The Effects of Available Glucose Concentration on the Population Dynamics of Growing Escherichia coli Cultures. Abstract: Introduction:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Effects of Available Glucose Concentration on the Population Dynamics of Growing Escherichia coli Cultures. Abstract: Introduction:"

Transcription

1 The Effects of Available Glucose Concentration on the Population Dynamics of Growing Escherichia coli Cultures 1 Shehzad H. Siddique and 2 Anne M. Vardo-Zalik, 1 Undergraduate student; 2 Penn State York Abstract: In this study we examined the relationship between the amount of available glucose per Escherichia coli cell and the growth rate of the bacterial population. This project was conducted as a pilot study to determine whether or not adding glucose to standard nutrient broth would increase the growth rates of microbial populations, such as E. coli, and to determine if there is an optimal glucose concentration for the growth of E. coli populations. We conducted four trials: standard nutrient broth with no added glucose, and nutrient broth with glucose added to a final concentration of either 1%, 0.5%, or 0.25%. The mass of the cell pellet and glucose concentration of the resulting growing cultures (for glucose trials) were analyzed at varying time intervals by centrifugation and subsequent titration of the supernatant with qualitative Benedict s solution. In all trials, the growth rates of the bacterial populations per time were found to exhibit characteristics analogous of third-order polynomials. In comparison to the control, glucose was seen to be initially inhibitory to the growth of bacterial populations. In the presence of glucose, however, bacterial populations of E. coli cells attained higher population densities, with their fastest rate of growth occurring at ± g glucose/ g E. coli. The growth curves were found to be limited by both the glucose concentration remaining, which diminished exponentially, and also by residual E. coli cells that have died. In this experiment we were able to show that, unlike non-limited bacterial populations, growing bacteria populations follow exponential growth initially, but this growth levels off typical of a third-order polynomial. Introduction: Glucose is one of the primary molecules which serve as energy sources for almost all organisms, including bacteria. However, one of the more common growth media used in microbiology labs, nutrient broth, does not contain glucose as the main carbon source for 7

2 bacteria (it contains protein). The addition of glucose to nutrient broth may increase the overall growth rates and biomass of bacteria over time. If so, this could be beneficial for lab purposes in that less time would be needed to grow cultures for experiments. Alternatively, glucose may be inhibitory to cell growth if the concentration is too high. Increased concentrations of glucose have been shown to limit bacterial growth by inhibiting proteinaceous enzymes; this strain on protein degradation may limit growth of bacterial populations in sugar solutions by reducing a cell s ability to breakdown and reincorporate proteinacious resources [1 & 2]. As of yet, no studies have published data on a specific concentration of glucose recommended for optimal growth of E. coli populations, however a 1% solution is referred to in some microbiology texts. This pilot research study set out to examine if adding glucose to nutrient broth increased the initial growth rates of Escherichia coli cells. This study analyzed the effects of glucose concentration on the population dynamics of E. coli (growth rate and the maximum biomass obtained) to determine if adding glucose to standard culturing media would be beneficial in practice. Methods: For each trial, Escherichia coli cells were cultured in test-tubes with 10mL of trialspecific liquid media, i.e. a combination of nutrient broth and the trial-specific glucose concentration. The trial-specific media was created by taking 10mL of nutrient broth and adding the appropriate amount of glucose to reach a final glucose concentration of 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, or 1%. For each trial, fifteen tubes were inoculated, but not all were analyzed due to time constraints (15 were analyzed for the 1% trial, 11 for the 0.5% trial, 13 for the 0.25% trail, and 6 for the control). The # of cells in the inoculants were found by analyzing the stock solutions under a light-microscope with a haemocytometer; the inoculants for the 1%, 0.25%, and control trials were approximately 9.48x10 4 cells, whereas for the 0.5% trial the inoculant was 6.11x10 4 cells. All samples were analyzed between 20 and 80 hours post inoculation. Periodically, one random test-tube from each trial was centrifuged, and, for the glucose trials, the supernatant was analyzed for the concentration of glucose by titration with qualitative Benedict s solution. The concentration of glucose was found by dispensing the trial supernatant into a known quantity of Benedict s solution until the blue Benedict s solution turned clear. The amount of trial specific 8

3 supernatant needed was then compared to a standard curve created from known glucose concentrations, and the glucose concentration for the trial sample was determined. After centrifugation and removal of the supernatant, the remaining pellet of E. coli cells for all treatments was analyzed for its mass. A digital balance was used and the weight of the pellet, to the nearest g, was recorded after tarring the balance for the mass of a single testtube. The final masses were transformed into a plot of the number of E. coli cells vs. time by using a standardized wet-mass of E. coli cells: 9.5x10-13 grams/ E. coli cell [3]. In addition, the data collected was used to derive third-order polynomials to describe the population of E. coli cells vs. time and exponential functions to describe the concentration of glucose vs. time. It is important to note that the time-specific masses obtained for each trial consist of both living and dead cells; therefore, the plot of the number of E. coli cells vs. time for each trial shows both living and dead cells. No statistical analysis could be performed as only 1 replicate per time per treatment was performed in this pilot study. Therefore, all conclusions are subjective. Results: In all trials, population growth was found to exhibit characteristics analogous of thirdorder polynomials (Figure 1). The control trial was shown to have the highest initial growth, but the lowest maximum biomass. Glucose trials were found to have greater overall growth and maximum biomass than compared to the control trial. Due to the pilot-nature of this research project, no statistical analyses were able to be conducted to verify the results presented herein, therefore, the findings presented here are simply a preliminary look at the effects of glucose concentration on E. coli growth rates over time. Increased initial glucose concentration was shown to be positively correlated with increased maximum biomass (Figure 1). Initial exponential growth of Escherichia coli populations co-occurred with the initial exponential decrease of glucose in solution (Figure 2). In all glucose trials, growth rate was shown to peak sharply at ± g glucose/g E. coli cells. As expected, glucose concentration decreased exponentially in regard to time (Figure 2). For each trial, the stabilization of the glucose concentration occurs at nearly the identical time for the leveling off of its respective E. coli population (Figure 1). 9

4 Figure 1: The derived third-order polynomials for all four glucose trials are shown. Figure 2: The glucose molarity vs. time plots for all four glucose trials are shown. 10

5 Discussion: In the absence of glucose, growing Escherichia coli populations were found to exhibit higher initial growth rates, implying that glucose has an inhibitory effect on the early stages of growth (even at low glucose concentrations). Therefore, this preliminary project suggests that the addition of glucose to nutrient broth does not appear to be beneficial for microbial culturing practices if the intent is to increase initial growth rates. In the presence of glucose, growth rates were initially hampered, but were higher longterm with the growth rate peaking at a specific concentration of ± g glucose/ g E. coli cells (Figure 1). Overall, it appears that the bacteria grown in the 1% glucose solution attained highest growth rates and overall biomass. Glucose concentration decreased over time and reached a plateau around the same time period that the bacteria growth rates started to slow (Figures 1 & 2). A plausible explanation for this phenomenon is that the consumption of glucose by growing E. coli populations has caused glucose levels to drop to such a level that they can no longer support continued growth of the bacterial populations. Also, the accumulation of byproducts, such as acetic acid, and the decline in other food resources in the cultures can also contribute to this plateau [1]. What our preliminary results suggest is that glucose has an initial inhibitory effect on the growth rates of E. coli. The inhibitory effect suggested in this research project may be caused by the inhibition of catabolic enzymes involved in the breakdown of proteinaceous molecules, which would otherwise be incorporated for continued cell growth of E. coli cells. Previous research has supported the inhibitory effects of glucose on bacteria growth [1, 2, & 4]. For example, concentrated sugar solutions have not only been shown to reduce microbial growth when used as a food preservative, but they have also been applied to wounds to create an unfavorable environment for bacterial agents [4]. Our results imply that E. coli populations are able to offset the initial inhibitory effects of glucose and ultimately attain higher growth rates. Future research on this topic should first involve a replication of this study to determine whether or not the observations from this study hold, and whether these differences in growth rates are statistically significant. From this preliminary study, it appears that adding even a small amount of glucose to standard nutrient broth culturing media will not increase initial growth rates of an E. coli culture. 11

6 Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the Penn State York Science Department, as well as the Penn State York Honors Program for funding this research project. References: 1. Boyd, W.L., and H.C. Lichstein (1951). The Inhibitory Effect of Glucose on Certain Amino Acid Deaminases. University of Minnesota. Journal of Bacteriology, 62 (6): Kendall, A. I., and C.J. Farmer (1912). The Influence of the Presence of Glucose during Growth on the Enzymic Activities of Escherichia coli: Comparison of the Effect with that produced by Fermentation Acids. Journal of Biolchemistry, 36(7-9): Neidhardt, F. C., Ingraham, J. L., and Schaechter, M. (1990). Physiology of the bacterial cell. Sinauer Associates Inc. 4. Chirife, J., Herszage, L., Joseph, A., and E. S. Kohn (1983). In Vitro Study of Bacterial Growth Inhibition in Concentrated Sugar Solutions: Microbiological Basis for the Use of Sugar in Treating Infected Wounds. Journal of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 23 (5):

Induction of Enzyme Activity in Bacteria:The Lac Operon. Preparation for Laboratory: Web Tutorial - Lac Operon - submit questions

Induction of Enzyme Activity in Bacteria:The Lac Operon. Preparation for Laboratory: Web Tutorial - Lac Operon - submit questions Induction of Enzyme Activity in Bacteria:The Lac Operon Preparation for Laboratory: Web Tutorial - Lac Operon - submit questions I. Background: For the last week you explored the functioning of the enzyme

More information

Exercise X. IMViC Tests

Exercise X. IMViC Tests Exercise X IMViC Tests IMViC tests are used to study the physiological characteristics of bacteria from the Family Enterobacteriaceae, especially Escherichia and Enterobacter. The biochemical characteristics

More information

C. Instruct students to put on lab coats and gloves; clean their benches.

C. Instruct students to put on lab coats and gloves; clean their benches. Basic Clinical Microbiology Lesson Plan Week 5 Carbohydrate Fermentation, MRVP Class 1 A. Take attendance. B. Review Lab Report questions from previous week. C. Instruct students to put on lab coats and

More information

t ln 2 ln X 0 t log 2

t ln 2 ln X 0 t log 2 BACTERIAL GROWTH CURVE I. OBJECTIVES To determine the growth rate of bacteria under different temperature and aeration conditions To establish growth curves for an unknown bacterial species and observe

More information

Growth of E. coli and determination of its doubling times on enriched and minimal media.

Growth of E. coli and determination of its doubling times on enriched and minimal media. Period 4 (Feb. 12) Growth of E. coli and determination of its doubling times on enriched and minimal media. The study of the growth of bacterial cultures does not constitute a specialized subject or branch

More information

General characteristics

General characteristics Carbohydrates General characteristics The term carbohydrate is derived from the french: hydrate de carbone Compounds composed of C, H, and O Empirical formula: (CH 2 O) n Our body derives energy from the

More information

Medical Microbiology Culture Media :

Medical Microbiology Culture Media : Lecture 3 Dr. Ismail I. Daood Medical Microbiology Culture Media : Culture media are used for recognition and identification (diagnosis) of microorganisms. The media are contained in plates (Petri dishes),

More information

ONE. Basic Protocols

ONE. Basic Protocols 01.qxd 10/20/04 4:12 PM Page 1 S E C T I O N ONE Basic Protocols 01.qxd 10/20/04 4:12 PM Page 2 01.qxd 10/20/04 4:12 PM Page 3 Dilution and Plating of Bacteria and Growth Curves EXPERIMENT 1 1.1. OVERVIEW

More information

2.4 MEASUREMENT AND KINETICS OF MICROBIAL GROWTH

2.4 MEASUREMENT AND KINETICS OF MICROBIAL GROWTH 2.4 MEASUREMENT AND KINETICS OF MICROBIAL GROWTH Microbial growth is described as an orderly increase in all chemical components in the presence of suitable medium and the culture environment. There are

More information

INTRODUCTION TO BACTERIA

INTRODUCTION TO BACTERIA Morphology and Classification INTRODUCTION TO BACTERIA Most bacteria (singular, bacterium) are very small, on the order of a few micrometers µm (10-6 meters) in length. It would take about 1,000 bacteria,

More information

Enzymes: Amylase Activity in Starch-degrading Soil Isolates

Enzymes: Amylase Activity in Starch-degrading Soil Isolates Enzymes: Amylase Activity in Starch-degrading Soil Isolates Introduction This week you will continue our theme of industrial microbiologist by characterizing how differing reaction conditions affect enzyme

More information

Quantifying Bacterial Concentration using a Calibrated Growth Curve

Quantifying Bacterial Concentration using a Calibrated Growth Curve BTEC 4200 Lab 2. Quantifying Bacterial Concentration using a Calibrated Growth Curve Background and References Bacterial concentration can be measured by several methods, all of which you have studied

More information

CONTROLLING MICROBIAL GROWTH IN WINE

CONTROLLING MICROBIAL GROWTH IN WINE CONTROLLING MICROBIAL GROWTH IN WINE Section 3. Alcohol The alcohol content of wines is an important parameter in limiting microbial growth for only some of the enologically important organisms. The relative

More information

Enteric Unknowns Miramar College Biology 205 Microbiology

Enteric Unknowns Miramar College Biology 205 Microbiology Enteric Unknowns Miramar College Biology 205 Microbiology Enteric (Greek enteron = intestine) bacteria are comprised of several different genera, but all reside in the digestive tract of mammals. Because

More information

Pr oject Summar y. Isolation and use of bacteriophage to reduce E. coli O157:H7 populations on hides of cattle. Principal Investigator: Todd Callaway

Pr oject Summar y. Isolation and use of bacteriophage to reduce E. coli O157:H7 populations on hides of cattle. Principal Investigator: Todd Callaway Pr oject Summar y Isolation and use of bacteriophage to reduce E. coli O157:H7 populations on hides of cattle Principal Investigator: Todd Callaway U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research

More information

Lab Exercise: Transformation

Lab Exercise: Transformation Lab Exercise: Transformation Background Genetic transformation is used in many areas of biotechnology, and, at its heart, requires two things: Donor DNA and recipient cells. Cells which receive the donor

More information

Table of Content. Enzymes and Their Functions Teacher Version 1

Table of Content. Enzymes and Their Functions Teacher Version 1 Enzymes and Their Functions Jeisa Pelet, Cornell University Carolyn Wilczynski, Binghamton High School Cornell Learning Initiative in Medicine and Bioengineering (CLIMB) Table of Content Title Page Abstract..

More information

CONTROLLING MICROBIAL GROWTH IN WINE

CONTROLLING MICROBIAL GROWTH IN WINE CONTROLLING MICROBIAL GROWTH IN WINE Learning Outcome. This chapter reviews the many practical features of importance involved in understanding wine microbiology. The student will gain an understanding

More information

Lab 6: Assay Development, Day 1

Lab 6: Assay Development, Day 1 Lab 6: Assay Development, Day 1 This lab is the first of three labs in which we will be performing different types of assays. Conducting assays is an essential part of the biomanufacturing process, because

More information

LAB 5. Fermentation and Respiration chemoheterotrophs Respiration Fermentation

LAB 5. Fermentation and Respiration chemoheterotrophs Respiration Fermentation LAB 5. Fermentation and Respiration Protocols for Anaerobic growth, including use of Anaerobe Chamber, Catalase Assay, Oxidase Assay, Assay for Carbohydrate Utilization, Use of Oxidative-Fermentation tubes.

More information

I. General Laboratory Skills

I. General Laboratory Skills BIO208: GENETICS Bacterial Transformation with pglo plasmid: Cloning of GFP gene Objectives: Complete the pre-lab assignment due before the laboratory Record title purpose, steps, observations, and data

More information

MICROBIAL RISK ANALYSIS & MITIGATION IN BEER-MIX BEVERAGES

MICROBIAL RISK ANALYSIS & MITIGATION IN BEER-MIX BEVERAGES MICROBIAL RISK ANALYSIS & MITIGATION IN BEER-MIX BEVERAGES Tadhg O Sullivan Inge Suiker EBC Vienna September 2014 OVERVIEW 1. BACKGROUND 2. EXPANDING PORTFOLIO 3. METHODOLOGY 4. BEER MIX BEVERAGES 5. TO

More information

Aaron Shavitz 10/8/15 Lab Section: L14 Impact of Sodium Chloride on Yeast Fermentation 1

Aaron Shavitz 10/8/15 Lab Section: L14 Impact of Sodium Chloride on Yeast Fermentation 1 Aaron Shavitz 10/8/15 Lab Section: L14 Impact of Sodium Chloride on Yeast Fermentation 1 Introduction 2 Fermentation 3 is a biological process performed in order to allow organisms to produce energy without

More information

NUTRITION AND GROWTH OF BACTERIA

NUTRITION AND GROWTH OF BACTERIA 3 NUTRITION AND GROWTH OF BACTERIA 3.1 INTRODUCTION Bacteria are prokaryotic organisms that do not contain chlorophyll. They are unicellular and do not show true branching. They differ from eukaryotes

More information

LAB 4 BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BACTERIA AND DETECTION OF MOTILITY

LAB 4 BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BACTERIA AND DETECTION OF MOTILITY LAB 4 BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BACTERIA AND DETECTION OF MOTILITY Objectives In this lab you will learn how to: - test the ability of your unknown (UK) to digest certain substrates - discern motility

More information

Plasmid Isolation. Prepared by Latifa Aljebali Office: Building 5, 3 rd floor, 5T250

Plasmid Isolation. Prepared by Latifa Aljebali Office: Building 5, 3 rd floor, 5T250 Plasmid Isolation Prepared by Latifa Aljebali Office: Building 5, 3 rd floor, 5T250 Plasmid Plasmids are small, double strand, closed circular DNA molecules. Isolated from bacterial cells. Replicate independently

More information

Lab 10: Bacterial Transformation, part 2, DNA plasmid preps, Determining DNA Concentration and Purity

Lab 10: Bacterial Transformation, part 2, DNA plasmid preps, Determining DNA Concentration and Purity Lab 10: Bacterial Transformation, part 2, DNA plasmid preps, Determining DNA Concentration and Purity Today you analyze the results of your bacterial transformation from last week and determine the efficiency

More information

Introduction to Enzyme Kinetics: Assay of β-galactosidase

Introduction to Enzyme Kinetics: Assay of β-galactosidase Introduction to Enzyme Kinetics: Assay of β-galactosidase Page 1: Introduction Enzymes are biological molecules that function as catalysts to facilitate specific chemical reactions. Any chemical reaction

More information

Biology Assessment Unit AS 1

Biology Assessment Unit AS 1 Centre Number 71 Candidate Number ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY (AS) General Certificate of Education January 2013 Biology Assessment Unit AS 1 assessing Molecules and Cells AB111 [AB111] WEDNESDAY 9 JANUARY, MORNING

More information

Fact Sheet WINEMAKING

Fact Sheet WINEMAKING Achieving successful malolactic fermentation Introduction Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a secondary bacterial fermentation carried out in most red wines and some white and sparkling wines. It often

More information

Testing Waste Water for Fecal Coliforms and/or E.coli using Colilert and Colilert -18 & Quanti-Tray

Testing Waste Water for Fecal Coliforms and/or E.coli using Colilert and Colilert -18 & Quanti-Tray Testing Waste Water for Fecal Coliforms and/or E.coli using Colilert and Colilert -18 & Quanti-Tray Gil Dichter World Wide Technical Support Manager, Water www.idexx.com/water 1 FOR ALL OF YOU WHO ARE

More information

Enzymes: Amylase Activity in Starch-degrading Soil Isolates

Enzymes: Amylase Activity in Starch-degrading Soil Isolates Enzymes: Amylase Activity in Starch-degrading Soil Isolates Introduction This week you will continue our theme of industrial microbiologist by characterizing the enzyme activity we selected for (starch

More information

Module 3 Questions. 7. Chemotaxis is an example of signal transduction. Explain, with the use of diagrams.

Module 3 Questions. 7. Chemotaxis is an example of signal transduction. Explain, with the use of diagrams. Module 3 Questions Section 1. Essay and Short Answers. Use diagrams wherever possible 1. With the use of a diagram, provide an overview of the general regulation strategies available to a bacterial cell.

More information

Managing Alcohol Fermentation Good Fermentation Practices

Managing Alcohol Fermentation Good Fermentation Practices Managing Alcohol Fermentation Good Fermentation Practices Michigan Wine & Grape Conference, Grand Rapids February 24, 2010 Gordon Specht Development and production of Yeast Bacteria and their derivatives

More information

YOGURT is one of the most popular dairy foods. Its

YOGURT is one of the most popular dairy foods. Its Yogurt Production YOGURT is one of the most popular dairy foods. Its production is among the fastest growing segments of the dairy industry. When yogurt was introduced to consumers, many people were hesitant

More information

Microbial Growth. By Dr. Carmen Rexach Microbiology Mt San Antonio College

Microbial Growth. By Dr. Carmen Rexach Microbiology Mt San Antonio College Microbial Growth By Dr. Carmen Rexach Microbiology Mt San Antonio College Microbial growth Definition Increase in the number of cells Increase in microbial mass Requires specific physical and chemical

More information

Carbon Balance, Respiration and Environment. K. Raja Reddy

Carbon Balance, Respiration and Environment. K. Raja Reddy Carbon Balance, Respiration and Environment K. Raja Reddy Krreddy@pss.msstate.edu Carbon Balance, Respiration and Environment Goals and learning objectives are to: Understand the respiration costs associated

More information

DIFFERENTIAL STAINING, Part I

DIFFERENTIAL STAINING, Part I DIFFERENTIAL STAINING, Part I Differential staining is a procedure that takes advantage of differences in the physical and chemical properties of different groups of bacteria. It allows us to differentiate

More information

Protein assay. Absorbance Fluorescence Emission Colorimetric detection BIO/MDT 325. Absorbance

Protein assay. Absorbance Fluorescence Emission Colorimetric detection BIO/MDT 325. Absorbance Protein assay Absorbance Fluorescence Emission Colorimetric detection BIO/MDT 325 Absorbance Using A280 to Determine Protein Concentration Determination of protein concentration by measuring absorbance

More information

GOLDEN ENVIRO HERBA- EXTRACT DRAIN CLOG FREE. Pleasant lemon fragrance provides instant freshness Patented microbial technology

GOLDEN ENVIRO HERBA- EXTRACT DRAIN CLOG FREE. Pleasant lemon fragrance provides instant freshness Patented microbial technology GOLDEN ENVIRO HERBA- EXTRACT DRAIN CLOG FREE Application Sheet A clogged drain can stop kitchen operations - whether it is a busy restaurant or a dinner for two at home. Drain Clog Free combines fast-

More information

BACTERIAL ENUMERATION

BACTERIAL ENUMERATION BACTERIAL ENUMERATION In the study of microbiology, there are numerous occasions when it is necessary to either estimate or determine the number of bacterial cells in a broth culture or liquid medium.

More information

Drain Ease Open. Application Sheet. Cleaning Solutions Drain

Drain Ease Open. Application Sheet. Cleaning Solutions Drain Drain Ease Open Cleaning Solutions Drain Application Sheet A clogged drain can stop kitchen operations whether it is a busy restaurant or a dinner for two at home. Drain Ease Open combines fast-acting

More information

The Processes of Life. Bicester Community College Science Department

The Processes of Life. Bicester Community College Science Department B4 The Processes of Life B4 Key Questions How do chemical reactions take place in living things? How do plants make food? How do living organisms obtain energy? How do chemical reactions take place in

More information

Spectrophotometry and the Beer-Lambert Law: An Important Analytical Technique in Chemistry

Spectrophotometry and the Beer-Lambert Law: An Important Analytical Technique in Chemistry Spectrophotometry and the Beer-Lambert Law: An Important Analytical Technique in Chemistry Jon H. Hardesty, PhD and Bassam Attili, PhD Collin College Department of Chemistry Introduction: In the last lab

More information

CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY. Section C: Related Metabolic Processes

CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY. Section C: Related Metabolic Processes CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY Section C: Related Metabolic Processes 1. Fermentation allows some cells to produce ATP without the help of oxygen 2. Glycolysis and the Krebs

More information

CHAPTER-III R.KAVITHA, M.PHARM, LECTURER, DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICS, SRM COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, SRM UNIVERSITY, KATTANKULATHUR.

CHAPTER-III R.KAVITHA, M.PHARM, LECTURER, DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICS, SRM COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, SRM UNIVERSITY, KATTANKULATHUR. CHAPTER-III R.KAVITHA, M.PHARM, LECTURER, DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICS, SRM COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, SRM UNIVERSITY, KATTANKULATHUR. Culture techniques Environment Carbon and Energy Flow Maintains of culture

More information

Hillsborough Community College - Ybor City Campus 1025C Laboratory Exercise 6: The Process of Fermentation Introduction

Hillsborough Community College - Ybor City Campus 1025C Laboratory Exercise 6: The Process of Fermentation Introduction Hillsborough Community College - Ybor City Campus 1025C Laboratory Exercise 6: The Process of Fermentation Introduction Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is the release of energy from carbohydrates

More information

10-ml Graduated cylinder 40 ml 3% Hydrogen peroxide solution (found in stores) Straight-edged razor blade Scissors and Forceps (tweezers)

10-ml Graduated cylinder 40 ml 3% Hydrogen peroxide solution (found in stores) Straight-edged razor blade Scissors and Forceps (tweezers) Name: Class: Date: Objectives * Measure the effects of changes in temperature, ph, and enzyme concentration on reaction rates of an enzyme catalyzed reaction in a controlled experiment. * Explain how environmental

More information

High deleterious genomic mutation rate in stationary phase of Escherichia coli

High deleterious genomic mutation rate in stationary phase of Escherichia coli Loewe, L et al. (2003) "High deleterious genomic mutation rate in stationary phase of Escherichia coli" 1 High deleterious genomic mutation rate in stationary phase of Escherichia coli Laurence Loewe,

More information

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is commonly known as Baker s and Brewer s yeast

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is commonly known as Baker s and Brewer s yeast The effect of different sugars in the medium on carbon dioxide production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Jason Angustia, Maggie Chan, Deirdre Dinneen, Shamim Hortamani, Diane Mutabaruka Abstract Carbon dioxide

More information

PRE-LAB FOR YEAST RESPIRATION AND FERMENTATION

PRE-LAB FOR YEAST RESPIRATION AND FERMENTATION PRE-LAB FOR YEAST RESPIRATION AND FERMENTATION PURPOSE: To identify the products of yeast cultures grown under aerobic and anaerobic conditions STUDENTS' ENTERING COMPETENCIES: Before doing this lab, students

More information

Name: Class: Date: Enzyme Practice. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Class: Date: Enzyme Practice. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Class: Date: Enzyme Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which term is used to describe the high-energy intermediate that forms as

More information

Lab Exercise 3: Media, incubation, and aseptic technique

Lab Exercise 3: Media, incubation, and aseptic technique Lab Exercise 3: Media, incubation, and aseptic technique Objectives 1. Compare the different types of media. 2. Describe the different formats of media, plate, tube etc. 3. Explain how to sterilize it,

More information

ENUMERATION OF MICROORGANISMS. To learn the different techniques used to count the number of microorganisms in a sample.

ENUMERATION OF MICROORGANISMS. To learn the different techniques used to count the number of microorganisms in a sample. ENUMERATION OF MICROORGANISMS I. OBJECTIVES To learn the different techniques used to count the number of microorganisms in a sample. To be able to differentiate between different enumeration techniques

More information

GCSE Additional Science

GCSE Additional Science GCSE Additional Science Module B4 The processes of life: What you should know Name: Science Group: Teacher: R.A.G. each of the statements to help focus your revision: R = Red: I don t know this A = Amber:

More information

Isolation and Electrophoresis of Plasmid DNA

Isolation and Electrophoresis of Plasmid DNA Name Date Isolation and Electrophoresis of Plasmid DNA Prior to lab you should be able to: o Explain what cloning a gene accomplishes for a geneticist. o Describe what a plasmid is. o Describe the function

More information

HOW TO SOLVE PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF MICROBIOLOGY

HOW TO SOLVE PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF MICROBIOLOGY HOW TO SOLVE PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF MICROBIOLOGY 4. DETERMINATION OF THE PARAMETERS DEFINING THE BACTERIAL GROWTH Inés Arana, Maite Orruño & Isabel Barcina Department of Immunology, Microbiology and Parasitology

More information

The Application of Statistical Design of Experiments for Mathematical Modeling of a Bacterial Cell Culture Process

The Application of Statistical Design of Experiments for Mathematical Modeling of a Bacterial Cell Culture Process The Application of Statistical Design of Experiments for Mathematical Modeling of a Bacterial Cell Culture Process Driss Elhanafi Biomanufacturing Training & Education Center (BTEC) Golden LEAF BTEC Building

More information

The Effects of Plasmid on Genotype and Phenotype (Revised 1/31/96) Introduction

The Effects of Plasmid on Genotype and Phenotype (Revised 1/31/96) Introduction The Effects of Plasmid on Genotype and Phenotype (Revised 1/31/96) Introduction Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that often found in bacteria in addition to the large circular DNA molecule of

More information

LABORATORY TESTING GRAB SAMPLES COMPOSITE SAMPLES GENERAL LABORATORY SAFETY

LABORATORY TESTING GRAB SAMPLES COMPOSITE SAMPLES GENERAL LABORATORY SAFETY LABORATORY TESTING Sampling and laboratory analysis of source water and finished water are part of every water treatment plant operator's daily routine. Sampling and testing are necessary to gather data

More information

BY2012 Microbiology. Staphylococcus species

BY2012 Microbiology. Staphylococcus species BY2012 Microbiology Staphylococcus species Staphylococcus spp. Clusters of Gram-positive cocci Staphylococcus spp. Grape-like Clusters of Gram-positive cocci Blood Agar Plates Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus

More information

Molecular Biology. Lab #2 Growth of E. coli Bacteria

Molecular Biology. Lab #2 Growth of E. coli Bacteria Molecular Biology Name Lab #2 Growth of E. coli Bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a rod-shaped (bacillus), enteric (gut) bacterium of the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a normal resident of the

More information

Fermentation of Sucrose in S. cerevisiae

Fermentation of Sucrose in S. cerevisiae Fermentation of Sucrose in S. cerevisiae Cory Gunther, Arlington High School Kathleen Rusilas, Concord Carlisle Regional High School Based on a lab developed at the University of Missouri - St. Louis by

More information

Antimicrobial Activity of Cinnamic Acid, Citric Acid, Cinnamaldehyde, and Levulinic Acid Against Foodborne Pathogens

Antimicrobial Activity of Cinnamic Acid, Citric Acid, Cinnamaldehyde, and Levulinic Acid Against Foodborne Pathogens University of Tennessee, Knoxville Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects University of Tennessee Honors Program 5-2014 Antimicrobial Activity of

More information

Acknowledgements. Developing collaborative lab experiments across disciplines through the identification of bacteria

Acknowledgements. Developing collaborative lab experiments across disciplines through the identification of bacteria Acknowledgements Developing collaborative lab experiments across disciplines through the identification of bacteria Joanna Huxster, Ph.D. Sarah Moss, MS 15 Emily Bilyk, BS 16 Brian M. Forster, Ph.D. Lab

More information

General Microbiology -- Bacterial Growth

General Microbiology -- Bacterial Growth General Microbiology -- Bacterial Growth Begin with increase in Cell Mass AND Number: Generation time is the time required to DOUBLE cell number (titer) OR cell mass. Check out Fig 6.1, bacterial cell

More information

Metabolism Dr.kareema Amine Al-Khafaji Assistant professor in microbiology, and dermatologist Babylon University, College of Medicine, Department of

Metabolism Dr.kareema Amine Al-Khafaji Assistant professor in microbiology, and dermatologist Babylon University, College of Medicine, Department of Metabolism Dr.kareema Amine Al-Khafaji Assistant professor in microbiology, and dermatologist Babylon University, College of Medicine, Department of Microbiology. Metabolism sum of all chemical processes

More information

TransformAid Bacterial Transformation Kit

TransformAid Bacterial Transformation Kit Home Contacts Order Catalog Support Search Alphabetical Index Numerical Index Restriction Endonucleases Modifying Enzymes PCR Kits Markers Nucleic Acids Nucleotides & Oligonucleotides Media Transfection

More information

Quantitative Studies of Nitrogen Assimilation in E. coli. Peter Lenz Collaboration with T. Hwa, S. Kustu, Y. Wang and D. Yan

Quantitative Studies of Nitrogen Assimilation in E. coli. Peter Lenz Collaboration with T. Hwa, S. Kustu, Y. Wang and D. Yan Quantitative Studies of Nitrogen Assimilation in E. coli Peter Lenz Collaboration with T. Hwa, S. Kustu, Y. Wang and D. Yan The life of a bacterium life of a bacterium: matter + energy biomass E. coli

More information

Salting in, salting out, and dialysis of proteins

Salting in, salting out, and dialysis of proteins Physical Biochemistry Lab Experiment no. 5: Salting in, salting out, and dialysis of proteins Objective: To learn the techniques of isolation of proteins on basis of their solubility in water. Introduction

More information

MOLECULAR GENETICS GENETIC ENGINEERING RECOMBINANT DNA. Molecular Genetics Activity #6 page 1

MOLECULAR GENETICS GENETIC ENGINEERING RECOMBINANT DNA. Molecular Genetics Activity #6 page 1 AP BIOLOGY MOLECULAR GENETICS ACTIVITY #6 NAME DATE HOUR RECOMBINANT DNA GENETIC ENGINEERING Molecular Genetics Activity #6 page 1 GENETIC ENGINEERING Molecular Genetics Activity #6 page 2 PART I: PRODUCING

More information

Genetic transformation literally means change caused by genes.

Genetic transformation literally means change caused by genes. pglo Bacterial Transformation Practical What is transformation? Genetic transformation literally means change caused by genes. It occurs when a cell takes up (takes inside) and expresses a new piece of

More information

green B 1 ) into a single unit to model the substrate in this reaction. enzyme

green B 1 ) into a single unit to model the substrate in this reaction. enzyme Teacher Key Objectives You will use the model pieces in the kit to: Simulate enzymatic actions. Explain enzymatic specificity. Investigate two types of enzyme inhibitors used in regulating enzymatic activity.

More information

Microbial Growth (Ch 6)

Microbial Growth (Ch 6) Microbial Growth (Ch 6) Figure 6.1 Typical growth rates of different types of microorganisms in response to temperature. Thermophiles Psychrotrophs Psychrophiles Mesophiles Hyperthermophiles Applications

More information

Renewable Energy. The Ethanol Production Process Dry Mill Flow Meters and Controls. Direct Reading Flowmeters For Liquids and Gases

Renewable Energy. The Ethanol Production Process Dry Mill Flow Meters and Controls. Direct Reading Flowmeters For Liquids and Gases Renewable Energy The Ethanol Production Process Dry Mill Flow Meters and Controls Direct Reading Flowmeters For Liquids and Gases Ethanol- How it s made... There are three main uses for ethanol (industrial,

More information

STUDIES CONCERNING THE OBTAINING OF BIOMASS FROM LACTOBACILLUS PARACASEI SSP. PARACASEI USING CORN EXTRACT AS NITROGEN SOURCE

STUDIES CONCERNING THE OBTAINING OF BIOMASS FROM LACTOBACILLUS PARACASEI SSP. PARACASEI USING CORN EXTRACT AS NITROGEN SOURCE STUDIES CONCERNING THE OBTAINING OF BIOMASS FROM LACTOBACILLUS PARACASEI SSP. PARACASEI USING CORN EXTRACT AS NITROGEN SOURCE E. Vamanu 1,, A. Vamanu 1,, Diana Pelinescu, O. Popa 1,, Sultana Niţă 3, Despina

More information

Introduction. Disinfectants used in hospitals and laboratories must be tested periodically to ascertain its potency and efficacy.

Introduction. Disinfectants used in hospitals and laboratories must be tested periodically to ascertain its potency and efficacy. Introduction Disinfectants used in hospitals and laboratories must be tested periodically to ascertain its potency and efficacy. Evaluation is not for conc. But it is for the activity of the agent under

More information

Fermentation: one part in a larger lesson on cellular respiration

Fermentation: one part in a larger lesson on cellular respiration Kate Buckman Modified session plan: Fermentation: one part in a larger lesson on cellular respiration what worked and didn t in previous lessons: Every time I was taught cellular respiration in the past,

More information

Effect Of Amino Acids On Plants

Effect Of Amino Acids On Plants Effect Of Amino Acids On Plants Agriculture production is a very intensive business and is related to better quality and better yield leading to better profitability Every farmer s dreams to achieve this

More information

#1 NAME MCB 2004 GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY TEST #1, FEBRUARY 5, 2001

#1 NAME MCB 2004 GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY TEST #1, FEBRUARY 5, 2001 #1 NAME GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY TEST #1, FEBRUARY 5, 2001 IN THIS PART THERE ARE FORTY-FIVE QUESTIONS WORTH TWO POINTS EACH. THERE IS ONLY ONE CORRECT ANSWER FOR EACH QUESTION. PLEASE CIRCLE THE CORRECT LETTER

More information

Microbiology BIOL 275 DILUTIONS

Microbiology BIOL 275 DILUTIONS DILUTIONS Occasionally a solution is too concentrated to be used as is. For example, when one is performing manual blood counts, the blood contains too many cells to be counted as such. Or when performing

More information

Content Sheet 8-1: Overview of Quality Control for Qualitative and Semi-quantitative Procedures

Content Sheet 8-1: Overview of Quality Control for Qualitative and Semi-quantitative Procedures Content Sheet 8-1: Overview of Quality Control for Qualitative and Semi-quantitative Procedures Role in quality management system Quality Control (QC) is a component of process control, and is a major

More information

Cellular respiration. Cellular respiration. Respiration and fermentation. Respiration as a redox rxn. Redox reactions.

Cellular respiration. Cellular respiration. Respiration and fermentation. Respiration as a redox rxn. Redox reactions. Cellular respiration So why do we breathe? The big picture Heterotrophs cannot make their own food to supply their energy needs Instead they break down food to use the chemical energy stored in organic

More information

Prokaryotes (bacteria) and Gram Staining

Prokaryotes (bacteria) and Gram Staining Prokaryotes (bacteria) and Gram Staining Gram positive and Gram negative Why are we learning this? We will be monitoring our bioreactors for bacterial contamination. We sometimes are culturing E.coli as

More information

Methods of Grading S/N Style of grading Percentage Score 1 Attendance, class work and assignment 10 2 Test 20 3 Examination 70 Total 100

Methods of Grading S/N Style of grading Percentage Score 1 Attendance, class work and assignment 10 2 Test 20 3 Examination 70 Total 100 COURSE: MIB 303 Microbial Physiology and Metabolism (3 Units- Compulsory) Course Duration: Three hours per week for 15 weeks (45 hours). Lecturer: Jimoh, S.O. B.Sc., M.Sc, Ph.D Microbiology (ABU, Zaria)

More information

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE USING THE ANOXIC GAS FLOTATION (AGF) PROCESS

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE USING THE ANOXIC GAS FLOTATION (AGF) PROCESS ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE USING THE ANOXIC GAS FLOTATION (AGF) PROCESS Dennis A. Burke Cyclus Envirosystems, 6007 Hill Road NE, Olympia, WA 98516-9551 ABSTRACT The AGF (Anoxic Gas Flotation)

More information

Unit 2 Metabolism and Survival Summary

Unit 2 Metabolism and Survival Summary Unit 2 Metabolism and Survival Summary 1 Metabolism pathways and their control (a) Introduction to metabolic pathways This involves integrated and controlled pathways of enzymecatalysed reactions within

More information

Media and growth conditions for Lactococcus lactis

Media and growth conditions for Lactococcus lactis Media and growth conditions for Lactococcus lactis M17-medium M17 medium is the commonly used growth medium for Lactococcus lactis. This medium is commercially available without carbon source. Addition

More information

Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Agriculture Now a Real Option Guy Webb B.Sc. REM Agricultural Consultant

Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Agriculture Now a Real Option Guy Webb B.Sc. REM Agricultural Consultant Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Agriculture Now a Real Option Guy Webb B.Sc. REM Agricultural Consultant The Pursuit of Protein and Profit All agricultural enterprises, in essence, are based on the pursuit

More information

Cork Institute of Technology. Summer 2005 Biochemistry (Time: 3 Hours) Section A

Cork Institute of Technology. Summer 2005 Biochemistry (Time: 3 Hours) Section A ork Institute of Technology igher ertificate in Science in Applied Biology Award (National ertificate in Science in Applied Biology Award) (NFQ Level 6) Summer 2005 Biochemistry (Time: 3 ours) Answer Section

More information

UTILIZATION of PLASMA ACTIVATED WATER in Biotechnology, Pharmacology and Medicine. JSC TECHNOSYSTEM-ECO Moscow, Russia April, 2009

UTILIZATION of PLASMA ACTIVATED WATER in Biotechnology, Pharmacology and Medicine. JSC TECHNOSYSTEM-ECO Moscow, Russia April, 2009 UTILIZATION of PLASMA ACTIVATED WATER in Biotechnology, Pharmacology and Medicine JSC TECHNOSYSTEM-ECO Moscow, Russia April, 2009 METHOD of WATER ACTIVATION with PLASMA of GAS DISCHARGE ANODE VACUUM WATER

More information

Enzyme Kinetics: Properties of â-galactosidase

Enzyme Kinetics: Properties of â-galactosidase Enzyme Kinetics: Properties of â-galactosidase Preparation for Laboratory: Read the introduction to this laboratory before doing the Web Tutorial - Beta Galactosidase. Additional background: Freeman, skim

More information

Effect of temperature and ph on the enzymatic activity of salivary amylase

Effect of temperature and ph on the enzymatic activity of salivary amylase Effect of temperature and ph on the enzymatic activity of salivary amylase Gae Khalil Rodillas, Nonia Carla Ysabel Samson, Raphael Jaime Santos* and Brylle Tabora Department of Biological Sciences, College

More information

Microbiology - Problem Drill 05: Microbial Metabolism

Microbiology - Problem Drill 05: Microbial Metabolism Microbiology - Problem Drill 05: Microbial Metabolism No. 1 of 10 1. Anabolism is a metabolic process where are turned into molecules. (A) Complex, simple (B) Simple, ATP (C) Simple, ATP (D) Simple, complex

More information

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs.

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs. 1. An autotroph is an organism that a. extracts energy from organic sources b. converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy c. relies on the energy produced by other organisms as an energy source

More information

GUIDELINES FOR USE OF NUTRITION AND HEALTH CLAIMS

GUIDELINES FOR USE OF NUTRITION AND HEALTH CLAIMS 1 Nutrition and Health Claims (CAC/GL 23-1997) GUIDELINES FOR USE OF NUTRITION AND HEALTH CLAIMS CAC/GL 23-1997 Nutrition claims should be consistent with national nutrition policy and support that policy.

More information

FIFTYOD TM High Cell Density Growth Medium Protocol (V. 2.2, March 2014)

FIFTYOD TM High Cell Density Growth Medium Protocol (V. 2.2, March 2014) Prozomix Limited Station Court Haltwhistle Northumberland NE49 9HN UK Tel: + 44 (0)1434 400455 Fax: + 44 (0)1434 322822 info@prozomix.com www.prozomix.com FIFTYOD TM High Cell Density Growth Medium Protocol

More information

Microbial Nutrition And bacterial Classification Microbiology Unit-I. Muhammad Iqbal Lecturer KMU

Microbial Nutrition And bacterial Classification Microbiology Unit-I. Muhammad Iqbal Lecturer KMU Microbial Nutrition And bacterial Classification Microbiology Unit-I Muhammad Iqbal Lecturer KMU Objectives At the end of this lecture the students will be able to: Define key terms. Identify the basic

More information

Lecture 1 MODULE 3 GENE EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION. Professor Bharat Patel Office: Science 2, 2.36 Email: b.patel@griffith.edu.

Lecture 1 MODULE 3 GENE EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION. Professor Bharat Patel Office: Science 2, 2.36 Email: b.patel@griffith.edu. Lecture 1 MODULE 3 GENE EXPRESSION AND REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION Professor Bharat Patel Office: Science 2, 2.36 Email: b.patel@griffith.edu.au What is Gene Expression & Gene Regulation? 1. Gene Expression

More information

Lactose Induction of the lac operon in Escherichia coli B23 and its effect on the o-nitrophenyl ß-galactoside Assay

Lactose Induction of the lac operon in Escherichia coli B23 and its effect on the o-nitrophenyl ß-galactoside Assay Lactose Induction of the lac operon in Escherichia coli B23 and its effect on the o-nitrophenyl ß-galactoside Assay TRACY BORRALHO, YVONNE CHANG, PRASHANT JAIN, MOHAMMED LALANI, AND KIRAN PARGHI Department

More information