The smaller number 23 goes into 77 three times, with remainder 8. Write this as 8 = 77 3(23). Can we solve POW with 23 and 8? Yes! = 1. Now we substitute the previous remainder equations to work our way back to the original numbers 100 and 77: 1 = 3(8) 23 solution with 8 and 23 = 3(77 3(23)) 23 substitute 8 = 77 3(23) = 3(77) 9(23) 23 expand the first parentheses = 3(77) 10(23) gather the 23 s together = 3(77) 10(100 77) substitute 23 = = 3(77) 10(100) + 10(77) expand the second parentheses = 13(77) 10(100) gather the 77 s together. We can easily check our solution = 1 with a calculator: = 1001 and we know (without a calculator) that = In general, suppose you want to solve the POW problem with two numbers, a and b. Let s say that a is smaller than b. If you can t think of the solution right away because the

3 14 numbers are too large, reduce the problem to two smaller numbers, by dividing the smaller number a into b, getting a quotient q and a remainder r. Write this as r = b q a. Record this equation as you will need it later. The original POW problem a and b reduces to solving POW with the numbers r and a. You can write this reduction as (a,b) (r,a). If the numbers r and a are still too big, reduce again, by dividing r into a. Eventually you will reach two numbers that you can do in your head. Starting with this easy solution, carefully work backwards, substituting the remainder equations you previously recorded, until you reach a solution using the original numbers a and b. The method described in this section for solving the pails of water problem is called the Euclidean algorithm. An algorithm is a set of steps for completing some task. (No, the word is not named after Bill Clinton s vice president.) A recipe from a cookbook is a good example of an algorithm. This particular procedure dates back over two thousand years ago to the Greek mathematician Euclid, who also founded plane geometry. Question #31. You cannot obtain 1 quart of water with 6 and 10 quart pails. Why not? What is the smallest amount you can obtain? Question #32. Solve POW in your head: (a) 10 and 19; (b) 7 and 9; (c) 11 and 8 Question #33. Another solution with 5 and 7 is: = 1. Show how to get this solution from the solution = 1. Hint: add and subtract 5 7. Question #34. Solve POW with (1) 31 and 9 (2) 54 and 37. (3) 2519 and 377 (4) make up your own problem 10. Greatest Common Divisor b. Definition 1.1. Suppose d a and d b. Then d is called a common divisor of a and Example: Common divisors of 14 and 18 are ±1, ±2.

4 10. GREATEST COMMON DIVISOR 15 Question #35. Does any pair of integers a and b always have at least one common divisor? Question #36. If you know that a and b have infinitely many common divisors, what must be true about a and b? Definition 1.2. If a and b are not both 0, then the largest positive common divisor g of a and b is called the greatest common divisor of a and b. Notation: Write d = gcd(a,b) or just g = (a,b). Example: gcd(14, 18) = 2. Exercise #37. Find the greatest common divisor of (1) 36 and 22 (2) 100 and -30. (3) 15 and 28 (4) 0 and 28 (5) make up your own problem Notation: When gcd(a,b) = 1 we say that a and b are relatively prime or that a is relatively prime to b. Another way of saying this is to assert that a and b share no common factors. Example. 144 and 35 are relatively prime, while 21 and 35 are not. Theorem #38. Fact: If a 0 and b and q are integers, then the common divisors of a and b are the same as the common divisors of a and b+qa. (That is, d is a common divisor of a and b if and only if d is a common divisor of a and b+qa.) In particular, (a,b) = (a,b+qa). As an immediate consequence, we have Fact: If a 0 and b = qa+r, then (a,b) = (a,r). Problem #39. Using the previous theorem and succesive applications of the Division Algorithm, devise a method for computing the gcd of a and b. Exercise #40. Compute (12471, ).

5 16 Exercise #41. Compute (12345, 67890). If your method reminds you of the POW problem, you are not having an out-of-body deja-vu experience. The method for find gcd s and the method for solving POW are essentially the same technique. Both are called the Eulclidean Algorithm. (The POW method is sometimes called the extended Euclidean Algorithm.) Question #42. Back to the pails of water problem. What do you think is the smallest amount of water you can obtain from pails of size a and b? Exercise #43. Find integers x and y such that 12345x+67890y = (12345,67890).

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### Section 2.1/2.2 An Introduction to Number Theory/Integers. The counting numbers or natural numbers are N = {1, 2, 3, }.

Section 2.1/2.2 An Introduction to Number Theory/Integers The counting numbers or natural numbers are N = {1, 2, 3, }. A natural number n is called the product of the natural numbers a and b if a b = n.