# Chapter 7 Fundamentals of Capital Budgeting

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1 Chapter 7 Fundamentals of Capital Budgeting Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

2 Chapter Outline 7.1 Forecasting Earnings 7.2 Determining Free Cash Flow and NPV 7.3 Choosing Among Alternatives 7.4 Further Adjustments to Free Cash Flow 7.5 Analyzing the Project Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-2

3 Learning Objectives 1. Given a set of facts, identify relevant cash flows for a capital budgeting problem. 2. Explain why opportunity costs must be included in cash flows, while sunk costs and interest expense must not. 3. Calculate taxes that must be paid, including tax loss carryforwards and carrybacks. 4. Calculate free cash flows for a given project. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-3

4 Learning Objectives (cont'd) 5. Illustrate the impact of depreciation expense on cash flows. 6. Describe the appropriate selection of discount rate for a particular set of circumstances. 7. Use breakeven analysis, sensitivity analysis, or scenario analysis to evaluate project risk. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-4

5 7.1 Forecasting Earnings Capital Budget Lists the investments that a company plans to undertake Capital Budgeting Process used to analyze alternate investments and decide which ones to accept Incremental Earnings The amount by which the firm s earnings are expected to change as a result of the investment decision Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-5

6 Revenue and Cost Estimates Example Linksys has completed a \$300,000 feasibility study to assess the attractiveness of a new product, HomeNet. The project has an estimated life of four years. Revenue Estimates Sales = 100,000 units/year Per Unit Price = \$260 Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-6

7 Revenue and Cost Estimates (cont'd) Example Cost Estimates Up-Front R&D = \$15,000,000 Up-Front New Equipment = \$7,500,000 Expected life of the new equipment is 5 years Housed in existing lab Annual Overhead = \$2,800,000 Per Unit Cost = \$110 Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-7

8 Incremental Earnings Forecast Table 7.1 Spreadsheet HomeNet s Incremental Earnings Forecast Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-8

9 Capital Expenditures and Depreciation The \$7.5 million in new equipment is a cash expense, but it is not directly listed as an expense when calculating earnings. Instead, the firm deducts a fraction of the cost of these items each year as depreciation. Straight Line Depreciation The asset s cost is divided equally over its life. Annual Depreciation = \$7.5 million 5 years = \$1.5 million/year Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-9

10 Interest Expense In capital budgeting decisions, interest expense is typically not included. The rationale is that the project should be judged on its own, not on how it will be financed. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-10

11 Taxes Marginal Corporate Tax Rate The tax rate on the marginal or incremental dollar of pre-tax income. Note: A negative tax is equal to a tax credit. Income Tax = EBIT τ c Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-11

12 Taxes (cont'd) Unlevered Net Income Calculation Unlevered Net Income = EBIT (1 τ) c = (Revenues Costs Depreciation) (1 τ) c Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-12

14 Textbook Example 7.1 (cont'd) Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-14

15 Alternative Example 7.1 Problem PepsiCo, Inc. plans to launch a new line of energy drinks. The marketing expenses associated with launching the new product will generate operating losses of \$500 million next year for the product. Pepsi expects to earn pre-tax income of \$7 billion from operations other than the new energy drinks next year. Pepsi pays a 39% tax rate on its pre-tax income. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-15

16 Alternative Example 7.1 Problem (continued) What will Pepsi owe in taxes next year without the new energy drinks? What will it owe with the new energy drinks? Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-16

17 Alternative Example 7.1 Solution Without the new energy drinks, Pepsi will owe corporate taxes next year in the amount of: \$7 billion 39% = \$2.730 billion With the new energy drinks, Pepsi will owe corporate taxes next year in the amount of: \$6.5 billion 39% = \$2.535 billion Pre-Tax Income = \$7 billion - \$500 million = \$6.5 billion Launching the new product reduces Pepsi s taxes next year by: \$2.730 billion \$2.535 billion = \$195 million. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-17

18 Indirect Effects on Incremental Earnings Opportunity Cost The value a resource could have provided in its best alternative use In the HomeNet project example, space will be required for the investment. Even though the equipment will be housed in an existing lab, the opportunity cost of not using the space in an alternative way (e.g., renting it out) must be considered. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-18

20 Textbook Example 7.2 (cont'd) Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-20

21 Alternative Example 7.2 Problem Suppose Pepsi s new energy drink line will be housed in a factory that the company could have otherwise rented out for \$900 million per year. How would this opportunity cost affect Pepsi s incremental earnings next year? Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-21

22 Alternative Example 7.2 Solution The opportunity cost of the factory is the forgone rent. The opportunity cost would reduce Pepsi s incremental earnings next year by: \$900 million (1.39) = \$549 million. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-22

23 Indirect Effects on Incremental Earnings (cont'd) Project Externalities Indirect effects of the project that may affect the profits of other business activities of the firm. Cannibalization is when sales of a new product displaces sales of an existing product. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-23

24 Indirect Effects on Incremental Earnings (cont'd) Project Externalities In the HomeNet project example, 25% of sales come from customers who would have purchased an existing Linksys wireless router if HomeNet were not available. Because this reduction in sales of the existing wireless router is a consequence of the decision to develop HomeNet, we must include it when calculating HomeNet s incremental earnings. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-24

25 Indirect Effects on Incremental Earnings (cont'd) Table 7.2 Spreadsheet HomeNet s Incremental Earnings Forecast Including Cannibalization and Lost Rent Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-25

26 Sunk Costs and Incremental Earnings Sunk costs are costs that have been or will be paid regardless of the decision whether or not the investment is undertaken. Sunk costs should not be included in the incremental earnings analysis. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-26

27 Sunk Costs and Incremental Earnings (cont'd) Fixed Overhead Expenses Typically overhead costs are fixed and not incremental to the project and should not be included in the calculation of incremental earnings. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-27

28 Sunk Costs and Incremental Earnings (cont'd) Past Research and Development Expenditures Money that has already been spent on R&D is a sunk cost and therefore irrelevant. The decision to continue or abandon a project should be based only on the incremental costs and benefits of the product going forward. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-28

29 Real-World Complexities Typically, sales will change from year to year. the average selling price will vary over time. the average cost per unit will change over time. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-29

31 Textbook Example 7.3 (cont'd) Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-31

32 7.2 Determining Free Cash Flow and NPV The incremental effect of a project on a firm s available cash is its free cash flow. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-32

33 Calculating the Free Cash Flow from Earnings Capital Expenditures and Depreciation Capital Expenditures are the actual cash outflows when an asset is purchased. These cash outflows are included in calculating free cash flow. Depreciation is a non-cash expense. The free cash flow estimate is adjusted for this non-cash expense. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-33

34 Calculating the Free Cash Flow from Earnings (cont'd) Capital Expenditures and Depreciation Table 7.3 Spreadsheet Calculation of HomeNet s Free Cash Flow (Including Cannibalization and Lost Rent) Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-34

35 Calculating the Free Cash Flow from Earnings (cont'd) Net Working Capital (NWC) Net Working Capital = Current Assets Current Liabilities = Cash + Inventory + Receivables Payables Most projects will require an investment in net working capital. Trade credit is the difference between receivables and payables. The increase in net working capital is defined as: NWCt = NWCt NWCt 1 Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-35

36 Calculating the Free Cash Flow from Earnings (cont'd) Table 7.4 Spreadsheet HomeNet s Net Working Capital Requirements Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-36

38 Textbook Example 7.4 (cont'd) Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-38

39 Alternative Example 7.4 Problem Rising Star Inc is forecasting that their sales will increase by \$250,000 next year, \$275,000 the following year, and \$300,000 in the third year. The company estimates that additional cash requirements will be 5% of the change in sales, inventory will increase by 7% of the change in sales, receivables will increase by 10% of the change in sales, and payables will increase by 8% of the increase in sales. Forecast the increase in net working capital for Rising Star over the next three years. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-39

40 Alternative Example 7.4 (cont d) Solution The required increase in net working capital is shown below: Year Sales Forecast (increase) \$250,000 \$275,000 \$300,000 Net Working Capital Forecast Cash Requirements (5% of sales) \$12,500 \$13,750 \$15,000 Inventory (7% of sales) \$17,500 \$19,250 \$21,000 Receivables (10% of sales) \$25,000 \$27,500 \$30,000 Payables (8% of sales) \$20,000 \$22,000 \$24,000 Net Working Capital \$35,000 \$38,500 \$42,000 Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-40

41 Calculating Free Cash Flow Directly Free Cash Flow Unlevered Net Income Free Cash Flow = (Revenues Costs Depreciation) (1 τ) + Depreciation CapEx NWC c Free Cash Flow = (Revenues Costs) (1 τ) CapEx NWC +τ c Depreciation c The term τ c Depreciation is called the depreciation tax shield. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-41

42 Calculating the NPV PV ( FCF ) t FCFt 1 = = FCF t t t (1 + r) (1 + r) HomeNet NPV (WACC = 12%) t = year discount factor NPV = 16, = 5027 Table 7.5 Spreadsheet Computing HomeNet s NPV Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-42

43 7.3 Choosing Among Alternatives Launching the HomeNet project produces a positive NPV, while not launching the project produces a 0 NPV. Evaluating Manufacturing Alternatives Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-43

44 7.3 Choosing Among Alternatives (cont'd) Evaluating Manufacturing Alternatives In the HomeNet example, assume the company could produce each unit in-house for \$95 if it spends \$5 million upfront to change the assembly facility (versus \$110 per unit if outsourced). The in-house manufacturing method would also require an additional investment in inventory equal to one month s worth of production. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-44

45 7.3 Choosing Among Alternatives (cont'd) Evaluating Manufacturing Alternatives Outsource Cost per unit = \$110 Investment in A/P = 15% of COGS COGS = 100,000 units \$110 = \$11 million Investment in A/P = 15% \$11 million = \$1.65 million» ΔNWC = \$1.65 million in Year 1 and will increase by \$1.65 million in Year 5» NWC falls since this A/P is financed by suppliers Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-45

46 7.3 Choosing Among Alternatives (cont'd) Evaluating Manufacturing Alternatives In-House Cost per unit = \$95 Up-front cost of \$5,000,000 Investment in A/P = 15% of COGS COGS = 100,000 units \$95 = \$9.5 million Investment in A/P = 15% \$9.5 million = \$1.425 million Investment in Inventory = \$9.5 million / 12 = \$0.792 million ΔNWC in Year 1 = \$0.792 million \$1.425 million = \$0.633 million» NWC will fall by \$0.633 million in Year 1 and increase by \$0.633 million in Year 5 Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-46

47 7.3 Choosing Among Alternatives (cont'd) Evaluating Manufacturing Alternatives Table 7.6 Spreadsheet NPV Cost of Outsourced Versus In-House Assembly of HomeNet Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-47

48 7.3 Choosing Among Alternatives (cont'd) Comparing Free Cash Flows Cisco s Alternatives Outsourcing is the less expensive alternative. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-48

49 7.4 Further Adjustments to Free Cash Flow Other Non-cash Items Amortization Timing of Cash Flows Cash flows are often spread throughout the year. Accelerated Depreciation Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-49

51 Textbook Example 7.5 (cont'd) Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-51

52 Alternative Example 7.5 Problem Canyon Molding is considering purchasing a new machine to manufacture finished plastic products. The machine will cost \$50,000 and falls into the MACRS 3-year asset class. What depreciation deduction would be allowed for the machine using the MACRS method, assuming the equipment is put into use in year 0? Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-52

53 Alternative Example 7.5 (cont d) Solution Based on the percentages in Table 7A.1, the allowable depreciation expense for the lab equipment is shown below: Year MACRS Depreciation Plastic Molding Machine \$50,000 MACRS Depreciation Rate 33.33% 44.45% 14.81% 7.41% Depreciation Expense \$16,665 \$22,225 \$7,405 \$3,705 Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-53

54 Further Adjustments to Free Cash Flow (cont'd) Liquidation or Salvage Value Capital Gain = Sale Price Book Value Book Value = Purchase Price Accumulated Depreciation After-Tax Cash Flow from Asset Sale Sale Price ( Capital Gain) = τ c Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-54

56 Textbook Example 7.6 (cont'd) Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-56

57 Further Adjustments to Free Cash Flow (cont'd) Terminal or Continuation Value This amount represents the market value of the free cash flow from the project at all future dates. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-57

59 Textbook Example 7.7 (cont'd) Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-59

60 Further Adjustments to Free Cash Flow (cont'd) Tax Carryforwards Tax loss carryforwards and carrybacks allow corporations to take losses during its current year and offset them against gains in nearby years. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-60

62 Textbook Example 7.8 (cont'd) Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-62

63 7.5 Analyzing the Project Break-Even Analysis The break-even level of an input is the level that causes the NPV of the investment to equal zero. HomeNet IRR Calculation Table 7.7 Spreadsheet HomeNet IRR Calculation Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-63

64 7.5 Analyzing the Project (cont'd) Break-Even Analysis Break-Even Levels for HomeNet Table 7.8 Break-Even Levels for HomeNet EBIT Break-Even of Sales Level of sales where EBIT equals zero Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-64

65 Sensitivity Analysis Sensitivity Analysis shows how the NPV varies with a change in one of the assumptions, holding the other assumptions constant. Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-65

66 Sensitivity Analysis (cont'd) Table 7.9 Best- and Worst-Case Parameter Assumptions for HomeNet Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-66

67 Figure 7.1 HomeNet s NPV Under Best- and Worst-Case Parameter Assumptions Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-67

69 Textbook Example 7.9 (cont'd) Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-69

70 Scenario Analysis Scenario Analysis considers the effect on the NPV of simultaneously changing multiple assumptions. Table 7.10 Scenario Analysis of Alternative Pricing Strategies Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-70

71 Figure 7.2 Price and Volume Combinations for HomeNet with Equivalent NPV Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-71

72 TABLE 7A.1 MACRS Depreciation Table Showing the Percentage of the Asset s Cost That May Be Depreciated Each Year Based on Its Recovery Period Copyright 2011 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 7-72

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