Verb Lists: Infinitives and Gerunds Principles of Composition

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1 Verb Lists: Infinitives and Gerunds Principles of Composition Verbs Followed by an Infinitive agree aim appear arrange ask attempt be able beg begin care choose condescend consent continue dare decide deserve detest dislike expect fail forget get happen have hesitate hope hurry intend leap leave like long love mean neglect offer ought plan prefer prepare proceed promise propose refuse remember say shoot start stop strive swear threaten try use wait want wish Verbs Followed by an Object and an Infinitive advise allow ask beg bring build buy challenge choose command dare direct encourage expect forbid force have hire instruct invite lead leave let like love motivate order pay permit persuade prepare promise remind require send teach tell urge want warn

2 Verbs Followed by a Gerund admit advise appreciate avoid can't help complete consider delay deny detest dislike enjoy escape excuse finish forbid get through have imagine mind miss permit postpone practice quit recall report resent resist resume risk spend (time) suggest tolerate waste (time) Verbs Followed by a Preposition and a Gerund admit to approve of argue about believe in care about complain about concentrate on confess to depend on disapprove of discourage from dream about feel like forget about insist on object to plan on prevent (someone) from refrain from succeed in talk about think about worry about

3 -ing (gerund) and the infinitive EI20A - There are some verbs in English which are followed by ing and some others which are followed by the infinitive. - You will also find some verbs which can take both forms and express the same idea. - There are others which take both forms but when followed by the ing form have got one meaning and when followed by the infinitive they mean something different. 1. Verbs + -ing finish delay fancy consider admit miss involve postpone (put off) avoid deny risk practise give up carry on keep (keep on) suggest enjoy mind dislike recommend mind advise encourage permit - forbid. 1a. Do you fancy going out this evening? 1b. I haven t given up smoking. 1c. She delayed telling him the news, waiting for the right moment. 1d. I wouldn t recommend staying in that hotel. (look at the notes below) 1e. We can t carry on living like this! 2. Verbs + the infinitive decide offer agree refuse plan arrange hope aim learn deserve afford attempt manage fail promise threaten choose seem appear tend pretend claim - need help hope want would like/love expect. 2a. I agreed not to lend him some money. 2b. They seem to have plenty of money. 2c. The government is aiming to reduce unemployment by 50%. 2d. I would like to go to that concert. 2e. The hijackers threatened to kill the passengers. 3. Verbs + -ing or the infinitive (having the same meaning) begin start intend continue bother like love hate can t stand bear prefer - allow 3a. How can you bear eating that stuff? / How can you bear to eat that stuff?

4 3b. I like getting up early / I like to get up early. 3c. The donor prefers remaining anonymous / The donor prefers to remain anonymous. 3d. It began raining / It began to rain. 3e. I don t intend staying long / I don t intend to stay long. 4. Verbs + -ing or the infinitive (with differences in meaning). Stop - I stopped smoking a year ago. (I don t smoke any more) regret - I now regret saying what I said. ( I did it and now I m sorry about it) (The action - saying- happened BEFORE the act of regretting). remember - I remember locking the door. ( I locked it, and now I remember this) ( The action locking the door- happened BEFORE the act of remembering). go on - The minister went on talking for two hours. ( continue). forget - I can t forget travelling with you. ( The action - travelling- happened BEFORE the act of forgetting). come - She came home running ( The way she came home was running, not walking or cycling, etc.) try - I tried taking some aspirin, but the pain didn t go away. (To say we test something to see if it improves a situation). Mean - If we want to get there by 7:00, that means getting up before 5:00. ( (To say that something has something else as result). - I was driving and I stopped to smoke. ( I had to stop what I was doing to do something different) - I regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you the job. ( I m sorry about what I m going to do) ( The action informhappened AFTER the act of regretting). - I remembered to lock the door when I left. ( I remembered to lock the door and I did it. It is not something I am remembering now) ( The action locking the door- happened AFTER the act of remembering). - Remember to tell him about Tina. (please, don t forget near future-) After discussing the economy, the minister went on to talk about foreign policy. ( to do or say something new). - I forgot to buy the tickets. ( The action buying the tickets- happened AFTER the act of forgetting) - She came home to run ( the purpose of her visit was to go running) - Y tried to get the table through the door, but it was too big. (To say that we attempt to do something). - I meant to phone you last week. ( To say that we intend to do something.

5 Notes: 1. When the verbs are followed by an object (i.e. somebody or something) they take the infinitive form. want- expect ask beg help- mean (= intend) would like/prefer/love/hate recommend - advise encourage allow permit forbid- carry. - Do you want me to buy the tickets? (me= object, it is somebody) - We expected Tom to be late. ( Tom= object, it is somebody) - They begged permission to leave. ( permission= object, it is something). - I wouldn t recommend you to stay in that hotel. 2. MAKE and LET are different. They are followed by an object and the verb without TO. - He makes Sally feel happy. - Let him go to the party. 3. When the verbs are followed by a preposition + verb, that verb ends in ing. That is called gerund as object of preposition. - We talked about going to Europe. - I succeeded in finding a new job. - I m thinking of buying a new house. - They insisted on paying for the meal. - She apologized for not telling the truth. - Her parents prevented them from going there. 4. Expressions followed by a gerund after the preposition to: - She s accustomed to sleeping late on Saturdays. - We are committed to taking care of them. - Kate is looking forward to visiting him again. - I am absolutely opposed to trying that strange food. - Tom is used to travelling abroad.

6 Grammar Notes: - Subject: The SU in a sentence is the person or thing that does the action expressed by the verb (usually a noun, a noun phrase or a pronoun). Sometimes the SU is a gerund. 1. They went to the party last night. SU 2. The car crashed into that big tree. SU 3. Meeting new people is really exiting. SU - Direct Object: The DO is the person or thing that receives the action of the verb (usually noun, pronouns, phrases or clauses). Sometimes the DO is a gerund. 1. I asked him an important question. DO 2. I think travelling is a great opportunity to know about different cultures. DO - Indirect Object: The IO precedes the DO and tells to whom or for whom the action of the verb is done and who is receiving the DO (usually a noun or a pronoun). There must be a DO to have an IO. Sometimes an IO is a gerund. 1. She brought me the report. IO DO 2. Paul gave running a good reputation. IO DO - Subject Complement:

7 A SC is a complement that gives a description of the subject (usually nouns or adjectives after verb TO BE). Sometimes the SC is a gerund. 1. Charles is a doctor. SC 2. Charles is upset. SC 3. My cat s favourite activity is sleeping. SC

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