Soils, Sediment, Weathering and Sedimentary Rocks

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Soils, Sediment, Weathering and Sedimentary Rocks"

Transcription

1 Soils, Sediment, Weathering and Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Rocks that form by the cementing of grains or fragments of pre-existing rocks, or by the precipitation of minerals out of a solution Form a veneer over basement rocks (igneous and metamorphic) Sedimentary layers (cover) over the Vishnu schist (basement) in the Grand Canyon, AZ

2 Weathering and Erosion Sediment loose fragments of rocks or minerals broken off of bedrock, minerals that precipitate directly out of water, and shells of organisms. Deposition / Sedimentation occurs when sediment settles out as winds/water current die down, or as glaciers melt. Lithified sediment that has been cemented together by geologic processes to form a rock Rocks are broken down and turned into sediments by two main processes Physical Weathering Plumbers snake Chemical Weathering Liquid Drain-O Highly weathered sandstone in Bryce Canyon N.P., UT

3 How do Sedimentary Rocks Form? The following applies to Clastic/Detrital rocks; biochemical and chemical sed rocks are different 1) Erosion mobilizes particles by weathering, most commonly by rainfall & gravity. 2) Transportation Occurs when currents of wind, water, and moving ice (glaciers) transport particles to new locations (downhill or downstream) 3) Deposition sediment is deposited when the transporting current slows to the point that it can no longer carry its load. 4) Burial As layers of sediment accumulate, the layers accumulate in sedimentary basins. Older, previously deposited sediments are compacted. These layers remain at depth until either erosion or tectonic processes act on them. 5) Diagenesis & Lithification Refers to the physical and chemical changes that lithify sediment into rock. Includes pressure, heat and chemical reactions

4 The Sedimentary Stages of the Rock Cycle Weathering breaks down rocks. Erosion carries away particles. Transportation moves particles downhill. Glacier Delta Desert Playa lake Deposition occurs when particles settle out or precipitate. Sedimentary rocks Metamorphic rocks Plutons Burial occurs as layers of sediment accumulate. Diagenesis lithifies the sediment to make sedimentary rocks.

5 Detritus & Grain Size Physical weathering breaks rocks into chunks called detritus Detritus is classified by size (diameter)» Boulder > 256 mm Visible grain size» Cobble - between 64 and 256 mm Coarse-grained Medium-grained Fine-grained Fine-grained» Pebble - between 2 and 64 mm» Sand - between 1/16 and 2 mm» Silt - between 1/256 and 1/16 mm» Mud < 1/256 mm Microscopic grain size

6 Physical/Mechanical Weathering Rocks can be physically weathered by: Jointing Formation of cracks in rocks. Joints form in rocks due to, stretching, or cooling (contraction) Exfoliation joints when deep rocks are exposed, the removal of overburden causes sub-horizontal cracks to form causing the rock to easily peel away like layers of an onion. Also called sheet joints or unloading joints and are common in exposed batholiths.

7 Joints in the Field Below: Joints in sedimentary rocks in Brazil. Near vertical joints in sedimentary rocks are common. Above: Exfoliation / Sheet / Unloading joints in the Sierra Nevada Batholith (granite) in California.

8 Physical/Mechanical Weathering Frost wedging: water fills cracks, freezes, expands, and forces cracks to open causing them to grow. Can lift large blocks. Root wedging: same as frost wedging except that roots pry open the cracks. Salt wedging: salt crystals form when evaporating water flows through rocks. The salt crystals pry open the cracks

9 Results of Physical Weathering Eventually, mechanical weathering processes create an apron or pile of debris at the margins of slopes called talus

10 Chemical Weathering Chemical weathering is typically strongest in warm wet climates Types include: Dissolution: Primarily affects carbonates and salts when a chemical reaction breaks down minerals into new compounds E.g. CaCO 3 (Calcite) + H 2 CO 3 (carbonic acid) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2HCO - 3 (bicarbonate) Hydrolysis: Water acts to loosen chemical bonds to break down minerals. Works faster in slightly acidic water E.g. H 2 O (acidic) H + + OH - E.g. H + + KAlSi 3 O 8 (K-feldspar) Al 2 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 (Kaolinite) + K + (aq) Kaolinite is a clay mineral Oxidation: When an element loses an electron commonly when it bonds with oxygen. E.g. 4Fe O 2 2(Fe 3+ ) 2 O 3 (iron lost an electron and went up in charge) Hydration: Absorption of water into some minerals (mainly clays) causes them to expand

11 Dissolution Chemical weathering processes act on rock/mineral surfaces Results in rounding of edges

12 Surface Area and Weathering All other things being equal, the ratio of surface area to volume of a material controls the rate of weathering

13 Weathering & Roundness Weathering tends to round off corners and leave things more smooth in shape. Angular detritus = not very weathered Rounded detritus = very weathered

14 Follow s Bowen s reaction series!! Weathering and Bowen s Reaction Series Minerals that form early (high temp) in Bowen s reaction series are least stable. Exceptions are calcite and halite, which are highly susceptible to chemical weathering. Typically, mafic minerals weather by oxidation, felsic minerals weather by hydrolysis, carbonates weather by dissolution, and oxides don t weather at all. Dissolves

15 Differential Weathering Differential weathering a primary control on the shape of our physical landscape. Under the same set of climatic conditions, not all minerals and not all rocks will weather at the same rate. Some develop more joints and fractures, some undergo faster dissolution, some remain more-or-less intact. Weak layers weather more quickly, leaving behind more resistant layers. This process occurs on small scale such as an outcrop of rock And at a large scale, such as entire valleys and mountain ranges. e.g. El Capitán is the product of differential erosion (Show valley and ridge in GoogleEarth) El Capitán Guadalupe Mtns (SW Texas)

16 Soil Soil consists of rock and sediment that has been modified by physical and chemical interaction with organic material and rainwater, over time, to produce a substrate that can support the growth of plants. Soil-forming processes require long periods of time. Soil may be easily destroyed by human activities. Soil is a crucial natural resource in need of protection.

17 Soil Thickness Weathering breaks rocks down into detritus, which forms regolith Regolith: any unconsolidated material that covers bedrock Soil is a regolith What controls the thickness of soil? 1- Age: The longer a surface has been exposed, the thicker the soil

18 Soil Thickness 2- Slope: The steeper the slope the less soil will accumulate bowl-shaped areas, such as basins will accumulate thick soils

19 Soil Thickness 3- Bedrock Type: Thick soils will form over bedrock that is easily weathered, such as carbonates, evaporites, or muds. The soil composition will partly reflect the composition of the bedorock

20 Soil Thickness 4- Climate: Thick soils will form in warm wet climates; deserts will form little or no soil

21 Providence Canyon, SW Georgia Formed due to poor farming techniques in the 1800 s Trees and natural land cover was removed for agriculture Fast rates of soil erosion created deep gullies Up to 150 feet deep

22

23 Sedimentary Rock Types Detrital / Clastic Cemented fragments of pre-existing rocks. E.g. sandstone, mudstone Biochemical Rocks made of cemented shells of organisms E.g. coquina, limestone Arkose Coquina Chemical made from minerals that precipitate out of water solutions. E.g. travertine, various evaporites Evaporites near a salt lake

24 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks A clastic/detrital rock forms in five stages: 1- Weathering/Erosion 2- Transportation 3- Deposition 4- Burial 5- Lithification and Diagenesis (compaction+cementation) Grain size is reduced as sediment is transported

25 Classifying Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Clastic/Detrital rocks are classified by: 1. Clast size 2. Clast composition 3. Angularity and Sphericity 4. Sorting 5. Type of cement

26 Common Clastic Rock Types You should know most of these from lab, but if not, then make sure to know the basic characteristics of these types of clastic rocks.

27 Biochemical and Organic Sedimentary Rocks Biochemical Limestone A biochemical or chemical rock made of calcite, which is made of the remains of shells of organisms that secrete calcite or aragonite (a polymorph of CaCO 3 ) shells. Fossiliferous limestone lots of fossils! Micrite made of calcite mud Chalk made of plankton shells Limestone Biochemical Chert made of cryptocrystalline (microscopic crystals) quartz, formed from the shells of plankton that sat on the sea floor and dissolved into a silica rich ooze. Folded Chert Beds Organic Rocks Coal, black shale, made of organics derived from plants and animals We ll talk about this stuff more in Chapter 14. A Coal Seam

28 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Evaporites products of the evaporation of water Main minerals: gypsum, halite Travertine (chemical limestone) limestone that precipitated out of groundwater E.g. stalactites, stalagmites, also found at gysers & hot springs Dolomite chemical alteration of limestone CaCO 3 into dolomite CaMg(CO 3 ) 2. Happens when Mg bearing groundwater reacts with limestone. Replacement Chert When chert (SiO 2 ) replaces minerals in a rock. E.g. petrified wood Travertine at Mammoth Hot Springs, MT

29 Formation of Evaporites Evaporites can form anywhere where a large body of water evaporates E.g. the Great Salt Lake, or the Dead Sea Evaporites can also form when an inland sea has limited circulation E.g. the Persian Gulf, or the Mediterranean Sea

30 Sedimentary Structures Many sedimentary rocks have features/structures that help indicate how they formed Bed A single layer in a sedimentary rock with a definable top and bottom Bedding plane the boundary between two beds; forms when depositional conditions change Strata A group of several beds Bedding/Stratification The overall arrangement of strata Bioturbation When burrowing organisms and/or plant roots destroy bedding

31 Cross Bedding Cross Bedding: Internal laminations within a bed that are not parallel to the larger bedding orientation. Usually caused by deposition in a moving current of wind/water. Note: bedding planes and laminations are not always parallel

32 Bedforms Cross bedding When internal laminations (thin layers) are not parallel to the boundary of the main sedimentary layer Ripple Marks a type of cross bedding that forms due to deposition in moving water. Typically < a few cm high Asymmetric one flow direction Symmetric two flow directions

33 Ripple Marks Symmetric ripple marks in 1.5Ga quartzite asymmetric ripple marks in a beach

34 More Bedforms: Dunes Dunes - form and grow just like ripple marks except that they are deposited by wind (usually) and can be many meters tall Since deposition occurs on the slip face dunes migrate with time The inclination of the cross beds can be used to tell the direction of wind

35 Ancient Dunes: Zion N.P.

36 Turbidity Currents and Turbidites Turbidity Current An underwater moving cloud of water and sediment. Moves downhill because it is more dense than water. Forms when sediment on a slope in the ocean floor is disturbed (e.g. earthquake or storm). Can carry large boulders, snap phone lines, move sunken ships. Turbidite A rock formed by turbidity currents

37

38 Turbidites and Graded Beds Graded bedding when the grain size in a single bed varies consistently from coarse grained at the base to fine grained at the top. This is a diagnostic feature of turbidity currents

39 Turbidites and Graded Beds A typical turbidite with graded bedding

40 Bed Surface Markings Mud Cracks when wet mud dries it contracts and forms pseudo-hexagonal plates that curl up on their edges Scour Marks when currents flow over a sedimentary surface, the current may scour out small troughs, which can be preserved Fossils Evidence of past life including shells, plant material, and footprints. Scour Marks Mud Cracks Mud Cracks

41 Rain Spots Mud Cracks

42 Formations and Groups Formation A particularly thick bed or a sequence of alternating rock types, sometimes called a stratigraphic formation Group A group of stratigraphic formations Sedimentary Basins A region where the surface of the Earth has subsided (gone down) and leaves a space for sediments to fill. Stratigraphic formations in the Grand Canyon, AZ, note that the sandstones and limestones form cliffs, whereas the shales form eroded slopes

43 Sedimentary/Depositional Environments Terrestrial Red Beds Where do sedimentary rocks form? Marine Environments: deposited under the ocean Terrestrial Environments: deposited on land Red Beds - Exposure to air can cause oxidation of iron leading to a red color in some terrestrial beds. Marine Limestone

44 Terrestrial Environments Glacial mix of everything boulders-mud. Very poorly sorted. Deposits: Till Mountain Streams coarse grained conglomerates and sandstones. Poorly sorted. Alluvial Fans deposited at the mountain front by mountain streams in arid regions. Poor to moderate sorting. Deposits: Arkose, Sandstone, Conglomerate Sand Dunes in arid regions, wind blows sand and silt around. Well sorted sandstones and siltstones. Lakes low energy environment forms laminated lacustrine deposits of mudstone and shale Mountain Stream Alluvial Fan Glacial Till

45 Terrestrial Environments Rivers complex environments that deposit a variety of sedimentary rocks, from mudstone to conglomerates. In general, sorting increases with distance traveled. Also, the farther the sediment has traveled, the greater percentage of quartz will be present. Rivers deposit fluvial sedimentary rocks.

46 Marine Environments Beach well sorted mature sandstones with well rounded grains, ripple marks common Shallow Marine well sorted siltstones and mudstones often with lots of fossils. Can also produce limestones and other carbonates if enough organisms are present. Carbonate environments are usually in shallow warm water (reefs). Deep Marine Fine grained mudstones, chalks if enough plankton shells present. Only non-fine grained deposits are those of turbidites. Chalk, Up Close The Chalk Cliffs, England

47 Carbonate Environments Tropical carbonate environments yield a diverse array of sedimentary rocks.

48 Transgression & Regression Changes in sea level are common throughout geologic time. Linked to Sedimentation (Show transgression animation) Transgression when sea level rises, the coast line moves inland Regression when sea level falls, the coast line moves seaward. Not well preserved due to erosion This means that a regional unit may not form laterally at the same time

Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks

Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks Deposited at the earth s surface by wind, water, glacier ice, or biochemical processes Typically deposited in strata (layers) under cool surface conditions. This is

More information

FROM SEDIMENT INTO SEDIMENTARY ROCK. Objectives. Sediments and Sedimentation

FROM SEDIMENT INTO SEDIMENTARY ROCK. Objectives. Sediments and Sedimentation FROM SEDIMENT INTO SEDIMENTARY ROCK Objectives Identify three types of sediments. Explain where and how chemical and biogenic sediments form. Explain three processes that lead to the lithification of sediments.

More information

Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks: summary in haiku form Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks Earth, Chapter 7 Lithification - glue particles together. Was sand, now sandstone. What is a sedimentary rock? Products of mechanical

More information

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. Sedimentary rocks are formed near or at the surface of the earth.

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. Sedimentary rocks are formed near or at the surface of the earth. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Sedimentary rocks are formed near or at the surface of the earth. They are derived from preexisting source rocks. They are composed by sediments, this is material that has been weathered,

More information

7) A clastic sedimentary rock composed of rounded to subrounded gravel is called a A) coal. B) shale. C) breccia.

7) A clastic sedimentary rock composed of rounded to subrounded gravel is called a A) coal. B) shale. C) breccia. Please read chapters 10 and 5 CHAPTER 5 Sedimentary Rocks 1) Sedimentary rocks A) form by compaction and cementation of loose sediment. B) are widespread on the continents and ocean floor. C) are common

More information

All sediments have a source or provenance, a place or number of places of origin where they were produced.

All sediments have a source or provenance, a place or number of places of origin where they were produced. Sedimentary Rocks, Processes, and Environments Sediments are loose grains and chemical residues of earth materials, which include things such as rock fragments, mineral grains, part of plants or animals,

More information

Sediment and Sedimentary Rocks

Sediment and Sedimentary Rocks Page 1 of 10 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Sediment and Sedimentary Rocks This page last updated on 15-Sep-2015 Sedimentary Rocks Rivers, oceans, winds, and rain

More information

SEDIMENTARY AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS

SEDIMENTARY AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS Date Period Name SEDIMENTARY AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS SECTION.1 Formation of Sedimentary Rocks In your textbook, read about the processes that form sedimentary rocks. Use each of the terms below to complete

More information

EXERCISE 5D SEDIMENTARY ROCK IDENTIFICATION. To learn the SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE for sedimentary rock identification.

EXERCISE 5D SEDIMENTARY ROCK IDENTIFICATION. To learn the SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE for sedimentary rock identification. EXERCISE 5D SEDIMENTARY ROCK IDENTIFICATION 1 PURPOSE: To learn the SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE for sedimentary rock identification. To learn to recognize the TEXTURE and COMPOSITION of the sedimentary rocks.

More information

Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth

Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth Presentation modified from: Instructor Resource Center on CD-ROM, Foundations of Earth Science, 4 th Edition, Lutgens/Tarbuck, Rock Cycle Shows the interrelationships

More information

Exercise 1 Rock Review

Exercise 1 Rock Review Exercise 1 Rock Review The purpose of this lab exercise is to help refresh your memory of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rock types. Rocks are the physical record of past events in Earth s history.

More information

WEATHERING, EROSION, AND DEPOSITION PRACTICE TEST. Which graph best shows the relative stream velocities across the stream from A to B?

WEATHERING, EROSION, AND DEPOSITION PRACTICE TEST. Which graph best shows the relative stream velocities across the stream from A to B? NAME DATE WEATHERING, EROSION, AND DEPOSITION PRACTICE TEST 1. The diagram below shows a meandering stream. Measurements of stream velocity were taken along straight line AB. Which graph best shows the

More information

Sedimentary Rocks Practice Questions and Answers Revised September 2007

Sedimentary Rocks Practice Questions and Answers Revised September 2007 Sedimentary Rocks Practice Questions and Answers Revised September 2007 1. Clastic sedimentary rocks are composed of and derived from pre-existing material. 2. What is physical weathering? 3. What is chemical

More information

What is a rock? How are rocks classified? What does the texture of a rock reveal about how it was formed?

What is a rock? How are rocks classified? What does the texture of a rock reveal about how it was formed? CHAPTER 4 1 The Rock Cycle SECTION Rocks: Mineral Mixtures BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a rock? How are rocks classified? What does

More information

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate 1. Of the Earth's more than 2,000 identified minerals, only a small number are commonly found in rocks. This fact indicates that most 1) minerals weather before they can be identified 2) minerals have

More information

Geology. Definition of a Mineral. Minerals: 7-1. To be defined as a mineral in the geologic sense, a substance must pass 5 tests:

Geology. Definition of a Mineral. Minerals: 7-1. To be defined as a mineral in the geologic sense, a substance must pass 5 tests: Geology Minerals: We will begin our study of the land with a study of the basic building blocks of rocks: Minerals. Definition of a Mineral To be defined as a mineral in the geologic sense, a substance

More information

Earth s Rocky Surface

Earth s Rocky Surface Earth s Rocky Surface You have learned that Earth s surface is not permanent and is constantly changing. Some changes take place very slowly over millions of years, such as crustal plates moving and creating

More information

GEOL GENERAL GEOLOGY - LABORATORY OUTLINE SEDIMENTARY AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS LAB

GEOL GENERAL GEOLOGY - LABORATORY OUTLINE SEDIMENTARY AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS LAB GEOL 107 - GENERAL GEOLOGY - LABORATORY OUTLINE SEDIMENTARY AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS LAB Material covered Chapters 6 & 7 in Ludman & Marshak Laboratory Manual for Introductory Geology Topics: I. Definition

More information

Igneous rocks are the most common rocks on Earth 75 percent of the rocks exposed at the surface are sedimentary rocks.

Igneous rocks are the most common rocks on Earth 75 percent of the rocks exposed at the surface are sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary Rocks Igneous rocks are the most common rocks on Earth, but because most of them exist below the surface you might not have seen too many of them. 75 percent of the rocks exposed at the surface

More information

Our Changing Landforms. Wind, Water, Ice, and Gravity Form Sand Dunes, Canyons, and Deltas

Our Changing Landforms. Wind, Water, Ice, and Gravity Form Sand Dunes, Canyons, and Deltas Our Changing Landforms Wind, Water, Ice, and Gravity Form Sand Dunes, Canyons, and Deltas Landforms Change Over Time Two main ways landforms change are Uplifting is due to changes inside the Earth Uplifting

More information

Earth s Rocky Surface

Earth s Rocky Surface Earth s Rocky Surface Earth s surface is not permanent and is constantly changing. Some changes take place very slowly over millions of years, such as crustal plates moving and creating mountains or valleys.

More information

Sedimentary Rocks. Find and take out 11B-15B and #1 From Egg Carton

Sedimentary Rocks. Find and take out 11B-15B and #1 From Egg Carton Sedimentary Rocks Find and take out 11B-15B and #1 From Egg Carton Erosion Erosion is a natural process where rocks and soil are Broken and Moved We will focus on 4 types of erosion; Wind, Rain, Ice and

More information

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer Provide specific and detailed

More information

Chapter 4 Practice Test

Chapter 4 Practice Test Chapter 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The process in which water, wind, ice, and heat break down rock is

More information

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer Provide specific and detailed

More information

Weathering, erosion, and deposition shape Earth s surface.

Weathering, erosion, and deposition shape Earth s surface. Chapter 8 Weathering, erosion, and deposition shape Earth s surface. Lesson 1: Weathering Rocks exposed at Earth s surface are broken down into sediment and soils by the action of weathering. Lesson 2:

More information

Section: The Rock Cycle

Section: The Rock Cycle Skills Worksheet Chapter 2 section 1 Inside the Restless Earth /29 Section: The Rock Cycle 1. A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter is called a. an element. b. a

More information

Physical and chemical processes break up solid rock into smaller grains (particles).

Physical and chemical processes break up solid rock into smaller grains (particles). Physical and chemical processes break up solid rock into smaller grains (particles). Some grains, like rock pebbles, quartz grains, and mica flakes are basically fragments of the original rock. Others,

More information

Page 1. Name:

Page 1. Name: Name: 1) According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, which sedimentary rock would be formed by the compaction and cementation of particles 1.5 centimeters in diameter? A) shale B) conglomerate C)

More information

Rock Star 101. Introduction to Rocks.

Rock Star 101. Introduction to Rocks. Rock Star 101 Introduction to Rocks www.mineralsed.ca Lesson 1: Rocks are made of minerals. Lesson 2: Rock formation is cyclic. Lesson 3: Igneous rocks crystallize from molten magma. Igneous Rock Type1:

More information

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 3 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 3 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 3 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

More information

GEOLOGY 333 LAB 8. Sedimentary Rocks

GEOLOGY 333 LAB 8. Sedimentary Rocks GEOLOGY 333 LAB 8 CLASTIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary Rock = Rock that forms by the accumulation and lithification (hardening) of sediment (loose grains). Importance of Sedimentary

More information

Name Date Class. This section describes the characteristics and uses of igneous rocks.

Name Date Class. This section describes the characteristics and uses of igneous rocks. Rocks Name Date Class Rocks Guided Reading and Study Igneous Rocks This section describes the characteristics and uses of igneous rocks. Use Target Reading Skills As you read about igneous rocks, fill

More information

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Lesson 1: Layers of the Earth 1. Atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the planet 2. Clouds are in this layer 3. Atmosphere contains gases

More information

Rock Identification. Modified from a PowerPoint presentation prepared by J. Crelling, Southern Illinois University

Rock Identification. Modified from a PowerPoint presentation prepared by J. Crelling, Southern Illinois University Rock Identification Modified from a PowerPoint presentation prepared by J. Crelling, Southern Illinois University Characterizing Rocks There are 3 major types of rocks IGNEOUS formed from molten magma

More information

Rock Identification Booklet

Rock Identification Booklet Rock Identification Booklet Do not write in booklet Return at end of class A rock is a combination of two or more minerals. Common minerals found in rock: Silicate minerals usually light colored 1. Quartz

More information

Chapter 5 Sediment and Sedimentary Rocks. Transportation and Deposition of Sediment. Depositional Environments

Chapter 5 Sediment and Sedimentary Rocks. Transportation and Deposition of Sediment. Depositional Environments Chapter 5 Sediment and Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks only make up 5% of the Earth's crust, but cover about 75% of the surface of the earth. The raw material for sedimentary rocks comes from weathering.

More information

Rock Cycle Roundabout

Rock Cycle Roundabout Rock Cycle Roundabout Overview: A board game designed to learn how to differentiate the three ways rocks can form. Ocean Literacy Principles: 1. The Earth has one big ocean with many features 2. The ocean

More information

Hello. Here are the instructions to complete your second blizzard bag lesson: 1. Read the nonfiction text on the rock cycle

Hello. Here are the instructions to complete your second blizzard bag lesson: 1. Read the nonfiction text on the rock cycle Hello Here are the instructions to complete your second blizzard bag lesson: 1. Read the nonfiction text on the rock cycle 2. Watch the two videos listed here (just click on the link): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jpge74vltdc

More information

The rock cycle. Introduction. What are rocks?

The rock cycle. Introduction. What are rocks? The rock cycle This Revision looks at the three types of rock: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. It looks at how they are formed, the weathering of rocks and the way one form of rock turns into another,

More information

Rocks: Mineral Mixtures

Rocks: Mineral Mixtures Rocks: Mineral Mixtures The Value of a Rock Rock is a solid mixture of crystals of one or more minerals, or organic matter. Rocks are classified by how they are formed, their composition, and texture.

More information

Minerals and Rocks C) D)

Minerals and Rocks C) D) Minerals and Rocks Name 1. Base your answer to the following question on the map and cross section below. The shaded areas on the map represent regions of the United States that have evaporite rock layers

More information

Weathering, Erosion, and Soils. Weathering and Erosion. Weathering and Erosion

Weathering, Erosion, and Soils. Weathering and Erosion. Weathering and Erosion Weathering, Erosion, and Soils 1 The Grand Canyon, a landscape shaped by weathering and erosion 2 Weathering vs. erosion Types of weathering Physical Chemical Rates of weathering and erosion Climate Rock

More information

LAB 4: TEXTURES AND IDENTIFICATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

LAB 4: TEXTURES AND IDENTIFICATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS OBJECTIVES LAB 4: TEXTURES AND IDENTIFICATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS 1) to become familiar with the properties important in recognizing and classifying sedimentary rocks 2) to become familiar with the textures

More information

Unit 3 Lesson 3 Three Classes of Rock. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 3 Lesson 3 Three Classes of Rock. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company A Rocky World How are rocks classified? A combination of one or more minerals or organic matter is called rock. Scientists divide rock into three classes: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Each class

More information

Liz LaRosa Images from Geology.com unless otherwise noted

Liz LaRosa Images from Geology.com unless otherwise noted Liz LaRosa http://www.middleschoolscience.com 2010 Images from Geology.com unless otherwise noted A rock is a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals, or organic matter Rocks are classified

More information

Liz LaRosa Images from Geology.com unless otherwise noted

Liz LaRosa Images from Geology.com unless otherwise noted Liz LaRosa http://www.middleschoolscience.com 2010 Images from Geology.com unless otherwise noted A rock is a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals, or organic matter Rocks are classified

More information

2. You are given an Actions sheet to fill in as you travel around the rock cycle

2. You are given an Actions sheet to fill in as you travel around the rock cycle The Rock Cycle game 1. You start the game at any one of the 6 action stations. 2. You are given an Actions sheet to fill in as you travel around the rock cycle 3. Each action station has an actions instruction

More information

Lab: ROCK IDENTIFICATION

Lab: ROCK IDENTIFICATION Name: Date: Lab: ROCK IDENTIFICATION Background: As you observed in the previous investigation, minerals are the building blocks that form rocks. Rocks are classified as igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic

More information

Theory of Catastrophism - earth s shapes created in great cataclysms

Theory of Catastrophism - earth s shapes created in great cataclysms Atmosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Lithosphere is the branch of physical geography, shared with the fields of Geomorphology and Tectonics, that specifically examine the landforms, continents

More information

Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com

Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 KEY CONCEPT #1: What is a mineral? It is a, substance which has a What would be the opposite of this? KEY CONCEPT #2: What causes minerals to have different physical properties?

More information

Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth

Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth Chapter 3 Lecture Earth Science Fourteenth Edition Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth Jennifer Mangan James Madison University What is the rock cycle and why is it important? The activity Deadline: 22

More information

Rocks. Igneous Rocks. Before You Read. Read to Learn

Rocks. Igneous Rocks. Before You Read. Read to Learn chapter 3 Rocks section 2 Igneous Rocks What You ll Learn how igneous rocks form how igneous rocks are grouped Before You Read Think about an erupting volcano you may have seen on TV or in the movies.

More information

Sedimentary Rocks. What are they and where do they form?

Sedimentary Rocks. What are they and where do they form? Sedimentary Rocks What are they and where do they form? 1 Guiding Questions What characteristics of sedimentary rocks can we use to identify the environment of deposition, i.e., where it was formed? How

More information

Sedimentary Rocks, Depositional Environments and Stratigraphy

Sedimentary Rocks, Depositional Environments and Stratigraphy Sedimentary Rocks, Depositional Environments and Stratigraphy The Nature of Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are composed of: Fragments of other rocks (detrital or clastic) Chemical precipitates Organic

More information

CHAPTER 7: ROCKS AND MINERALS. Self-Reflection Survey: Section 7.1, p. 175 Answers will vary

CHAPTER 7: ROCKS AND MINERALS. Self-Reflection Survey: Section 7.1, p. 175 Answers will vary CHAPTER 7: ROCKS AND MINERALS Self-Reflection Survey: Section 7.1, p. 175 Answers will vary Checkpoint 7.1, p. 177 Examine the atomic models below and answer the question that follows. The filled black

More information

1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire

1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire UNIT 3 EXAM ROCKS AND MINERALS NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire FRANCONIA, N.H. Crowds

More information

WEATHERING, EROSION, and DEPOSITION REVIEW

WEATHERING, EROSION, and DEPOSITION REVIEW WEATHERING, EROSION, and DEPOSITION REVIEW Weathering: The breaking up of rock from large particles to smaller particles. a) This Increases surface area of the rock which speeds the rate of chemical weathering.

More information

Really Good Stuff Activity Guide The Rock Cycle Poster

Really Good Stuff Activity Guide The Rock Cycle Poster Really Good Stuff Activity Guide The Rock Cycle Poster Congratulations on your purchase of this Really Good Stuff Rock Cycle Poster. This colorful poster and activity guide will help introduce your students

More information

Liz LaRosa Images from Geology.com unless otherwise noted

Liz LaRosa Images from Geology.com unless otherwise noted Liz LaRosa http://www.middleschoolscience.com 2010 Images from Geology.com unless otherwise noted A rock is a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals, or organic matter Rocks are classified

More information

Chapter 6 Lab Activity. Rock Identification. Chapter 6 Lab Activity. Laboratory Manual LAB SKILLS AND OBJECTIVES. Procedure. Part A: Igneous Rocks

Chapter 6 Lab Activity. Rock Identification. Chapter 6 Lab Activity. Laboratory Manual LAB SKILLS AND OBJECTIVES. Procedure. Part A: Igneous Rocks Rock Identification In this lab you will examine, classify, and identify several rock specimens. Igneous rocks you will observe include basalt, gabbro, granite, obsidian, pumice, rhyolite, and scoria.

More information

Name Class Date. Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below. Each term may be used only once. Some terms may not be used.

Name Class Date. Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below. Each term may be used only once. Some terms may not be used. Assessment Chapter Test B Rocks: Mineral Mixtures USING KEY TERMS Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below. Each term may be used only once. Some terms may not be used. stratification

More information

UNIT #5 EXAM -- SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDSCAPES BLOCK DATE

UNIT #5 EXAM -- SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDSCAPES BLOCK DATE UNIT #5 EXAM -- SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDSCAPES NAME: BLOCK DATE 1. Which set of surface soil conditions on a hillside would result in the most infiltration of rainfall? 4. Which surface soil type has

More information

Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com

Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com Name: KEY Rocks & Minerals 1 KEY CONCEPT #1: What is a mineral? It is a naturally occurring, inorganic substance which has a definite chemical composition What would be the opposite of this? man-made,

More information

4 Erosion. Critical Thinking 1. Identify Relationships What is the relationship between weathering and erosion?

4 Erosion. Critical Thinking 1. Identify Relationships What is the relationship between weathering and erosion? CHAPTER 14 SECTION Weathering and Erosion 4 Erosion KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What is erosion, and what are four agents of erosion? What are four farming methods

More information

Minerals. L3: Minerals and Rocks. Common Minerals to Learn. Crystallography

Minerals. L3: Minerals and Rocks. Common Minerals to Learn. Crystallography L3: Minerals and Rocks Identification Classification Formation } of common minerals & rocks Feedback on Lab 1: Rock Identification Minerals Definition: Highly-ordered crystalline atomic structure Definite

More information

Directed Reading A. Section: The Rock Cycle. matter is called a. an element. b. a rock. c. a compound. d. an atom. THE VALUE OF ROCK. and.

Directed Reading A. Section: The Rock Cycle. matter is called a. an element. b. a rock. c. a compound. d. an atom. THE VALUE OF ROCK. and. Skills Worksheet Directed Reading A Section: The Rock Cycle 1. A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter is called a. an element. b. a rock. c. a compound. d. an atom.

More information

Classifying Rocks. Background

Classifying Rocks. Background Classifying Rocks Background Rocks on Earth can be classified into three categories based on the way they were formed. Igneous rocks are formed through volcanic action. Sedimentary rocks are formed by

More information

World Beneath Our Feet

World Beneath Our Feet World Beneath Our Feet Lesson Plan 2: Rock Identification Learning Objective Time required Learning Outcomes Materials (provided) Materials (Teacher supplied) background Suggested Procedure Students will

More information

Topic: Rocks, Minerals and Soil Duration: Grade Level: 6 9 days

Topic: Rocks, Minerals and Soil Duration: Grade Level: 6 9 days 6 th Grade Science Unit: Sedimentary Rocks Unit Snapshot Topic: Rocks, Minerals and Soil Duration: Grade Level: 6 9 days Summary The following activities allow students to focus on the study of rocks.

More information

Test #3 WRITTEN RESPONSE QUESTIONS. TEST #3: Rocks and The Rock Cycle PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE

Test #3 WRITTEN RESPONSE QUESTIONS. TEST #3: Rocks and The Rock Cycle PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Test #3 WRITTEN RESPONSE QUESTIONS PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE 2006 Value: 30 marks Suggested Time: 40 minutes TEST #3: Rocks and The Rock Cycle 2007R* 4 2006R* 1, 2 2005R* 1, 12 2004 1, 2, 3 2003 2, 3, 4

More information

Vocabulary: Rock Cycle

Vocabulary: Rock Cycle Vocabulary Vocabulary: Rock Cycle Deposition the natural process of adding transported sediments to a landform. Erosion the transport of fragments of rock by water, wind, ice, or gravity. Extrusive igneous

More information

Part 1 Sedimentary Rocks

Part 1 Sedimentary Rocks Lecture 6-7 Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks Part 1 Sedimentary Rocks Kyanite, Sillimanite, and Andalucite What is a sedimentary rock? Sedimentary rocks result from mechanical and chemical weathering

More information

8 Weathering. 1 Using the information above, copy and complete the. In this chapter you will answer Weathering. 8.2 Types of weathering

8 Weathering. 1 Using the information above, copy and complete the. In this chapter you will answer Weathering. 8.2 Types of weathering 8 Weathering In this chapter you will answer... What is the difference between weathering and erosion? When does freeze-thaw weathering happen? Which rocks are weathered by carbonation? Where does exfoliation

More information

Chapter Review USING KEY TERMS. extrusive igneous rock texture. and positions of the minerals the rock contains. arranged in plates or bands. is.

Chapter Review USING KEY TERMS. extrusive igneous rock texture. and positions of the minerals the rock contains. arranged in plates or bands. is. Skills Worksheet Chapter Review USING KEY TERMS 1. In your own words, write a definition for the term rock cycle. Complete each of the following sentences by choosing the correct term from the word bank.

More information

Chapter 3 Rocks. The Rock Cycle

Chapter 3 Rocks. The Rock Cycle Chapter 3 Rocks Section 1 The Rock Cycle Key Concepts What is a rock? What are the three major types of rocks? How do igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks differ? What is the rock cycle? What powers

More information

Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet?

Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet? Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet? Name: 1 Before you start What do you already know? What is the difference between a rock and a mineral? What are the three categories of rocks? 1. 2. 3.

More information

Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes

Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes 3.4 How are the rock classes related to one another? The Rock Cycle Smith & Pun, Chapter 3 Processes link types Plate tectonics is driving force If we look closely we see

More information

Chapter 5 - Sediments

Chapter 5 - Sediments Chapter 5 - Sediments Distribution of sediments on the sea floor Seabed Resources Study of Sediments is important to oceanography because: 1. Sediments and volcanism are the most important agents of physical

More information

Name Rock and Mineral Review E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department

Name Rock and Mineral Review E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department Name Rock and Mineral Review E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department 1 Base your answer to the following question on the drawings of six sedimentary rocks labeled A through F. Most of the rocks

More information

Reading Material. On reserve in: Undergrad Library hard copies UW Library website:

Reading Material. On reserve in: Undergrad Library hard copies UW Library website: Reading Material On reserve in: Undergrad Library hard copies UW Library website: www.lib.washington.edu Ocean Basins, from Oceanography M.G. Gross, Prentice-Hall River Deltas, from The Coast of Puget

More information

8/18/2014. Chapter 9: Erosion and Deposition. Section 1 (Changing Earth s Surface) 8 th Grade. Weathering

8/18/2014. Chapter 9: Erosion and Deposition. Section 1 (Changing Earth s Surface) 8 th Grade. Weathering Section 1 (Changing Earth s Surface) Weathering the chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth s surface Chapter 9: Erosion and Deposition 8 th Grade Mechanical weathering when rock

More information

Minerals & Rocks. Naturally occurring Formed from elements or compounds

Minerals & Rocks. Naturally occurring Formed from elements or compounds Minerals & Rocks Minerals 5 Characteristics: Naturally occurring Formed from elements or compounds Inorganic Found as a solid in nature Definite chemical make up and regular atomic structure A. Minerals

More information

Carbonate Rock Formation

Carbonate Rock Formation Limestone, dolomite (or dolostone), and marble are often collectively referred to as carbonate rocks because the main mineral is calcite. The chemical name of calcite is calcium carbonate. Limestone, dolomite,

More information

Slow Changes on Earth, Chapter 5. Vocabulary. bay. delta. deposition. erosion. erratic. glacier

Slow Changes on Earth, Chapter 5. Vocabulary. bay. delta. deposition. erosion. erratic. glacier Science Study Guide Slow Changes on Earth, Chapter 5 Fourth Grade Vocabulary Word Definition Example bay A body of water that is partly enclosed by land and has a wide opening delta A large mass of sediment

More information

Why study rocks? Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes. 3.4 How are the rock classes related to one another? The Rock Cycle

Why study rocks? Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes. 3.4 How are the rock classes related to one another? The Rock Cycle Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes Why study rocks? to the processes that form them? (environments!) 3.3 How do we 3.4 Rock classes & the rock cycle? Smith & Pun, Chapter 3 Abraham Werner? (~1749? -1817)

More information

EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY

EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY DR. WOLTEMADE NAME: SECTION: MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY INTRODUCTION The identification of minerals and rocks is an integral part of understanding our physical

More information

What are the controls for calcium carbonate distribution in marine sediments?

What are the controls for calcium carbonate distribution in marine sediments? Lecture 14 Marine Sediments (1) The CCD is: (a) the depth at which no carbonate secreting organisms can live (b) the depth at which seawater is supersaturated with respect to calcite (c) the depth at which

More information

Metamorphic Rocks Transformation at Work

Metamorphic Rocks Transformation at Work Learning Series: Basic Rockhound Knowledge Metamorphic Rocks Transformation at Work Metamorphic rocks are one of the three types of rock classifications, the other two being igneous and sedimentary. Rocks

More information

ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE POCKET GUIDE (MODIFIED FOR ADEED)

ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE POCKET GUIDE (MODIFIED FOR ADEED) ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE POCKET GUIDE (MODIFIED FOR ADEED) Overview: Volcanic rock differs from other types of rock in important ways. In this activity, students learn about the three main rock types:

More information

continent convection current core one of the main landmasses on Earth, such as Africa, Asia, or North America

continent convection current core one of the main landmasses on Earth, such as Africa, Asia, or North America continent one of the main landmasses on Earth, such as Africa, Asia, or North America convection current a series of circular motions that occur in substances when heating and cooling happen together core

More information

Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide

Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide Rocks are classified based on how they were formed. The three types of rocks are sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. Igneous rock forms when magma (liquid

More information

Erosion. Marli Miller, University of Oregon, Image Source: Earth Science World Image Bank

Erosion. Marli Miller, University of Oregon, Image Source: Earth Science World Image Bank Rocks Erosion Erosion Erosion Erosion Michael Collier, Image Source: Earth Science World Image Bank Erosion Larry Fellows, Arizona Geological Survey, Image Source: Earth Science World Image Bank Erosion

More information

Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Review. Part 2. - Minerals that split easily or break apart in one direction along a flat surface.

Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Review. Part 2. - Minerals that split easily or break apart in one direction along a flat surface. Earth and Space Science Semester 2 Review Part 2 Cleavage Core sample Crystal shape Deposition Elements Compounds - Minerals that split easily or break apart in one direction along a flat surface. - A

More information

Rock Type Identification Flow Chart

Rock Type Identification Flow Chart Rock Type Identification Flow Chart SEDIMENTARY AMORPHOUS No Crystals or Clasts fairly hard very soft hard & cherty vague crystals SEDIMENTARY IGNEOUS - VOLCANIC CLASTS Broken pieces of rocks or minerals

More information

Rock Cycle Roundabout

Rock Cycle Roundabout grade level subjects duration setting 4th-8th; Standards for 4th and 7th Earth & Space Science, Cause & Effect Prep Time: 20 min; Activity Time: 60 minutes, or two class periods Classroom Materials Rock

More information

Ch6&7 Test. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Ch6&7 Test. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch6&7 Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following does NOT change the form of existing rock? a. tremendous pressure c.

More information

ANSWER KEY. Rocks. Classifying Rocks Guided Reading and Study. Classifying Rocks Enrich. Igneous Rocks Guided Reading and Study

ANSWER KEY. Rocks. Classifying Rocks Guided Reading and Study. Classifying Rocks Enrich. Igneous Rocks Guided Reading and Study Classifying Use Target Reading Skills This is one possible way to complete the graphic organizer. Accept all logical answers. Question What does a rock s color tell you about the rock? How do geologists

More information

Chapter: Rocks and Minerals

Chapter: Rocks and Minerals Table of Contents Chapter: Rocks and Minerals Section 1: Minerals Earth s Jewels Section 2: Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks Section 3: Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle Table of Contents Chapter 3: Rocks

More information

On the outside, there's a crust. Within this crust, the most abundant elements (by mass) are oxygen and silicon.

On the outside, there's a crust. Within this crust, the most abundant elements (by mass) are oxygen and silicon. The Earth is made up of rocks and minerals. The core of the Earth is molten rock. On the outside, there's a crust. Within this crust, the most abundant elements (by mass) are oxygen and silicon. Sometimes

More information