SWAHILI MADE SIMPLE. Pronouns. Personal Pronouns. Possessive Pronouns/Adjectives. Subject Pronoun Prefixes. Introductory Note:

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1 by Stephen M. Shululu Revised and Expanded by T P. Wolf Introductory Note: SWAHILI MADE SIMPLE This Study Guide is best used as a summary/reference for structures learned elsewhere, since it is impossible to present such material in a graded progression, which avoids entirely any logical 'leaps'. Having said this, none of the examples given to illustrate the structure under discussion goes beyond the grammatical limits of the summary itself. See the accompanying Vocabulary for the lexical items used in the examples. Pronouns Personal Pronouns Singular Plural 1 st person mimi (I) sisi (we) 2 nd person wewe (you) ninyi or nyinyi (you) 3 rd person yeye (he/she) wao (they) These pronouns are always self-standing. They are usually followed by the verb ni (or its negative, si): wewe ni mwalimu, wao si wema. While the positive (ni) may be omitted, the negative must not be: mimi mgonjwa, ninyi si masikini. They are sometimes used for emphasis before and in addition to the correct subject pronoun prefix (see below): yeye hakuchelewa, sisi tumefaulu. Possessive Pronouns/Adjectives Singular Plural 1 st person angu (my/mine) etu (our/ours) 2 nd person ako (you/yours) enu (your/yours) 3 rd person ake (his/his, her/hers) ao (their/theirs) Know your stem/adjectival endings: uvumilivu wangu; uvumilivu wako, etc. Know your noun class prefix agreement: kitabu changu; chungwa langu; etc. Remember there is no equivalent to an apostrophe, so instead of saying Juma's job we must say the work of Juma : kazi ya juma (or kazi yake juma). Subject Pronoun Prefixes Singular Plural 1 st person ni (I) tu (we) 2 nd person u (you) m(u) (you) 3 rd person a (he/she) wa (they) These prefixes are always used with transitive (i.e., action) verbs. They are (generally) followed by the tense infix (or marker ). The subject prefix, the tense marker, and the verb stem are written as one word: unasoma; tutasafiri; walikaa

2 Object Pronoun Infixes Singular Plural 1 st person ni (me) tu (us) 2 nd person ku (you) wa (you) 3 rd person m (him/her) wa (them) Watch the position of the infix in the sentence- after the tense marker and immediately before the verb stem. (remember: 'STOVE' - (S)ubject + (T)ense + (O)bject + (VE)rb): ametuita; nitampa; hakunidanganya. Because the same infix is used for the second and third persons plural, ninyi may be added when the former is being expressed: niliwaona; hatawatuma ninyi. Remember also the reflexive object infix -ji- (myself): nimejiumiza; hajajisaidia; watajipatia. Basic Positive Tenses Present Continuous Tense The present continuous tense refers to ongoing currant action ( I am doing something ). It is made by simply combining the particular Object Pronoun with the infix -na-, followed by the verb stem (the infinitive with the prefix ku taken out,): ninasema; unaandika; anacheka, etc. Note, however, that when the verb has only one syllable after the infinitive prefix ku, it remains: tunakula; mnrkuja; wanakunywa, etc. The Past Perfect Tense The past perfect tense is used to describe an action which either (a) has just recently occurred, or (b) regardless of when it took place, produced a result which still exists in the present ( I have arrived ; The milk is spilt ; etc.). It employs the infix -me- instead of -na- as in the present continuous tense, but is in other ways identical. nimefika; maziwa; yamemwagika Simple Past Tense The simple past tense refers to a completed action, usually in the more distant past, and where no resultant state is directly relevant to current conditions ("You worked"; "They played"). It employs the infix -li-, and is again otherwise identical to the tenses described above: ulifanya kazi, walicheza. The Simple Future Tense The future tense refers to actions in all future time (She will recover; We will conquer). Again it is identical to the other simple tenses, except that it employs the infix ta-: atapona; tutashinda

3 Adjectives Adjectival Root Example chache (few) watoto wachache dogo (small) mbuzi wadogo kubwa (large) miti mikubwa zuri (good, beautiful) habari nzuri baya (bad, ugly) kitabu kibaya refu (tall) mlango mrefu; safari ndefu fupi (short) maua mafupi ingi/engi (many chumvi nyingi; mahali pengi ingine/engine (other) choo kingine; mpishi mwengine ote (all) vikapu vyote o -ote (any at all) shida yo yote gumu (hard, difficult) maswali magumu chafu (dirty, obscene) hadithi chafu Adjectives always follow the noun they modify Nearly all adjectives of Bantu origin must agree with the nouns they modify according to their (noun class) prefixes (see below): mti mrefu; watu warefu, mlima mrefu; milima mirefu; etc. Numbers also follow the noun (and the adjective if there is one), and also take the agreement prefix of the noun except for 6, 7, 9 and 10: watoto wawili; mananasi sita; vifaru wakubwa tisa; etc. Adjectives of non-bantu (especially Arabic) origin are generally not modified to agree with nouns: Adjective Example safi (clean, pleasing) mikeka safi ghali (expensive) nguo ghali rahisi (cheap, easy) bei rahisi hodari (skillful) mkulima hodari The Imperative Positive Commands When giving a command to only one parson, simply use the verb stem: e.g., funga!; fungua!; (but note such irregulars as nenda!; njoo!). When speaking to more than one person: add ni to the verb stem: njooni!; jaribuni! if the verb stem ends in a change it to e before adding ni: fungeni!; fungueni!; nendeni! Negative Commands For negative orders, the pronoun prfix must be used together with the syllable infix -si-, or snev: S(ubject) + N(egative order infix) + V(erb stem): usirudi!; msijibu! For verbs ending in a, change it to e: usiogal'e!; msipumlike' Note: These commands are harsh/rude (especially the positives; see the Subjunctive Tense, below), and should be given only in emergencies, to peers, or to those with whom one is very familiar.

4 Nouns and Their Classes As you will have seen, every noun belongs to one of a number of groups or 'classes'. The specific prefix of each noun (person, place or thing) is thus determined by its class, in both the singular and plural. The Human Being (or m/wa) Class Nouns in this class almost always take the m prefix in the singular and wa in the plural: mtu/watu; mnyama/wanyama. Remember that these prefixes also apply to adjectives. When referring to people, therefore where mtu or watu is the subject, for example), the adjective may stand alone; i.e., the word for person or people need not be stated: mjinga/wa3inga; mjanja/wajanja; mpole/wrpole. Remember also that there are some nouns referring to persons (and animals) which according to their prefixes belong to other classes (see below), but still agree with the m/'wa class when adjectives (except' in some cases, possessives) are employed: askari mkali''askari wakali; daktari miuri/madaktari wazuri; rafiki yangu mkeny^; marafiki zangu wakenya. The Tree (or m/mi) Class Nouns in the class invariably take M in the singular and MI in the plural. They include almost all trees and plants, and other nouns: mti/miti; mgomba/migomba, moto/mioto; mto/mito; mwaka/miaka. The Thing (or ki/vi) Class This class includes many inanimate objects as well as diminutives. All nouns take ki in the singular and vi in the plural, except those which begin with oh, which become vy: kitu/vitu; kikombe,'vikombe, mumba/vyumba; kisahani/visahani. The General (or N) Class Many words in this class start with n. but it also includes most words of foreign (i.e., non-bantu) origin. Because there is no difference between the singular and plural form of such nouns, one can only tall from the accompanying adjective or verb prefix ~ whether the speaker or writer is referring to the singular or plural: nyumba yako/nyumba zero; saa imepotea/saa 7imepotea. Remember those N class words which refer to humans (and animals), but which usually revert to the M/WA class in the adjectival form: nrhodha mpotevu/nahodha wapotevu; ng'ombe mmoja/ng'ombe wengi. The Fruit (or JI/'MA) Class This class includes most fruits and vegetables, as well as many many nouns made from verbs and things plentiful in nature (which are usually only expressed in the plural), and some things which only come in pairs. While most nouns in this class take JI in the singular, all take the subject prefix MA in the plural: tunda/matunda; mapenzi; maji; icho/macho. The Abstract (or U) Class This class contains most abstractions (such as concepts; i.a., the 'ness' of something) as wall as a small group of other items. The former logi cally have no plural, whereas the latter take plural forms similar to the N class: uzuri; usawa; uso/nyuso; u=i/nyu7i. Final Note on Nouns: Regarding the classification on nouns, there are several general ap plica~le rules. If the noun is a person (and in most cases if it is an animal) put it in the M/WA class, if it is not human but has the power of movement (i.e., is animate), it usually belongs in the M/MI class; if it starts with KI (and sometimes with CH) it belongs to the KI,iVI class; if it is the name of a fruit or vegetable, put it in J/MA; if it starts with any other letter and has the same form in the plural as the singular, it goes in the N class. Simple!

5 The Neuter Classes in Verb Form/Locatives There are things which inanimate objects may do: knives cut, cups break, water dries up, etc. Thus there are subject prefixes, singular and plural, which must be attached to verb stems for all things (as they are for people) which can act or be acted upon. These are used in just the same way as they are for the human being class (NI-, U-, etc.); that is, they coma in front G ~ the tense marker which precedes the verb stem itself That is, in Swahili (unfortunately), there are no general words for 'it" and "they"; these are expressed differently according to the class of the noun in question as subject prefixes: Class It They Examples m/mi u- i- mbuyu umepasuliwa. miiba ilisumbua. ki/vi ki- vi- kiti kimekatika vijiko vimeoshwa. n/n i- zi- kalamu imekauka. peso zitaliwa. ji/ma li- ya- jiwe limeanguka. madafu yataiva. u/n u- zi- ubaya utaondolewa. nyakati zinabadilika. These subject prefixes are also combined with the locatives (place designations) -KO (indefinite or general place and the most common), -PO (specific place) and -MO (inside place) to say that something(s) is/are "there". Negatives are made by simply adding the usual negative prefix (HA-) to these subject prefixes for things of particular classes: kiatu kiko - kiatu hakiko; viatu viko - viatu haviko; m'uko upo - mfuko haupo, mifuko iko - mifuko haiko Remember that when expressing location with people, all the usual subject prefixes are used except for the 3rd person singular, where A becomes YU: Singular Plural 1 st person niko - siko tuko - hatuko 2 nd person uko - huko mko - hamko (or muko - hamuko) 3 rd person yuko - hayuko wako - hawako Present Tense Of The Verbs To Be and To Have / To Be With The word for "am", "is", and "are" (when used as self-standing intransitive verbs) is NI; its negative is SI: yeye ni mpumba'v'u.; ninyi si w~talii.; uzee si ugonjwa. The word for "have" and "with" is NA. When the latter meaning is required, it is a self-standing conjunction: tutakula wali na kuku; niliwashtaki hamisi na fatuma. The former meaning is (usually) indicated by joining NA to the particular subject prefix in question: mtoto huyu ana homa; sisi tuna 3ahati; To form the negative, put HA in front of the positive form, except in the case of the first and second person singular (i.e., in the Human Being class) when SI and HU are used: sina fedra; mfuko huu hauna cho chote; kisa hicho hakina mwisho Note: Remember the words KUNA and HAKUNA (in general, there are and there aren't). The prefix PA is joined with NA to refer to some thing in a more specific place (PANA/HAPANA), while MU usually refers to something inside someplace (MUNA/HAMNA). (Also note that NA may mean "by", when referring to an act which was committed "by" a human agent: TUMELIPIWA NA MZEE YULE, when a non-human agent is involved, KWA is used: ALIWAWA KWA SHOKA.)

6 Past And Future Tenses Of "To Be And To Have The verb form used for the past and future tenses of to be is KUWA: alikuwa tajiri; tutakuwa safarini When expressing possession in either of these tenses, KUWA is used with NA to say that someone/thing wasfwere or will be with (i.e, have) some body/thing: alikuwa na huzuni; watakuwq na furaha Interrogation Most questions are expressed merely through inflection, i.e., by raising the voice at the end of a sentence (not by reversing word order as in English). However, such sentences may begin with the interrogative JE, which indicates at the outset that a question is about to be asked: atakasirika?; barabara imefunguliwa?; je, yeye ni mwenyeji? Alternatively, JE can be used as a suffix, usually meaning how? waonaje?; ilikuwaje?; ut~endaje?; amesemaje-; tufanyeje~ There are also a number of special interrogatives which denote that a question is being asked Interrogative Meaning Example nani? who? nani amekuandikia barua~ nini? what? nini kinakuudh i? gani? what sort of? unasoma kitabu gani? lini? when? gari litaondoka lini? wapi? where? wanakimbilia wapi? kwa nini? why? kwa nini hukuniambia? kwa sababu gani? why? kwa sababu gani tusimueshimu? -ngapi how many? saa ngapi sasa?/wataka viti vingapi? (Note that -NGAPI is like an adjective in that it must agree with the noun it refers to.) The Demonstrative and Other Adjectives Demonstratives (This/That, These/Those) The following suffixes are used in connection with the demonstrative adjectives for the singular and plural forms of nouns in each of the classes noted above: Class Singular Plural Examples (This/These; That/Those) m/wa yu wa mtu huyu/watu hawa; mtu yule/watu wale. mimi u i mti huu/miti hii; mtu ulejmiti ilk ki/vi ki vi kitu hiki/vitu hivi; kitu kile/vitu vile. n i zi pesa hiijpesa hizi; pesa ile'pesa zile ji/ma li ye jino hili/meno maya; jino lile/meno yal' u u zi uzi huu/nyuzi hizi; uzi ule/nyuzi zi'e

7 The Relative (Who, Which) The relative may be expressed in either of three ways. The first and easiest is to use the relative adjectival root AMBAwhich the following suffixes for the various noun classes: Class Singular Plural Examples m/wa ye o mtu ambaye/watu ambao. m/mi o yo mti ambao/miti ambayo. ki/vi cho vyo kiti ambacho/viti ambavyo n yo zo nyumba ambayo/nyumba ambazo. ji/ma lo yo neno ambaloimaneno ambayo. u o zo uma ambao/nyuma ambazo. An alternative way is to use these suffixes as infixes in the normal subject-verk form, SO that we end up with Subject + Tense + Relative + Verb, or 'STOVE": Class Singular Plural Examples m/wa ye o mwizi anqyeiba; wizi wanaoiba. mimi o yo mt~a unaojengw~; mitaa inayojengwa. ki/vi cho vyo kisu kilichokata; visu yiliyyokata. n yc zo tea iliyozimika; tan zilizozimika ji/ma lo yo embe litakaloiva, maembe yatakayoiya. u o zo uzi utakaotosha; nyuzi zitakazoto~ha. And if there is also an object, "STROVE": YULE ANAYENIPENDA; WALE WANAONICHUKIA; etc. A final way of using the relative is by affixing these suffixes to the verb. In this case, no tense marker is used, and we get "the sleeping child," "students who make effort", etc.: MSICHANA ALALAYE; WANAFUNZI WAFANYAO BIDII. To make the negatives of all of these relatives, simply insert SI before the relative infix (or suffix): YULE ASIYEJUR; WALE WASIOJUA. Comparison of Adjectives All comparatives and superlatives are cove red by one word, KULIKO, meaning as compared with/to. (Sometimes KU=HINDA is used in the same way.): kikoi chako hi kirefu kuliko changu. nywele zake hi ndefu kuliko zangu. jump ni mpefu kumshinda ali. The word ZQIDI, meaning more (or "exceedingly ) is usually used when the second subject is not mentioned, as well as in other ways: wazungu wanaoji'unza kiswarili si wengi zaidi. ndege iliruka mbali zaidi. ningependa ku=ema zaidi. Some Adverbs As in English, Swahili adverbs qualify adjectives and verbs or other ad verbs, and are usually placed immediately after the word they modify, except when they qualify a verb, when they may come slightly later: yule myulana ni mchokozi sana.alifanya kazi yake vizuri kabisa. Common Adverbs: sana vizuri vibaya mara moja kawaida kidogo krbisa very nicely, well badly at once usually a bit, somewhat completely

8 Note also that certain adjectives can be made into adverbs by adding the prefix VI- to the adjectival stem (VI+ZURI, VI+GUMU, etc.), while certain nouns can be made into adverbs by adding the prefix KI-, to give the mean ing of "in the same way as": anaishi kienyenji. wanrkulr kifisi.anasema kiswahili. The Negative With The Verb Of Action Present and Future Tenses In order to form negative sentences, add the syllable HA to the positive verb form (e.g.; WATALIA - HRWATALIA). This applies for all classes, singular and plural, and for all persons, with two exceptions, the singular of the first and second person, for which the negatives are formed by changing NI to SI (first person) and U to HU (second person): Singular Plural 1 st Person NINAKATAA SIKATAI TUNAKRTAA HATUKRTAI 2 nd Person UNAKRTAA HUKATAI MNAKATAA HAMKATAI 3 rd Person ANQKATAA HAKATRI WANAKATRA HAWRKATRI Two helpful points to remember are that: All verbs that end with the latter R change to I in the present negative, but verbs that end with other vowels do not change: ninajaribu - sijaribu; rnramini - haamini. Verbs having only one syllable (in addition to the KU of the infinifive) worm (e.g.; KULA, KUNYWR, etc.) drop the KU in the present negative although they may retain them in the positive, and do so in nearlyall cases; in the future tense, the KU is always retained for both positive and negative: ninakula - sili, tunrkunywa - hatunywi. Past and Perfect Tenses In both the past and perfect negative tenses, in addition to prefixing the syllable HA (or SI or HU) before the verb, LI changes to KU (past tense) and ME changes to JA (perfect tense): iliharibika - haikuharibikr; limeiva - halijai''a. Some Other Tenses The HU Tense This tense is sometimes called the habitual tense, and is translated as "usually" or "generally", as it "I usually get up at 6 a.m.", or "Oows (by their nature) eat grass." It is formed by using the prefix HU before the verb stem. Neither pronoun prefixes nor tense markers are used; the form is the same for all subjects of all classes. This means the noun or pronoun subject must be specified: mimi huamka saa kumi na mbili ya a=ubuni; ng'ombe hula nya=i. There is no negative of the HU tense; instead, the present negative is used, together, perhaps with the adverb KAWAIDA ("usually'). This tense is most commonly used in aphorisms and advertisements: kawaida mimi siamki saa hiyo; ng'ombe hawali nyama. watu wenye akili hutumia aspro

9 The KI Tense This tense has two main uses: Use it to say "if" something happens (will happen) as a conditional tense: UKI=OMA KWA BIDII UTAPITA MTIHANI VYEMA. UKICHELEWA UTAWAKUTR WAMESHAPUKUlWA. Use it to say 'when' something happens: nikirudi nyumbani nitampigia simu.akijr nitampa habari. The word KAMA ("if" or "whether") may be used for emphasis at the beginning of such sentences. The negative in either case is formed by using the relativ2 -SIPO- as the tense infix: tu~ipoeala tutakuwa na u=ingizi mwingi ~ana. u<iponipenda nitampenda mwengine. We also use ths KI tense (as a gerun~, representing an on-going action) following a verb in the past or future tense meaning "whenfif he was~will be doing something": nilimwona akiiba. utanikuta nikilima ~hambani mwetu. Finally, we often see the form -KIWA where the KI tense is used with the very to be (KUWA) meaning if/when it is/happens. It can also be used with a personal prefix (NIKIWA, UKIWA, etc.) meaning if I am," "if you are," etc.: ikiwa mvua tusitoke nje.wakiwa wavivu hawatapata cho chote. simba akiwa na njaa huenda kuwinda. The KA Tense This tense is used when giving accounts or telling stories. The syllable -KA- then replaces the usual past tense (LI). It is a narrative tense and therefore gives the sense "and then" something happened. The passage al-most always starts in the past tense and then continues in the KA tense: yule alifika nyumbani kwao, akapiga hodi, akaingia, akapewa chai, anywa. kisha akawambia mambo yote alikuwa nayo. The Permissive/Request/Obligatory Tense (Subjunctive) Verb forms in this tense can be translated as "may", "should"/"ought to", 'must" or in order to" (or their negatives). It is made simply by changing the last ~ to E; if the verb ends in any other vowel, it remains unchanged. To form the negative, -si- is added as the second syllable. Notice that in the second person singular and plural the negative is the same as the negative imperative). It has two main uses. It may be used to ask or tell someone to do something (who may be either present or not) and is a far more polite form than the imperative (especially when prefaced by TAFADHALI): tupe habari; arudi madukani sasa?; usiseme kizungu, wasije tena. It MUST be used when a wish/request/order faction is being relayed to/done to a third party: nikupe ruksa?; twaambie jina lako; tusiwakaribishe nyumbani. MWISHO! S. M. Shululu, 1966, and T. P. Wolf 1972 and 1989

10 Vocabulary For "Swahili Made Easy! Note: Words are listed only the first time they appear, in the order in which they appear in examples. Nouns appear only in the singular, except where their only form is plural. Adjectives are given in their root form only; verbs in their stem form only (without tense markers and uninflected, except where some form such as the stative is most commonly used). Adjectives and ad-verbs found in the translated short list (in Section III) are excluded. Nouns: uvumilivu (perseverance) kichwa (heady) mwalimu (teacher) chungwa (orange) kazi (work, employment) Nouns: maziwa (milk) sema (say, speak) andika (write) cheka (laugh) la (sat) Section I Adjectives: ema (good) gonjwa (ill) masikini (impoverished) chelewa (be late) faulu (succeed) some (read, study) safiri (travel) Section II ja (come) nywa (drink) fika (arrive) mwagika (be spilt) kaa (sit, reside) ita (call) pa (give) danganya (deceive, rip-off) ona (see, feel, perceive) tuma (send, dispatch) umiza (cause pain, injury) jisaidia (help's oneself; urinate, defecate) pata (obtain) fanya (do, make) cheza (play, dance) pond (recover, heal) shinda (win, overcome) Nouns: mtoto (child) mbuzi (goat) mti (tree) habari (news) kitabu (book) mlango (door) ua (flower) funga (close) fungua (open) enda (go) Section III chumvi (salt, exaggeration) mahali (place) choo (toilet, outhouse) swali (question) hadithi (story, tale) mpishi (cook) kikapu (basket) jaribu (try) rudi (return) jibu (reply) Section IV shida (problem, trouble) nanasi (pineapple) kifaru (rhinocerous) mkeka (floor mat) nguo (cloth, clothing) bei (price) mkulima (farmer, peasant) ogalea (swim) pumlika (rest)

11 Nouns: mtu (person) mnyama (animal) askari (police, guard) daktari (doctor) rafiki (friend) mti (tree) mgomba (banana tree) nyumba (house) saa (watch, clock, hour) Adjectives: jingo (foolish) janja (clever, deceitful) potea (be lost) Section V moto (fire) mto (stream, river) mwaka (year) kitu (thing) kikombe (cup) chumba (room) kisahani (small dish) nohodha (skipper) ng'ombe (cow) pole (gentle, easy-going, amiable) kali (rough, sharp, violent, fierce) tunda (fruit) mapenzi (love-making) mali (water) jicho (eye, envy) uzuri (beauty) usawa (equality) uso (face) uzi (thread) zuri (good, beautiful) poteyu (lost, missing) Nouns: mbuyu (baobab tree) mwiba (thorn) kiti (chair) kijiko (spoon) pasua (split) sumbua (disturb, bother, trouble) iva (ripen) Section VI kalamu (pen) pesa (money) jiwe (stone) dafu (unripened coconut) katika (be broken) osha (wash) ondoa (remove) nyakati (periods of time) kiatu (shoe) mfuko (pocket, sachet) ubaya (evil) kauka (become dry) ancuka (fall down) badalika (be changed) Nouns: mtalii (tourist) uzee (old age) ugonjwa (illness, a disease) wali (cooked rice) Section VII kuku (chicken) homa (fever) bahati (luck, good fortune) mouu (leg, foot) kiss (narrative, tale) mwisho (end) shoka (axe) Adjectives: pumbavu (foolish, stupid) shtaki (accuse) lipa (pay) Nouns: huluni (sorrow, grief) furaha (joy) Adjectives: Section VIII tajiri (wealthy)

12 Nouns: barabara (road) barua (letter) Adjectives: enyeji (local, indigenous) Section IX kasirika (be angry) andika (write) udhi (torment) ondoka (depart) kimbia (run) ambia (tell) heshimu (respect) take (want, need) Nouns: jino (tooth) neno (word, concern, complaint) uma (fork) mwizi (thief) mtaa (quarter/section of a town) kisu (knife) iba (steal) jenga (build) kata (cut) zimika (be extinguished) Section X tan (lamp) embe (mango) msichana (girl) mwanafunzi (student) bidii (effort) kikoi (male loin-cloth/skirt) tosha (be sufficient) enda (like, love) chukia (hated nywele (hair) mzungu (white person, European) ndege (bird, airplane) mvulana (boy) mlima (hill, mountain) fisi (hyena) lala (sleep) jua (know) jifunza (learn) Adjectives: chokozi (troublesome) lia (cry) kataa (refuse, deny) Nouns: asubuhi (morning) nyasi (grass) nyama (meat) aspro (aspirin) mtihani (examination) simu (wire, telephone) usingizi (fatigue, drowsiness) mvua (rain) nje (outside) simba (lion) njaa (hunger) chai (tea) kizungu (english) jaribu (try) amini (believe) Section XI Section XII hodi (a door-knock greeting made before entry) habari (news, information) ruksa (also, ruhusa; permission) shamba (farm, piece of agricultural land) Adjectives: vivu (lazy) Adverbs: vyema (well) kisha (finally, and then) haribika (be ruined) amka (wake up) tumia (use) pita (pass) kuta (come upon) fukuza (chase away piga (hit) lima (cultivate) toka (go out, come from) winda (hunt) ingia (enter) karibisha (welcome)

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