Associative Property The property that states that the way addends are grouped or factors are grouped does not change the sum or the product.

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1 addend A number that is added to another in an addition problem = 5 The addends are 2 and 3. area The number of square units needed to cover a surface. area = 9 square units array An arrangement that shows objects in rows and columns. Associative Property The property that states that the way addends are grouped or factors are grouped does not change the sum or the product (5 + 9) = (12 + 5) + 9 (9 x 8) x 3 = 9 x (8 x 3) capacity The amount a container can hold when filled. Sample:

2 clustering A method used to estimate a sum when all addends are about the same. Commutative Property The property that states that when the order of addends or factors is changed, the sum or product is the same = x 3 = 3 x 6 compatible number Numbers that are easy to compute mentally. Estimate 4, Think: 40 and 8 are compatible numbers. 4,126» 4,000 4,000 8 = 500 So, 4,126 8 is about 500. coordinate grid A grid formed by a horizontal line, called an x-axis, and a vertical line, called a y-axis. data Information collected about people or things. decimal A number with one or more digits to the right of the decimal point. 0.5 = five tenths 0.25 = twenty-five hundredths denominator The number below the bar in a fraction that tells how many equal parts are in the whole. In the fraction ¾, 4 is the denominator.

3 difference The difference is how much is left after you subtract. 8 5 = 3 The difference is 3. digit Any one of the ten symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 used to write numbers. Distributive Property of Multiplication The property that states that multiplying a sum by a number is the same as multiplying each addend by the number and then adding the products. 3 x (4 + 2) = (3 x 4) + (3 x 2) 3 x 6 = = 18 divisor The number that an amount is divided by in a division problem = 7 The divisor is 5. dividend The number that is to be divided in a division problem = 7 The dividend is 35. ellipse An ellipse is an oval-shaped figure. equation An algebraic or numerical sentence that shows that two quantities are equal = = 2 A + B = C

4 even number A whole number that has 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 in the ones place. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16,... expression A mathematical phrase that combines operations, numbers, and/or variables a factor A number that is multiplied by another number to find a product. 4 x 7 = 28 The factors are 4 and 7. fraction A number that names part of a whole or part of a group. 1/3 3 out of the 4 slices of pizza are still present: ¾ frequency table A table that uses numbers to record data.

5 horizontal bar graph A bar graph in which the bars go from left to right. line graph A graph that uses a line to show how something changes over time. mean The number found by dividing the sum of a set of numbers by the number of addends. Find the mean: 2, 3, 5, 5, 6, = = 5 The mean is 5. median The middle number in an ordered set of data. 1, 3, 4, 6, 7 The median is 4. mode The number(s) or item(s) that occur most often in a set of data. 1, 3, 4, 4, 6 The mode is 4.

6 multiple The product of a given whole number and another whole number. Multiples of x 1 = x 2 = x 3 = x 4 = 40 numerator The numerator is the top number in a fraction. It stands for the number of parts out of the whole or set. In the fraction ¾, 3 is the numerator. octagon A polygon with eight sides. odd number A whole number that has 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9 in the ones place ordered pair A pair of numbers that names where a point is located on a map or grid; also called a number pair. (3,4) (21,9) *Note: The first value is the x-axis coordinate; the second is the y-axis coordinate. pentagon A polygon with five sides.

7 perimeter The distance around a figure. 12 ft + 12 ft + 9 ft + 4 ft + 3 ft + 8 ft = 48 ft pictograph A graph that uses pictures to show and compare information. place value Place value determines the value of a digit in a number, based on the location of the digit. Millions Thousands Ones hundreds tens ones hundreds tens ones hundreds tens ones 2 2 5, polygon A closed plane figure with straight lines. Each side is a line segment.

8 probability The likelihood that an event will happen. Probability = (number of ways the event occurs) / (number of ways all events can occur) There are 3 red sticks and 1 blue stick. The probability of selecting a blue stick from the collection of 4 sticks is 1 out of 4, or ¼. product The answer to a multiplication problem. 6 x 2 = 12 The product is 12. proper fraction A fraction where the numerator is less than the denominator. ½ ⅓ quotient The result of dividing one number by another in a division problem = 7 The quotient is 7. range The difference between the greatest number and the least number in a set of data. Number Set: 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55 Highest Number: 55 Lowest Number: = 6 The range is 6. reflection (flip) A movement of a figure to a new position by flipping the figure over a line.

9 rotation (turn) A movement of a figure to a new position by rotating the figure around a point. rounding Replacing a number with one that tells about how many or how much. 374 rounds to 370 1,520 rounds to 1,500 sum The answer to an addition problem = 19 The sum is 19. Symmetric Property Expressions on either side of the equal sign can be switched to the other side in the exact order. 30 = is the same as = = 6 is the same as 6 = transformation The movement of a figure by a translation (slide), reflection (flip), or rotation (turn). translation (slide) A movement of a figure to a new position without turning or flipping it. variable a letter or symbol used to stand for a missing number 15 x = 7 The letter x is the variable.

10 Venn diagram A diagram that shows relationships among sets of things. vertical bar graph A bar graph that has bars going up from the bottom.

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