Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune disorders

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune disorders"

Transcription

1 Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune disorders Dr Udani Kiriwandeniya Consultant Histopathologist/Senior lecturer

2 Learning utcomes At the end of this section the student should be able to 1.Briefly describe the types of hypersensitivity reactions giving examples 2.Define autoimmune diseases. List the types giving examples

3 Immune system To protect the body against the invasion by foreign organisms. However in certain situations the exogenous antigen or the presence of endogenous antigen mounts an unduly severe, tissue damaging inflammatory reaction.

4 Types of hypersensitivity Divided in to four types depending on the mechanism of immune recognition and the inflammatory mediator system involved. Type I hypersensitivity - Atopic or Anaphylactic reactions Type II hypersensitivity - Antibody dependent cell damage Type III hypersensitivity - Immune complex disease Type IV hypersensitivity - Cell mediated, delayed type hypersensitivity

5 Type I hypersensitivity- -Atopic or Anaphylactic Reaction -Immediate reaction -Majority of manifestations are mild -May results in life threatening reactions - Previously exposure to the antigen, IgE production(previously sensitised to an Ag) - IgE binds to the receptors in the tissue mast cells and the basophils When get exposed to the same antigen again the binding of antigen to cell bound IgE antibodies result mast cells and basophils activation and degranulation.

6 Mast cells granules contain preformed mediators- histamin, heparin, proteases. Histamin and other mediators trigger blood vessels to leak and smooth muscles to contract leads to shock and muscle spasms. The type I reaction can be localised or generalised.

7 Localised Type I reactions Ex: Urticaria Asthma Hay fever Generalised Type I reactions Binding of the Ag to IgE on circulating basophils results severe reaction with bronchospasm, peripheral vasodilatation and circulatory collapse, known as anaphylaxis. Ex: Penicillin allergy Bee sting

8 Type II hypersensitivity Antibody dependent cell damage (Cytotoxicity) Ab binds to the tissues directly. Cell damage can occur due to three main mechanisms.

9 1. Complement activation. Fixation of Ab to the cell surface produces lysis via formation of the membrane attack complex. The insertion of membrane attacking complex to the cell membrane results in cell lysis. 2. Opsonisation Cells which are coated with antibodies and complement C3b are susceptible to phagocytosis. 3. Antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity NK cells, neutrophils, and macrophages attack the target cell which are coated with IgG. The mediation antibodies can be auto antibodies or alloantibodies.

10 Examples of type II hypersensitivity Autoantibody mediated Auto immune haemolytic anaemia Auto immune thrombocytopaenia (RBC are coated with auto antibodies. These antibodies promote binding of red cells to the macrophages and destruction. Usually antibody type is IgG or IgM. They also promote complement activation and red cell destruction) Alloantibody mediated Haemolytic disease of the newborn (page 67)

11 Type III hypersensitivity Immune complex disease Antibodies directly reacts with antigens forming antigen-antibody complexes. These complexes can be deposited either locally or at a distant site resulting tissue damage (systemic type) They usually deposit in vessel walls resulting tissue damage

12 Localised Immune complex disease (Arthur reaction) Refer page 67 Systemic immune complex disease - post streptococcal glomerulonephritis - systemic lupus erythematosus

13 Type IV hypersensitivity Mediated by sensitised T cells Takes time for primed T cells to react and hence there is a delay The reaction takes at least 12 hours to develop and therefore known as delayed hypersensitivity.

14 Classical example for this is the tuberculin (mantoux) test - Takes 12 hrs to show the reaction - Refer page 68

15 Autoimmune Disorders patients mount immune response to their own tissues resulting tissue and organ damage. Autoantibodies The immune system exhibits tolerance to own antigens. In autoimmune disorders there is a failure of the mechanism of self tolerance.

16 Organ specific autoimmune diseases The organ specific autoimmune diseases are characterised by chronic inflammatory cell destruction of a particular organ. The destruction is mediated by the autoantibodies which react with normal cellular components of the target organ. Non organ specific autoimmune diseases Often called the connective tissue or collagen vascular diseases. These disease are characterised by acute and chronic inflammatory lesions of many organs and by the presence of circulating antibodies.

17 Refer page 69 (5.9) Few examples for each two types Organ specific/non organ specific

Type I. Type II. Type III. Type IV Delayed type, cell mediated. Allergy (immediate) cytotoxic, antibody-dependent. Immune complex diseases

Type I. Type II. Type III. Type IV Delayed type, cell mediated. Allergy (immediate) cytotoxic, antibody-dependent. Immune complex diseases Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system Vahid Naseri Supervised: horand; berzsu Type I Allergy (immediate) Type II cytotoxic, antibody-dependent Type III Immune

More information

Immune system Disorders. Chapter 19

Immune system Disorders. Chapter 19 Immune system Disorders Chapter 19 I. Hypersensitivity Definition Once sensitized with an antigen (allergen) the immune system responds to a subsequent exposure by reacting with it in a way that damages

More information

Types of Hypersensitivity. Type I: Allergic Reactions. more on Allergic Reactions

Types of Hypersensitivity. Type I: Allergic Reactions. more on Allergic Reactions Chapter 19: Disorders of the Immune System 1. Hypersensitivity 2. Autoimmunity 3. Transplant Rejection 1. Hypersensitivity What is Hypersensitivity? Hypersensitivity is an immunological state in which

More information

Immunology in pathology (immunopathology) Patology. immunology in pathology. immunologic response. lecture 3

Immunology in pathology (immunopathology) Patology. immunology in pathology. immunologic response. lecture 3 Patology Immunology in pathology (immunopathology) lecture 3 prof. dr hab. n. med. Andrzej Marszałek immunology in pathology Diseases with immunologic mechanism of tissue injury. Hypersensitivity reactions:

More information

The Immune System and its Diseases. Part 2. Outline 2/18/2011. Jonathan Fox

The Immune System and its Diseases. Part 2. Outline 2/18/2011. Jonathan Fox The Immune System and its Diseases. Part 2. Jonathan Fox jfox7@uwyo.edu Outline Self and non self Introduction to hypersensitivity and autoimmune diseases Type I hypersensitivity i i mechanism of disease

More information

Type II. Antibody-mediated cytotoxic hypersensitivity

Type II. Antibody-mediated cytotoxic hypersensitivity Type II Antibody-mediated cytotoxic hypersensitivity The four types of hypersensitive responses Kuby J et al., Immunology 2003 Type II hypersensitivity reactions (1) - Caused by antibody to cell surface

More information

M I C R O B I O L O G Y WITH DISEASES BY TAXONOMY, THIRD EDITION

M I C R O B I O L O G Y WITH DISEASES BY TAXONOMY, THIRD EDITION M I C R O B I O L O G Y WITH DISEASES BY TAXONOMY, THIRD EDITION Chapter 18 Other Immune Disorders Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Hypersensitivities Hypersensitivity

More information

IMMUNE EFFECTOR MECHANISMS. Antibody-Mediated Reactions

IMMUNE EFFECTOR MECHANISMS. Antibody-Mediated Reactions IMMUNE EFFECTOR MECHANISMS Antibody-Mediated Reactions Immunology - the Double-Edged Sword Immunoprotection Immunopathology Both involve the same immune mechanisms! The balancing act between hyporeactivity

More information

LECTURE 4 IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY: ALLERGY

LECTURE 4 IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY: ALLERGY LECTURE 4 IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY: ALLERGY Allergies represent TYPE I reactions according to the Gell and Coombs classification. Most are caused by IgE ANTIBODIES which are capable of binding to Fc-

More information

Clinical Manifestations of Adverse Reactions. Definitions and Classifications. Exaggerated Effect on Target Tissues

Clinical Manifestations of Adverse Reactions. Definitions and Classifications. Exaggerated Effect on Target Tissues Chapter 3 Outline Chapter 3: Adverse reactions Definitions and classifications Clinical manifestations of adverse reactions Toxicologic evaluation of drugs 2 Haveles (p. 28) Drugs may act on biologic systems

More information

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Hypersensitivity Reactions Hypersensitivity Reactions Introduction Under some circumstances, immunity, rather than providing protection, produces damaging and sometimes fatal results. Such harmful reactions are known collectively

More information

HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TYPE III&IV

HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TYPE III&IV HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TYPE III&IV LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of the lecture student should be able to understand: What is type III Hypersensitivity reactions Different eg type III of hypersensitivity

More information

1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors.

1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors. Prof. Lester s BIOL 210 Practice Exam 4 (There is no answer key. Please do not email or ask me for answers.) Chapters 15, 16, 17, 19, HIV/AIDS, TB, Quorum Sensing 1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins

More information

Hypersensitivity. TYPE I Hypersensitivity Classic allergy. Allergens. Characteristics of allergens. Allergens. Mediated by IgE attached to Mast cells.

Hypersensitivity. TYPE I Hypersensitivity Classic allergy. Allergens. Characteristics of allergens. Allergens. Mediated by IgE attached to Mast cells. Gel and Coombs classification of hypersensitivities. Hypersensitivity Robert Beatty Type I Type II Type III Type IV MCB150 IgE Mediated IgG/IgM Mediated IgG Mediated T cell Classic Allergy rbc lysis Immune

More information

THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM

THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM components and functions of the complement system complements (C) are heat labile proteins found in mammalian blood and make up the complement system. This complex, multi-component

More information

Chapter 39 - The Body Defenses

Chapter 39 - The Body Defenses Chapter 39 - The Body Defenses Immunity - refers to the body s ability to resist or eliminate potentially harmful foreign material s or abnormal cells Mechanisms include: 1. Defense against invading pathogens

More information

Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity

Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity I M M U N I T Y Innate (inborn) Immunity does not distinguish one pathogen from another Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity Our first line of defense includes physical and chemical barriers

More information

Immune system. Nonspecific response: inflammation. Inflammation : the beginning. Nonspecific immunity vs. Adaptive immunity

Immune system. Nonspecific response: inflammation. Inflammation : the beginning. Nonspecific immunity vs. Adaptive immunity Immune system Body must resist disease in order to function Defends against pathogens, identifies and destroys abnormal cells. The primary pathogens are bacteria and viruses. Nonspecific immunity vs. Adaptive

More information

What makes an antigen to be an allergen?

What makes an antigen to be an allergen? Hypersensitivity - an inappropriate immune response that causes damage to the individual Type I hypersensitivity - mediated by IgE Type II hypersensitivity - mediated by IgG Type III hypersensitivity -

More information

ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES. Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1

ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES. Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1 AP BIOLOGY ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION ACTIVITY #4 NAME DATE HOUR BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1 INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE ANTIMICROBIAL

More information

Immune Haemolytic Anaemias. Dr. Abdullah Aljedai

Immune Haemolytic Anaemias. Dr. Abdullah Aljedai Immune Haemolytic Anaemias Dr. Abdullah Aljedai Haemolytic diseases are those conditions in which the red cells of the individual do not survive normally in vivo. Haemolysis lead to red cell destruction

More information

Chapter 7 Part 2: Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity

Chapter 7 Part 2: Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Name I. Terminology of Hypersensitivity Chapter 7 Part 2: Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity A. Hypersensitivity an altered immunological response to an antigen that results in disease or

More information

KEY POINTS INFLAMMATION CELLS

KEY POINTS INFLAMMATION CELLS THE IMMUNE RESPONSE IN VARIOUS TISSUES HYPERSENSITIVE & AUTOIMMUNE RESPONSES KEY POINTS The immune system has two responses, cell mediated and humoral, Cell mediated involves T lymphocytes Humoral mediated

More information

Types of Hypersensitivity

Types of Hypersensitivity Types of Hypersensitivity Type of Reaction Type I (anaphylactic) Type II (cytotoxic) Type III (immune complex) Type IV (delayed cellmediated) Time After Exposure for Clinical Symptoms

More information

Immune-Mediated Diseases. In a Nutshell

Immune-Mediated Diseases. In a Nutshell Immune-Mediated Diseases In a Nutshell Objectives Describe the epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis and pathologic changes of autoimmune diseases, including lupus erythematosis, rheumatoid

More information

PowerPoint Lecture Slides for MICROBIOLOGY. Hypersensitivities, Autoimmune Diseases, and Immune Deficiencies

PowerPoint Lecture Slides for MICROBIOLOGY. Hypersensitivities, Autoimmune Diseases, and Immune Deficiencies PowerPoint Lecture Slides for MICROBIOLOGY Hypersensitivities, Autoimmune Diseases, and Immune Deficiencies Hypersensitivity Any immune response against a foreign antigen that is exaggerated beyond the

More information

Immunology. Lecture- 3

Immunology. Lecture- 3 Immunology Lecture- 3 Complement System complement system is a part of the immune system that helps or complements the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to destroy and clear pathogens and viruses.

More information

Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic

Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic Bio 100 Guide 22 Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic determinants are the specific regions on

More information

The Immune System. 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms. Lines of Defense. Line of Defense. Lines of Defense

The Immune System. 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms. Lines of Defense. Line of Defense. Lines of Defense The Immune System 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms Immune System the system that fights infection by producing cells to inactivate foreign substances to avoid infection and disease. Immunity the body s ability

More information

Immune System. Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II

Immune System. Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II Immune System Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II 21 The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses Which of the following best describes the immune system? a. the set of organs

More information

Chapter 16 Disorders in Immunity

Chapter 16 Disorders in Immunity Chapter 16 Disorders in Immunity Immunopathology The study of disease states associated with underactivity and overactivity of the immune response Allergy (hypersensitivity) an exaggerated, misdirected

More information

Lecture 7 Immunology

Lecture 7 Immunology Slide 1 Lecture 7 Immunology Structure Components Leukocytes Lymphoid tissue Recognition of self Innate Immunity Physical and chemical barriers Phagocytosis Inflammation Adaptive immunity Humoral responses

More information

Lymphatic System - Structures

Lymphatic System - Structures Lymphatic System - Structures Lymphatic vessels Lymphatic tissues and organs 1 Lymphatic System - Functions Returns leaked plasma to blood vessels Cleanses lymph of bacteria & other foreign matter Provides

More information

Basics of Immunology

Basics of Immunology Basics of Immunology 2 Basics of Immunology What is the immune system? Biological mechanism for identifying and destroying pathogens within a larger organism. Pathogens: agents that cause disease Bacteria,

More information

Immune System A&P II

Immune System A&P II Immune System A&P II Lymphatic Outline Lymphatic System Defense Systems Innate Immune System Adaptive Defense System Immunodeficiencies Immune Responses Lymphatic System: Overview Figure 21.1a, b Lymphatic

More information

Supplemental Material CBE Life Sciences Education. Su et al.

Supplemental Material CBE Life Sciences Education. Su et al. Supplemental Material CBE Life Sciences Education Su et al. APPENDIX Human Body's Immune System Test This test consists of 31 questions, with only 1 answer to be selected for each question. Please select

More information

COMPLEMENT PATHWAYS OF COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION:

COMPLEMENT PATHWAYS OF COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION: COMPLEMENT The term "complement" was coined by Paul Ehrlich to describe the activity in serum, which could "complement" the ability of specific antibody to cause lysis of bacteria. Complement historically

More information

The Immune System: A Tutorial

The Immune System: A Tutorial The Immune System: A Tutorial Modeling and Simulation of Biological Systems 21-366B Shlomo Ta asan Images taken from http://rex.nci.nih.gov/behindthenews/uis/uisframe.htm http://copewithcytokines.de/ The

More information

Name (print) Name (signature) Period. (Total 30 points)

Name (print) Name (signature) Period. (Total 30 points) AP Biology Worksheet Chapter 43 The Immune System Lambdin April 4, 2011 Due Date: Thurs. April 7, 2011 You may use the following: Text Notes Power point Internet One other person in class "On my honor,

More information

Core Topic 2. The immune system and how vaccines work

Core Topic 2. The immune system and how vaccines work Core Topic 2 The immune system and how vaccines work Learning outcome To be able to describe in outline the immune system and how vaccines work in individuals and populations Learning objectives Explain

More information

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Bio40C schedule Lecture: Immune system Lecture exam 2 postponed to Tu Feb 23 covers Ch 22, 26, 27 Multiple choice and short answer Study guides posted on website Extra credit total of 15 pts Work sheets

More information

Introduction. Skin. The Immune System. Chapter 51

Introduction. Skin. The Immune System. Chapter 51 The Immune System Chapter 51 Introduction Vertebrates have three levels of defenses -1. The Integumentary System -Skin and mucous membranes provide first line of defense -2. Nonspecific (innate) Immune

More information

School of Architecture, Science and Technology, Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik , India.

School of Architecture, Science and Technology, Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik , India. Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive... School of Architecture, Science and Technology, Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik 422222, India. 1 OC-SBT052-CP02-U02-04 Introduction

More information

Autoimmunity and immunemediated. FOCiS. Lecture outline

Autoimmunity and immunemediated. FOCiS. Lecture outline 1 Autoimmunity and immunemediated inflammatory diseases Abul K. Abbas, MD UCSF FOCiS 2 Lecture outline Pathogenesis of autoimmunity: why selftolerance fails Genetics of autoimmune diseases Therapeutic

More information

ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Thymus glandular organ near the heart where T cells learn their jobs

ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Thymus glandular organ near the heart where T cells learn their jobs THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 1 ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 2 We all get sick sometimes...but then we get better. What happens when we get sick? Why do we get better? The immune system is localized in several parts

More information

Lymphatic and Immune Systems Homeostatic role of defense against pathogens, injury, diseased body cells, and toxins.

Lymphatic and Immune Systems Homeostatic role of defense against pathogens, injury, diseased body cells, and toxins. Lymphatic and Immune Systems Homeostatic role of defense against pathogens, injury, diseased body cells, and toxins Requires both lymph and immune systems to be effective Three levels of defense 1.Skin,

More information

11/20/2011. Outline. Immune System Function. Terminology. Two Types of Immune Defense. Innate Immunity = Non Specific

11/20/2011. Outline. Immune System Function. Terminology. Two Types of Immune Defense. Innate Immunity = Non Specific Chapter 43 Immune System Outline I. Nonspecific Defenses A. Barrier B. Protective proteins C. Phagocytes D. Natural killer cells E. Inflammatory reaction II. Specific Defenses A. B cells Antibody mediated

More information

The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity

The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity Discussion: Introduction Our immune system protects our bodies from the harmful affects of a dizzying array of disease causing pathogens. Although our

More information

Human Immunity. How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders

Human Immunity. How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders Human Immunity How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders What is Immunity? The word immunity comes from the Latin immunus meaning free of burden. Thus; it is a body s general ability

More information

Immunity and Abnormal Responses. Immune System. The Normal Immune Response. Bio 375. Pathophysiology

Immunity and Abnormal Responses. Immune System. The Normal Immune Response. Bio 375. Pathophysiology Immunity and Abnormal Responses Bio 375 Pathophysiology Immune System The immune system is a major component of the body s defenses It is a SPECIFIC defense, responding to particular substances: Cells

More information

Nonspecific Immunity, Complement System. Jana Novotná Dpt. Of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry The 2nd Faculty of Medicine

Nonspecific Immunity, Complement System. Jana Novotná Dpt. Of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry The 2nd Faculty of Medicine Nonspecific Immunity, Complement System Jana Novotná Dpt. Of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry The 2nd Faculty of Medicine Immunity = protection Recognition of self and non-self Specificity of immune

More information

2. Surface barriers include the and of the respiratory, gastrointestinal

2. Surface barriers include the and of the respiratory, gastrointestinal The Immune System: Innate Host Defenses 1. Name the two major categories of innate (nonspecific) defenses: 2. Surface barriers include the and of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts.

More information

Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination KEY October 30, 2003

Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination KEY October 30, 2003 KEY October 30, 2003 All questions have equal point value. You may keep the test questions. Multiple Choice (choose the best answer) 1. Receptors associated with innate immunity recognize microbes by detecting:

More information

The Body s Defenses CHAPTER 24

The Body s Defenses CHAPTER 24 CHAPTER 24 The Body s Defenses PowerPoint Lectures for Essential Biology, Third Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece, and Eric Simon Essential Biology with Physiology, Second Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece,

More information

CHAPTER 21 IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY: ALLERGY

CHAPTER 21 IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY: ALLERGY CHAPTER 21 IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY: ALLERGY Allergies represent TYPE I reactions according to the Gell and Coombs classification. Most are caused by IgE ANTIBODIES which are capable of binding to Fc-receptors

More information

In 1984, Pfeiffer, demonstrated that some cholera

In 1984, Pfeiffer, demonstrated that some cholera The Complement System Definition The Classical Complement Pathway The Lectin Pathway The Alternative Complement Pathway Ways in which Microorganisms can Resist Body Defenses by Circumventing the Complement

More information

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Introduction Immune system the body s defenses against pathogens that produce disease 2 types of immunity Nonspecific immune mechanisms (Innate immunity) Provide

More information

Lecture 11 Immune System & its Diseases II. Dr. Yasmine Lashine MD, PhD

Lecture 11 Immune System & its Diseases II. Dr. Yasmine Lashine MD, PhD Lecture 11 Immune System & its Diseases II Dr. Yasmine Lashine MD, PhD 1 ILOs Distinguish between innate and adaptive immunity. Recall the cells involved in the immune response and define their roles.

More information

TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MOMBASA

TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MOMBASA TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MOMBASA Faculty of Applied and Health Sciences DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL SCIENCES DIPLOMA IN MEDICAL LABORATORY SCIENCES (DMLS 13 J MID / DMLS 12M ) AML 2222 : IMMUNOLOGY II SPECIAL/SUPPLEMENTARY:

More information

Inflammation and Healing. Review of Normal Defenses. Review of Normal Capillary Exchange. BIO 375 Pathophysiology

Inflammation and Healing. Review of Normal Defenses. Review of Normal Capillary Exchange. BIO 375 Pathophysiology Inflammation and Healing BIO 375 Pathophysiology Review of Normal Defenses Review of Normal Capillary Exchange 1 Inflammation Inflammation is a biochemical and cellular process that occurs in vascularized

More information

Immunology and immunotherapy in allergic disease

Immunology and immunotherapy in allergic disease Immunology and immunotherapy in allergic disease Jing Shen, MD Faculty Advisor: Matthew Ryan, MD The University of Texas Medical Branch Department of Otolaryngology Grand Rounds Presentation February 2005

More information

Lec 12 (Ch16_18) Immune Disorders. Allergies. 4 Hypersensitivity Types. Topics - Allergies - Autoimmunity - Immunodeficiency

Lec 12 (Ch16_18) Immune Disorders. Allergies. 4 Hypersensitivity Types. Topics - Allergies - Autoimmunity - Immunodeficiency Lec 12 (Ch16_18) Immune Disorders Topics - Allergies - Autoimmunity - Immunodeficiency 1 Allergies Allergens (antigens) cause an exaggerated immune response or hypersensitivity 4 types: Type I Type II

More information

Primary Care Paramedic. Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) Certification Package

Primary Care Paramedic. Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) Certification Package Primary Care Paramedic Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) Certification Package 1 Welcome to the Primary Care Paramedic Diphenhydramine Certification package! The addition of Benadryl to your list of medications

More information

Biochemistry of the immune system. Jana Novotna

Biochemistry of the immune system. Jana Novotna Biochemistry of the immune system Jana Novotna Immunity = protection The immune system integrated body system of organs, tissues, cells, and products that interact with many different pathogens. Specificity

More information

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells.

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells. Virus and Immune System Review Directions: Write your answers on a separate piece of paper. 1. Why does a cut in the skin threaten the body s nonspecific defenses against disease? a. If a cut bleeds, disease-fighting

More information

Immune System. Chapter 24

Immune System. Chapter 24 Immune System Chapter 24 Chapter Outline Immunology Lymphatic System Non-specific defense a. Defense at body surface b. Inflammation c. Phagocytosis macrophages, neutrophils d. Opsonins Ig and C 3 b e.

More information

CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES. Transport excess tissue fluid back to blood stream

CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES. Transport excess tissue fluid back to blood stream CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES 1. Name the organs that compose the lymphatic system and give three general functions performed by this system. Control Disease Bone Marrow Thymus Transport

More information

IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM

IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM 59 IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM 59.1 INTRODUCTION The immune system is engaged in a constant surveillance of the body for pathogens or tumors. Whether disease develops depends on

More information

Gel and Coombs classification of hypersensitivities.

Gel and Coombs classification of hypersensitivities. Hypersensitivity Gel and Coombs classification of hypersensitivities. TYPE I Hypersensitivity Classic allergy Mediated by IgE attached to Mast cells. The symptoms resulting from allergic responses

More information

specific B cells Humoral immunity lymphocytes antibodies B cells bone marrow Cell-mediated immunity: T cells antibodies proteins

specific B cells Humoral immunity lymphocytes antibodies B cells bone marrow Cell-mediated immunity: T cells antibodies proteins Adaptive Immunity Chapter 17: Adaptive (specific) Immunity Bio 139 Dr. Amy Rogers Host defenses that are specific to a particular infectious agent Can be innate or genetic for humans as a group: most microbes

More information

BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS

BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS Knowledge of human blood types is necessary for successful transfusions. Recognition that blood types have relatively simple inheritance patterns led to their use in paternity

More information

To expand on this, we must examine the immune system in detail:

To expand on this, we must examine the immune system in detail: TUTOR TALK: The important fact to consider with the definition, is the term unusually high. It would be easy to say that all of us are allergic to cyanide. Cyanide is poisonous to all humans and this is

More information

Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION

Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION TORTORA FUNKE CASE Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION Differentiate between innate and acquired immunity. Chapter 17 Specific Defenses of the Host: The Immune Response B.E Pruitt & Jane J. Stein

More information

18 The Lymphatic System (Immune System) Nonspecific Resistance, Specific Immunity. Taft College Human Physiology

18 The Lymphatic System (Immune System) Nonspecific Resistance, Specific Immunity. Taft College Human Physiology 18 The Lymphatic System (Immune System) Nonspecific Resistance, Specific Immunity Taft College Human Physiology O 2 Diagram of Lymphatic and Cardiovascular Systems Lungs Heart Arteries w/ Plasma Arterioles

More information

MERCY HOSPITAL DUNEDIN Clinical Services Policy Manual

MERCY HOSPITAL DUNEDIN Clinical Services Policy Manual Subject: Adverse Reaction to Medication Page 1 of 6 Key Words: Adverse Reaction, Medication, Allergy Policy Applies to: To all staff who administer medications at Mercy Hospital Related Standards: EQuIP

More information

Lymph Transport and Immunity

Lymph Transport and Immunity Lymph Transport and Immunity Outline The Lymphatic System Lymph Vessels Lymphoid Organs Nonspecific Defenses Barriers Inflammatory Response Specific Defenses Antibodies T Cells Induced Immunity Active

More information

Chapter 43: The Immune System

Chapter 43: The Immune System Name Period Our students consider this chapter to be a particularly challenging and important one. Expect to work your way slowly through the first three concepts. Take particular care with Concepts 43.2

More information

Immunology 101. Basic Immune Response 09/08/2015. Basic function of immune system is to detect and eliminate any substance recognized as foreign

Immunology 101. Basic Immune Response 09/08/2015. Basic function of immune system is to detect and eliminate any substance recognized as foreign Eric E. Schmidt, O.D. Omni Eye Specialists Wilmington, NC schmidtyvision@msn.com Immunology 101 Basic function of immune system is to detect and eliminate any substance recognized as foreign Antigens (allergens)

More information

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs Lymphatic system functions Transports escaped fluids back

More information

VPM 152. INFLAMMATION: Chemical Mediators

VPM 152. INFLAMMATION: Chemical Mediators General Pathology VPM 152 INFLAMMATION: Chemical Mediators CHEMICAL MEDIATORS OF INFLAMMATION Definition: any messenger that acts on blood vessels, inflammatory cells or other cells to contribute to an

More information

The square in the centre is divided into 25 squares; each square of them is more divided to 16 small squares as in the figure below

The square in the centre is divided into 25 squares; each square of them is more divided to 16 small squares as in the figure below Note : In this lecture the Dr explained what we have studied in the lab briefly then he discussed the topic of leukocytes Hemocytometer The picture above demonstrates the counting chambers When we use

More information

The Lymphatic System

The Lymphatic System The Lymphatic System Transports escaped fluids back to the blood Plays essential roles in body defense and resistance to disease Lymph excess tissue fluid carried by lymphatic vessels Properties of lymphatic

More information

Acquired haemolytic anaemias. Dr.Maysem

Acquired haemolytic anaemias. Dr.Maysem Acquired haemolytic anaemias Dr.Maysem The acquired haemolytic anaemias are usually divided into two main categories, depending on the mechanism by which the premature destruction of red blood cells is

More information

Anaphylaxis and other adverse events

Anaphylaxis and other adverse events Anaphylaxis and other adverse events Aim: To be able to manage anaphylaxis and other adverse events correctly Learning outcomes Define local and systemic adverse events Distinguish between anaphylaxis

More information

Aetiology and Pathology of Periodontal Disease. Dr. Wendy Turner

Aetiology and Pathology of Periodontal Disease. Dr. Wendy Turner Aetiology and Pathology of Periodontal Disease Dr. Wendy Turner Lecture Outline Periodontal structures and the inflammatory response Periodontal disease progression stages Pathogenesis and the host response

More information

Innate Host Defenses Graphics are used with permission of Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com).

Innate Host Defenses Graphics are used with permission of Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com). Innate Host Defenses Graphics are used with permission of Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com). Page 1: Introduction Surface barriers (the skin, mucous membranes,

More information

NICE Pathways bring together all NICE guidance, quality standards and other NICE information on a specific topic.

NICE Pathways bring together all NICE guidance, quality standards and other NICE information on a specific topic. Food allergy in children and young people overview bring together all NICE guidance, quality standards and other NICE information on a specific topic. are interactive and designed to be used online. They

More information

Glossary of Terms. Section Glossary. of Terms

Glossary of Terms. Section Glossary. of Terms Glossary of Terms Section Glossary of Terms GLOSSARY Acute: Symptoms which can occur suddenly with a short and severe course. Adrenaclick /Generic Adrenaclick : a single use epinephrine auto-injector that

More information

Chapter 6. Fig What are the functions of blood? What is the composition of blood? Cardiovascular System: Blood

Chapter 6. Fig What are the functions of blood? What is the composition of blood? Cardiovascular System: Blood Cardiovascular System: Blood Chapter 6 6.1 Blood: An overview What are the functions of blood? Transportation: oxygen, nutrients, wastes, carbon dioxide and hormones Defense: against invasion by pathogens

More information

IMMUNOLOGY. Done By: Banan Dabousi. Dr. Hassan Abu Al-Ragheb

IMMUNOLOGY. Done By: Banan Dabousi. Dr. Hassan Abu Al-Ragheb IMMUNOLOGY Done By: # 6 Dr. Hassan Abu Al-Ragheb Immunity lecture #6 #Functions of complement system: 1-opsonin. 2-lysis. 3- Production of inflammation. 4-chemotaxis. 5-clearance of immune complexes. 6-

More information

Chapter 22: Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: Lymphatic System and Immunity I. Lymphatic System A. Functions of the Lymphatic System - list and describe: 1. 2. 3. B. Lymphatic Vessels 1. What are lymphatic capillaries? 2. Lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries in

More information

FOOD ALLERGY: WHEN ARE SKIN PRICK TESTS AND EPIPENS INDICATED? Dr Imogen Norton Consultant Paediatrician Northampton General Hospital

FOOD ALLERGY: WHEN ARE SKIN PRICK TESTS AND EPIPENS INDICATED? Dr Imogen Norton Consultant Paediatrician Northampton General Hospital FOOD ALLERGY: WHEN ARE SKIN PRICK TESTS AND EPIPENS INDICATED? Dr Imogen Norton Consultant Paediatrician Northampton General Hospital September 2012 OVERVIEW OF FOOD ALLERGY Definition Background Types

More information

One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types:

One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: Immune system. One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: (pathogen - disease causing organism) 1) Non specific. Anything foreign

More information

Lymph capillaries, Lymphatic collecting vessels, Valves, Lymph Duct, Lymph node, Vein

Lymph capillaries, Lymphatic collecting vessels, Valves, Lymph Duct, Lymph node, Vein WLHS/A&P/Oppelt Name Lymphatic System Practice 1. Figure 12-1 provides an overview of the lymphatic vessels. First color code the following structures. Color code in Figure 12-1 Heart Veins Lymphatic vessels/lymph

More information

Immune System Part II: The Innate Immune System

Immune System Part II: The Innate Immune System Immune System Part II: The Innate Immune System Devastation Caused by Pathogens Influenza epidemic 1918-1919 Killed 22 million people in 18 months. Three million people will die from malaria this year.

More information

Blood. The only fluid tissue in the human body. Classified as a connective tissue

Blood. The only fluid tissue in the human body. Classified as a connective tissue Blood The only fluid tissue in the human body Classified as a connective tissue Blood If blood is centrifuged Erythrocytes sink to the bottom Buffy coat contains leukocytes and platelets Buffy coat is

More information

Adaptive Immunity. Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Adaptive Immunity. Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display. 34 Adaptive Immunity Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 34.6 B-cell Biology 1. Describe the B-cell receptor structure and function

More information

EVERYTHING YOU WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT ALLERGIES

EVERYTHING YOU WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT ALLERGIES EVERYTHING YOU WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT ALLERGIES I. ABOUT ALLERGIES A. What is an allergy? Allergies are hypersensitivity reactions of the body s immune system to specific substances we come in contact with

More information

Hypersensitivity reactions. Abdul Ghaffar (Phone: ;

Hypersensitivity reactions. Abdul Ghaffar (Phone: ; Hypersensitivity reactions Abdul Ghaffar (Phone: 733-3279; e-mail: ghaffar@med.sc.edu) MBIM 650/720 Medical Microbiology - Fall 2002 Lectures: 19-20 TEACHING OBJECTIVES: READING: 1. Understand the classification

More information

IMMUNOGLOBULINS: TYPES, FUNCTIONS STRUCTURE AND BIOMEDICAL IMPORTANCE.

IMMUNOGLOBULINS: TYPES, FUNCTIONS STRUCTURE AND BIOMEDICAL IMPORTANCE. IMMUNOGLOBULINS: TYPES, FUNCTIONS STRUCTURE AND BIOMEDICAL IMPORTANCE. Immunoglobulins (Igs) are glycoprotein molecules also called antibodies(abs), that are produced in response to foreign substances

More information