1 Chapter 20 Lease Financing ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS 20-1 a. The lessee is the party leasing the property. The party receiving the payments from the lease (that is, the owner of the property) is the lessor. b. An operating lease, sometimes called a service lease, provides for both financing and maintenance. Generally, the operating lease contract is written for a period considerably shorter than the expected life of the leased equipment, and contains a cancellation clause. A financial lease does not provide for maintenance service, is not cancelable, and is fully amortized; that is, the lease covers the entire expected life of the equipment. In a sale and leaseback arrangement, the firm owning the property sells it to another firm, often a financial institution, while simultaneously entering into an agreement to lease the property back from the firm. A sale and leaseback can be thought of as a type of financial lease. A combination lease combines some aspects of both operating and financial leases. For example, a financial lease which contains a cancellation clause--normally associated with operating leases--is a combination lease. In a leveraged lease, the lessor borrows a portion of the funds needed to buy the equipment to be leased. c. Off-balance sheet financing refers to the fact that for many years neither leased assets nor the liabilities under lease contracts appeared on the lessees balance sheets. To correct this problem, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued FASB Statement 13. Capitalizing means incorporating the lease provisions into the balance sheet by reporting the leased asset under fixed assets and reporting the present value of future lease payments as debt. d. FASB Statement 13 is the Financial Accounting Standards Board statement (November 1976) that spells out in detail the conditions under which a lease must be capitalized, and the specific procedures to follow. e. A guideline lease is a lease which meets all of the IRS requirements for a genuine lease. A guideline lease is often called a taxoriented lease. If a lease meets the IRS guidelines, the IRS allows the lessor to deduct the asset s depreciation and allows the lessee to deduct the lease payments. f. The residual value is the market value of the leased property at the expiration of the lease. The estimate of the residual value is one of the key elements in lease analysis. Harcourt, Inc. items and derived items copyright 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. Answers and Solutions: 20-1
2 g. The lessee s analysis involves determining whether leasing an asset is less costly than buying the asset. The lessee will compare the present value cost of leasing the asset with the present value cost of purchasing the asset (assuming the funds to purchase the asset are obtained through a loan). If the present value cost of the lease is less than the present value cost of purchasing, the asset should be leased. The lessee can also analyze the lease using the IRR approach. The IRR of the incremental cash flows of leasing versus purchasing represents the after-tax cost rate implied in the lease contract. If this rate is lower than the after-tax cost of debt, there is an advantage to leasing. Finally, the lessee might evaluate the lease using the equivalent loan method, which involves comparing the net savings at Time 0 if the asset is leased with the present value of the incremental costs of leasing over the term of the lease. If the Time 0 savings is greater than the present value of the incremental costs, there is an advantage to leasing. The lessor s analysis involves determining the rate of return on the proposed lease. If the rate of return (or IRR) of the lease cash flows exceeds the lessor s opportunity cost of capital, the lease is a good investment. This is equivalent to analyzing whether the NPV of the lease is positive. h. The net advantage to leasing (NAL) gives the dollar value of the lease to the lessee. It is, in a sense, the NPV of leasing versus owning. i. The alternative minimum tax (AMT), which is figured at about 20 percent of the profits reported to stockholders, is a provision of the tax code that requires profitable firms to pay at least some taxes if such taxes are greater than the amount due under standard tax accounting. The AMT has provided a stimulus to leasing for those firms paying the AMT because leasing lowers profits reported to stockholders An operating lease is usually cancelable and includes maintenance. Operating leases are, frequently, for a period significantly shorter than the economic life of the asset, so the lessor often does not recover his full investment during the period of the basic lease. A financial lease, on the other hand, is fully amortized and generally does not include maintenance provisions. An operating lease would probably be used for a fleet of trucks, while a financial lease would be used for a manufacturing plant You would expect to find that lessees, in general, are in relatively low income-tax brackets, while lessors tend to be in high tax brackets. The reason for this is that owning tends to provide tax shelters in the early years of a project s life. These tax shelters are more valuable to taxpayers in high brackets. However, current tax laws (1998) have reduced the depreciation benefits of owning, so tax rate differentials are less important now than in the past. Answers and Solutions: 20-2 Harcourt, Inc. items and derived items copyright 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
3 20-4 The banks, when they initially went into leasing, were paying relatively high tax rates. However, since municipal bonds are tax exempt, their heavy investments in municipals lowered the banks effective tax rates. Similarly, when the REIT loans began to sour, this further reduced the bank s income, and consequently cut the effective tax rate even further. Since the lease investments were predicated on obtaining tax shelters, and since the value of these tax shelters is dependent on the banks tax rates, when the effective tax rates were lowered, this reduced the value of the tax shelters and consequently reduced the profitability of the lease investments a. Pros: The use of the leased premises or equipment is actually an exclusive right, and the payment for the premises is a liability that often must be met. Therefore, leases should be treated as both assets and liabilities. A fixed policy of capitalizing leases among all companies would add to the comparability of different firms. For example, Safeway Stores leases should be capitalized to make the company comparable to A&P, which owns its stores through a subsidiary. The capitalization highlights the contractual nature of the leased property. Capitalizing of leases could help management make useful comparisons of operating results; that is, return on investment data. b. Cons: Because the firm does not actually own the leased property, the legal aspect can be cited as an argument against capitalization. Capitalizing leases worsens some key credit ratios; that is, the debt-to-equity ratio and the debt-to-total capital ratio. This may hamper the future acquisition of funds. There is a question of choosing the proper discount rate at which to capitalize the leases. Some argue that other items should be listed on the balance sheet before leases; for example, service contracts, property taxes, and so on. Capitalizing leases violates the principle that liabilities should be recorded only when assets are purchased Lease payments, like depreciation, are deductible for tax purposes. If a 20-year asset were depreciated over a 20-year life, depreciation charges would be 1/20 per year (more if MACRS were used). However, if Harcourt, Inc. items and derived items copyright 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. Answers and Solutions: 20-3
4 the asset were leased for, say, 3 years, tax deductions would be 1/3 each year for 3 years. Thus, the tax deductions would be greatly accelerated. The same total taxes would be paid over the 20 years, but because of the high deductions in the early years, taxes would be deferred more under the lease, and the PV of the future taxes would be reduced under the lease In fact, Congress did this in Depreciable lives were shorter than before; corporate tax rates were essentially unchanged (they were lowered very slightly on income below $50,000); and the investment tax credit had been improved a bit by the easing of recapture if the asset was held for a short period. As a result, companies that were either investing at a very high rate or else were only marginally profitable were generating more depreciation and/or investment tax credits than they could use. These companies were able to sell their tax shelters through a leasing arrangement, being paid in the form of lower lease charges. A high-bracket lessor could earn a given after-tax return with lower rental charges, after the 1981 tax law changes, than previously because the lessor would get (1) the larger tax credits and (2) faster depreciation write-offs A cancellation clause would reduce the risk to the lessee since the firm would be allowed to terminate the lease at any point. Since the lease is less risky than a standard financial lease, and less risky than straight debt, which cannot usually be prepaid without a prepayment charge, the discount rate on the cost of leasing might be adjusted to reflect lower risk. (Note that this requires increasing the discount rate since cash outflows are being discounted.) The effect on the lessor is just the opposite--risk is increased. (Note that this would also require an increase in the lessor s discount rate.) Answers and Solutions: 20-4 Harcourt, Inc. items and derived items copyright 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
5 SOLUTIONS TO END-OF-CHAPTER PROBLEMS 20-1 a. (1) Reynolds current debt ratio is $400/$800 = 50%. (2) If the company purchased the equipment its balance sheet would look like: Current assets $300 Debt (including lease) $600 Fixed assets 500 Leased equipment 200 Equity $400 Total assets $1,000 Total claims $1,000 Therefore, the company s debt ratio = $600/$1,000 = 60%. (3) If the company leases the asset and does not capitalize the lease, its debt ratio = $400/$800 = 50%. b. The company s financial risk (assuming the implied interest rate on the lease is equivalent to the loan) is no different whether the equipment is leased or purchased Cost of owning: Cost (200) Depreciation shield (200) PV at 6% = -$127. Cost of leasing: After-tax lease payment (66) (66) PV at 6% = -$128. Reynolds should buy the equipment, because the cost of owning is less than the cost of leasing. Harcourt, Inc. items and derived items copyright 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. Answers and Solutions: 20-5
6 20-3 Year I. Cost of Owning: Net purchase price ($1,500,000) Depr. tax savings a $198,000 $270,000 $ 90,000 $ 42,000 Net cash flow ($1,500,000) $198,000 $270,000 $ 90,000 $ 42,000 PV cost of owning at 9% ($ 991,845) II. Cost of Leasing: Lease payment (AT) (240,000) (240,000) (240,000) (240,000) Purch. option price b (250,000) Net cash flow $ 0 ($240,000) ($240,000) ($240,000)($490,000) PV cost of leasing at 9% ($ 954,639) III. Cost Comparison Net advantage to leasing (NAL)= PV cost of owning - PV cost of leasing = $991,845 - $954,639 = $37,206. a Cost of new machinery: $1,500,000. MACRS Deprec. Tax Savings Year Allowance Factor Depreciation T (Depreciation) $495,000 $198, , , ,000 90, ,000 42,000 b Cost of purchasing the machinery after the lease expires. Note that the maintenance expense is excluded from the analysis since Big Sky Mining will have to bear the cost whether it buys or leases the machinery. Since the cost of leasing the machinery is less than the cost of owning it, Big Sky Mining should lease the equipment a. Balance sheets before lease is capitalized: Energen Balance Sheet (Thousands of Dollars) Debt $100 Equity 100 Total assets $200 Total claims $200 Debt/assets ratio = $100/$200 = 50%. Answers and Solutions: 20-6 Harcourt, Inc. items and derived items copyright 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
7 Hastings Corporation Balance Sheet (Thousands of Dollars) Debt $ 50 Equity 100 Total assets $150 Total claims $150 Debt/assets ratio = $50/$150 = 33%. b. Balance sheet after lease is capitalized: Hastings Corporation Balance Sheet (Thousands of Dollars) Assets $150 Debt $ 50 Value of leased asset 50 PV of lease payments 50 Equity 100 Total assets $200 Total claims $200 Debt/assets ratio = $100/$200 = 50%. c. Yes. Net income, as reported, would probably be less under leasing because the lease payment would be larger than the interest expense, both of which are income statement expenses. Additionally, total assets are significantly less under leasing without capitalization. The net result is difficult to predict, but we can state positively that both ROA and ROE are affected by the choice of financing a. Borrow and buy analysis: Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Loan payments (430,731) (430,731) (430,731) Interest tax savings 47,600 33,761 17,985 Depreciation tax savings 112, ,000 51,000 Net cash flow $ 0 $270,931 $243,970 $361,746 PV cost of 9.24% a = ($729,956) Depreciation Schedule b Year Allowance Depreciation $330, , ,000 $930,000 Harcourt, Inc. items and derived items copyright 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. Answers and Solutions: 20-7
8 Loan Amortization Schedule Repayment Beginning of Remaining Year Amount Payment Interest Principal Balance 1 $1,000,000 $430,731 $140,000 $290,731 $709, , ,731 99, ,433 $377, , ,731 52, ,834 2* *Difference due to rounding. Lease analysis: Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Lease payment ($320,000) ($320,000) ($320,000) Payment tax savings 108, , ,800 Mkt Value Machine ( 200,000) c Net cash flow $ 0 ($211,200) ($211,200) ($411,200) PV cost of 9.24% = ($685,752) Notes: a Discount rate = 14% x (1 - T) = 14% x (1-0.34) = 9.24%. b Depreciable basis = Cost = $1,000,000. MACRS allowances = 33%, 45%, 15%. Depreciation tax savings = T(Depreciation). c Cost of purchasing the machinery after the lease expires. Note that since the firm is purchasing the machine at the end of the lease, there are no tax effects due to the residual value (purchase price) being greater than the book value. If we were to assume that the firm would not want to keep the machine beyond the lease term, then we would show the residual value of selling the machine as an inflow under the purchase alternative, and there would be no residual value flow under the lease alternative. In that situation, there would be tax on the residual value from selling the machine: ($200,000 - $70,000)0.34 = $44,200. Note that the maintenance expense is excluded from the analysis since the firm will have to bear the cost whether it buys or leases the machinery. Since the cost of leasing the machinery is less than the cost of owning it ($729,956 - $685,752 = $44,204), the firm should lease the equipment. b. We assume that the company will buy the equipment at the end of 3 years if the lease plan is used; hence, the $200,000 is an added cost under leasing. We discounted it at 9.24 percent, but it is risky, so should we use a higher rate? If we do, leasing looks even better. However, it really makes more sense in this instance to use a lower rate to discount the residual value so as to penalize the lease decision, because the residual value uncertainty increases the uncertainty of operations under the lease alternative. In general, for risk-averse decision makers, it makes intuitive sense to discount more risky future inflows at a higher rate, but risky future outflows at a lower rate. (Note that if the firm did not plan to continue using the equipment, then the $200,000 salvage value should be a negative (inflow) value in the lease analysis. In that case, it would be appropriate to use a higher discount rate.) Answers and Solutions: 20-8 Harcourt, Inc. items and derived items copyright 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
9 SOLUTION TO SPREADSHEET PROBLEMS 20-6 The detailed solution for the problem is available both on the instructor s resource CD-ROM (in the file Solution for Ch 20-6 Build a Model.xls) and on the instructor s side of the Harcourt College Publishers web site, a. Depreciation Schedule Year Allowance Depreciation $13, , , ,800 $40, Net cost ($40,000) Lease (AT) 6,900 $ 6,900 $ 6,900 $ 6,900 Maintenance (AT) (600) (600) (600) (600) Depreciation shield 5,280 7,200 2,400 $ 1,120 SV 10,000 SV tax* (4,000) Net CF ($33,700) $11,580 $13,500 $ 8,700 $ 7,120 *(SV - BV)T = ($10,000 - $0)(0.40) = $4,000. The NPV of the net cash flows, when discounted at 9%(1-0.40) = 5.4%, is $2,638. b. Yes. The positive NPV indicates that the lease will provide a return greater than that provided by alternative investments of similar risk. c. The NPV to the lessor falls to -$353 at an after-tax discount rate of 16%(0.6) = 9.6%. This negative NPV leads to a reject decision. d. A lease payment of $11,668 would cause the lessor to be indifferent to the leasing arrangement at a 16 percent before-tax lending rate. e. Best case NPV: $5,069 with $15,000 residual value. Worst case NPV: $207 with $5,000 residual value. A residual discount factor of 38 percent (before-tax) forces the NPV to equal zero. Solution to Spreadsheet Problems: 20-9
10 CYBERPROBLEM 20-8 The detailed solution for the cyberproblem is available on the instructor s side of the Harcourt College Publishers web site: Solution to Cyberproblem 20-10
11 Harcourt, Inc. items and derived items copyright 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. Mini Case: 20-11
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