5. What blood type is considered the universal donor? What is the universal recipient? EXPLAIN! Blood Typing Lab. Introduction:

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1 Blood Typing Lab Introduction: There are four basic blood types: A, B, AB and O. The letters A and/or B indicate that a person s blood contains the A protein or the B protein (or both if the blood type is AB.) The letter O indicates that the person s blood cells lack these proteins. Another word used to describe these proteins is antigens. An antigen is a protein that can trigger an immune response in a body. This is why blood typing is very important before a blood transfusion is given. If Kayla (type A blood) is given type B blood, her immune system will fight off the antigen B blood (in other words her body s immune system will attack all the blood cells that contain the B protein. This will cause a potentially massive activation of the immune system and clotting system can cause shock, kidney failure, circulatory collapse, and death What is an antigen? 2. Define Coagulate 3. What blood type(s) would have antigen A? 4. What can happen if a person with type B blood is given type A blood in a transfusion? 5. What blood type is considered the universal donor? What is the universal recipient? EXPLAIN! 1

2 Blood typing (determining blood type) One test used to determine blood is to mix a blood sample with anti serums. These serums contain antibodies that are against the blood type being tested for. So, anti-a serum will bond with antigen A and coagulate (clump together) and anti-b serum will coagulate in the presence of type B blood. In other words the antibodies fight off against specific proteins, in this case either the A protein or the B protein. So if a blood sample coagulated when anti-a is added than the blood contains the A protein. If the blood sample coagulated with anti-b serum than the blood contains the B protein. If a person s blood coagulates in the presence of both anti-a and Anti-B serums then the person has AB blood. If the person s blood does not coagulate in the presence of anti-a or anti-b serums then the person has blood type O. 6. What is the purpose of anti-b serum? 7. What type of blood does a donor have if the blood test coagulated for both the A protein and the B protein? 8. What type of blood would not show coagulation for the A protein and the B protein? Another surface identifier in blood is known as Rh factor. A person is either Rh+(positive) or Rh-(negative). If Tashi s blood sample coagulates in the presence of anti-rh serum then he is Rh positive. Rh typing is especially important during pregnancy. If the mother is found to have Rh- negative blood, then the father should also be tested. If the father has Rh+ blood then the mother needs to receive a treatment to help prevent antibodies from forming in the mother s blood serum. These antibodies can harm a fetus if not treated. 9. If a mom is Rh+ what will happen if she is pregnant with an Rh- child? Blood type is inherited through several different gene locations. There are three different possible alleles for blood types. They are designated by the symbols I A, I B, and i. A person with the I A allele will produce red blood cells with the A antigen; a person with the I B allele will produce blood cells with the B antigen; the i allele produces no antigen. A person can have A blood, B blood, AB blood or O blood. What types of blood could a child have their mom had A blood and their dad had B blood? 10. Write the genotypes for Type A, Type B, Type AB and Type O

3 Purpose: The objective of this lab is to identify the blood type of 4 unknown simulated blood samples. Anti-A and Anti-B will be mixed with the 4 blood samples and observed for agglutination (coagulation, clumping, clouding, precipitate formation) Materials Four different simulated bloods: Two different antisera: (Anti-A and Anti-B ) An overhead sheet Toothpicks for stirring Procedure 1. Label the overhead squares for each blood sample as follows: Anti-A Anti- B Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 2. Place three drops of the Sample A in The Anti-A and the Anti- B square for sample 1 3. Do the same for each of the other "blood" samples. 4. Place two drops of the simulated anti-a serum in each A square on the overhead. 5. Place two drops of the simulated anti-b serum in each B square on the overhead. 6. Stir each well with a separate clean toothpick for 30 seconds. To avoid splattering the simulated blood, do not press too hard on the sample plate. 7. Observe each square and record your results. To confirm agglutination, try reading text through the mixed sample. If you cannot read the text, assume you have a positive agglutination reaction. 8. Record your results in the table above (use a + for agglutinated results & a for non- agglutinated results.) 9. Wash off the overhead sheet and return all equipment. Wash hands. Conclusion Questions: 1) What are the genotypes and phenotypes of each blood sample donor? a) Sample 1 b) Sample 2 c) Sample 3 d) Sample 4 2) If a man has blood type O, what blood types can receive transfusion of his blood? Explain 3) What are the possible genotypes of a girl s blood if clumping occurs when anti-b is added? (two letters are necessary for each answer, eg. I A I A )

4 4) What antigens are present in type AB blood? 5) What antigens are present in type O blood? 6) What antibodies are present in type A blood? 7) What antibodies are present in type O blood? 8) What are the benefits of using a method such as the one used in the lab today for determining blood types? Explain your answer. To answer the following questions use a punnett square and provide all genotypes as well as phenotypes: 9) Do a cross between 2 people who are blood type O 10) If a man who is blood type O marries a woman who is a homozygous blood type A(I A I A ). Will all their children be blood type A? 11) If a man who is heterozygous blood type A (I A i) and has children with a woman who is heterozygous blood type B (I B i). Can they have a child who is blood type O?

5 12) A woman who is homozygous blood type A has children with a man who is homozygous blood type B. What will be the blood type of their children? 13) A woman who is blood type AB claims that John, who is blood type O, is the father of her AB blood type child. Can this be possible? 14) A man who is blood type B, whose mother is blood type O (HINT! so he didn t get a B from her!) has children with a woman who is homozygous for blood type B. Can they have a child with AB blood?

Can receive blood from: * I A I A and I A i o Type A Yes No A or AB A or O I B I B and I B i o Type B No Yes B or AB B or O

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