Multiple sentences. 2. Some definitions To begin with, here is an exercise (which is not in the workbook):

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Multiple sentences. 2. Some definitions To begin with, here is an exercise (which is not in the workbook):"

Transcription

1 Multiple sentences 1. Introduction Last time, we looked at constituent order and its role in relation to the underlying participant role structures, or scenarios, of sentence patterns. And we also discussed the following principles and their influence on constituent order: fixed word order end-focus end-weight thematization fronting Today, we are going to stay within the world of advanced syntax, as we take a closer look at a related syntactic issue namely, multiple sentences: sentences that contain more than one clause. 2. Some definitions To begin with, here is an exercise (which is not in the workbook): Identify the clauses in each of the sentences below: a) Today I say to you that the challenges we face are real. b) They are serious and they are many. c) They will not be met easily or in a short span of time. d) On this day, we gather because we have chosen hope over fear, unity of purpose over conflict and discord. e) The time has come to reaffirm our enduring spirit; to choose our better history; to carry forward that precious gift, that noble idea, passed on from generation to generation The book operates with a set of terms to classify types of sentences in terms of the clauses they contain, and, in addition, two sets of terms that classify types of clauses. 2.1 Types of sentence The first set of terms divides sentences into categories based on their inner complexity: simple sentence: a sentence consisting of one clause (1) multiple sentence: a sentence consisting of two or more clauses compound sentence: a sentence which coordinates two or more clauses (2) complex sentence: a sentence which contains of clauses embedded in the sentence (3) Here are some examples (clauses are indicated by square brackets): (1) [The ninja killed an ant] (2) [The ninja killed an ant] and [the superhero saved the city] (3) [Boba Fett wanted [to kill Han Solo, [who was not able [to see him] [because he had been encased in carbonite]]]] Coordination and subordination may of course also be combined in what the book, a bit clumsily, 1

2 calls mixed types: (4) [The students are happy] [[because they all passed the final exams] and [because they now have great jobs]]. 2.2 Types of clause The next set of terms has to do with the structure and form of clauses (i.e. it is a typology of structural categories of clauses): finite clause: a clause which is specified in terms of tense, thus containing an operator, and also typically contains a subject (5) reduced clause: a clause where something is missing non-finite clause: a clause that does not contain an operator, and is thus non-finite, and may or may not contain an operator (6) verbless clause: a clause in which the verb has been dropped altogether and which may or may not contain a subject (7) (5) [She was injured, [which was not so good]] (6) [He was just about [to cry like a baby]] (7) [John cried like a baby] and [Jill like a monkey] The other typology of clauses is functionally based (i.e. it is a typology of functional categories of clauses): nominal clause: the clause takes up a syntactic function typically realized by a noun phrase, such as subject, object, complement, and prepositional complement (8) adverbial clause: the clause takes up the syntactic function of adverbial (9) modifying clause: the clause modifies a noun, adjective or adverb (10) (8) a. [Getting killed by Nazis] is not my idea of fun! Dr. Jones said. (S) b. You tell me [that you made this yourself]? (DO) c. He gave [chasing Amy] another chance. (IO) d. The question is [whether you are ready to become a Jedi]. (SC) e. Maybe you consider it [being cool], but I consider it [being stupid] (OC) f. Let me tell you about the hardships of [becoming a member of the Black Tiger Ninja Clan]. (PC) g. It's stupid [to think that one can kill the bother of Badulah] (real S) h. I consider it stupid [to think you can kill the brother of Badulah] (real O) (9) a. [Saying that a pig with lipstick is still a pig], Obama may have deliberately insulted Sarah Palin b. [If you think you're so smart], why don't you solve the problem, mister?! c. You can sleep [when you're old] (10) a. My sword will send you to [the man [who lives upstairs]] (in NP) b. The woman was [even more beautiful [than I remembered]]. (in AdjP) c. He ran so [fast [that I couldn't keep up with him]] (AdvP) 2

3 3. Compound sentences Compound sentences contain clauses which are coordinated syndetically (i.e. via a coordinating conjunction) or, rare though it is, asyndetically. (11) a. Jack was there, and Jill was there. (syndetic coordination) b. They came, they saw, they were victorious. (asyndetic coordination) c. Jack was there, Jill was there, and Bob was there (syndetic coordination) 3.1 Ellipsis in compound sentences It is said that compound sentences contain clauses that may appear independently. Yet, ellipsis of the subject (or the verb) is possible in the non-first clauses, and the question is then: can they really appear on their own with a missing subject or a missing verb?: (12) a. They ate food and [ø] drank wine *Drank wine b. He uses a sword, and I [ø] an axe *I an axe 3.2 Coordinating conjunctions and semantic relationships As the term coordination indicates, coordinated clauses in a compound sentence are at the same structural level (i.e. they are not subordinate to each other) this is also called parataxis. Parataxis is indeed the main structural function of coordinating conjunctions, but that is not all. Coordinating conjunctions also express semantic relationships between the coordinated clauses. For instance, 'and expresses addition, 'but' expresses contrast, and 'or' expresses alternative. (13) a. I want Coca Cola and I want Pepsi b. I don't want Coca Cola but I want Pepsi c. Do you want Coca Cola or do you want Pepsi? Note that in some cases, coordinated clauses follow a certain underlying logical order, such as, say, a chronology of events, which determines the linear order of the syntactic coordination: (14) a. He got into his car, started the car, and drove out of town b.?he drove out of town, ignited his car, and got into the car This is actually an example of iconicity (when the form of a sign imitates the content of the sign) in that the underlying chronology of events is reflected in the syntactic coordination of clauses. 4. Complex sentences Complex sentences contain clauses that are embedded in the main clause (i.e. what is left if you remove all subordinate clauses, or subclauses) and are thus subordinate to the main clause this is also called hypotaxis. Quite often subclauses are linked, as it were, to the main clause, through what the book calls a linking device. 4.1 Linking devices Linking devices are grammatical forms which, appearing at the beginning of the clause, link the subclause to the main clause. English makes use of the following types of linking devices. Subordinating conjunctions such as 'as', 'if', 'when', 'after', while', 'that', 'because', 'as if', 'as 3

4 though', 'inasmuch as' etc. (note, some of these are tricky, because they may also be prepositions). Their main syntactic function is hypotaxis, but they also express semantic relationships. For instance, 'as', 'because', and 'inasmuch as' express reason or cause, and 'if' expresses condition or cause. 'After' expresses posteriority in time and 'while' expresses simultaneity in time. Of course, many of these are polysemous and may express more than one type of relationship. relatives such as 'who', 'which', 'that' etc. Note that these are not subordinating conjunctions but take up syntactic functions like S, O, PC etc. interrogatives: such as 'which', 'how', 'who', 'why' etc. These also take up syntactic functions rather than being subordinating conjunctions Now, let us do this exercise (10.5 in the workbook): Clauses cannot be used independently. They are embedded in a sentence of another clause and linked to this sentence or clause by means of linking devices. Use the examples below to explain what can be used as a linking device (that is, in the examples below, identify and explain the linking devices used). a) She wondered [who had sent the flowers] b) I did it [because he told me to] c) He described the report [which he had handed in lase week] d) They asked us [how they could get there] e) [When told by the police how badly injured his victims were], he said [that he was shocked] f) She walked into the kitchen, [where we were waiting for her] g) I don't know [if they have left] 4.2 Structural categories revisited: types on non-finite clause There are basically three types of non-finite clause, which are based on the three major non-finite clause forms: present participial clauses: first or only element in the predicator is a present participle past participial clauses: first or only element in the predicator is a past participle infinitive clauses: first or only element in the predicator is an infinitive Here are some examples of the non-finite clause types in English: (15) Present participal clauses a. [[Puking like a sick man], he regretted [having drunk so much alcohol]] (implied subjects) b. [I heard [Jack and Jill arriving late last night in a rattling old car, [Jill making strange monkey noises]]] (explicit subjects) 4

5 (16) Past participal clauses a. [[Shot through the heart], you give love a bad name] (implied subject) b. [Another word out of you], and [I'll have [you shot like a dog]] (explicit subject) (17) Infinitive clauses a. [I like [to move it]] ('to'-infinitive, implied subject) b. [They want [me to do something terrible]] ('to'-infinitive, explicit subject) c. [All I wanna do is [have some fun]] (bare infinitive, implied subject) d. [I thought [I heard you cry]] (bare infinitive, explicit subject) Now, let us do exercise (10.7) in the workbook: Indicate which structural category the bracketed clauses below belong to. a) A second problem with a firewall system is [that is concentrates security in one spot] b) He ran into the hallway, [leaving wet footprints behind him] c) He was proud [that the magazine had published one of his stories] d) I saw [him leave a few minutes ago] e) [Angry and upset], he didn't know [what to say] f) The defendant remained impassive [as the judge described him as a menace to society] g) Officers observed [him driving 90 miles per hour] h) [To be frank], George isn't very good at the job. i) John had [his nose broken in a fight] j) [The platform empty once more], I settled down for the night. k) We don't know [if Ronaldo will be fit to play in Saturday's game]. l) We phoned our friends [to warn them of the coming storm] m) A resident spotted a man [sitting in the car] n) The minister, [known for playing his hand close to his vest], declined to comment o) It was too dark [for her to see anything] p) [Being prepared for meetings] saves time q) The bereaved mother stood by her son's grave, [her eyes flooded with tears] 5. Functional categories I have mentioned the functional categories, and, provided there is time for it, let us do exercises 10.9 and in the workbook now. 5

Fry Instant Word List

Fry Instant Word List First 100 Instant Words the had out than of by many first and words then water a but them been to not these called in what so who is all some oil you were her sit that we would now it when make find he

More information

What is a sentence? What is a sentence? What is a sentence? Morphology & Syntax Sentences

What is a sentence? What is a sentence? What is a sentence? Morphology & Syntax Sentences 2 What is a sentence? Morphology & Syntax Sentences Sentence as a informational-discursive unit A complete thought, generally including a topic and a comment about the topic Boys are naughtier. Boys will

More information

ELT Grammar Text. Chapter 1 Parts of Speech

ELT Grammar Text. Chapter 1 Parts of Speech ELT Grammar Text Chapter 1 Parts of Speech There are eight word classes in English, sometimes called parts of speech. Here is a list with some examples from the passage above. Word class Verb: Noun: Adjective:

More information

Non-finite forms of the verb. Lecture 13

Non-finite forms of the verb. Lecture 13 Non-finite forms of the verb Lecture 13 The verb is a grammatical class of words It denotes situations and establishes the relation between the situation reported and the extralinguistic reality. Therefore

More information

Developing the Complete Sentence

Developing the Complete Sentence A complete sentence has a subject and a verb. It is also called a clause. Subjects and verbs do specific things in sentences. Persons Subjects (nouns) Places do an action in a sentence. Things Verbs a)

More information

Grammar III. Punctuation and Syntax. Bradius V. Maurus III

Grammar III. Punctuation and Syntax. Bradius V. Maurus III Grammar III Punctuation and Syntax Bradius V. Maurus III Posnaniae 2006 by the author The Phrase and the Clause A phrase is a group of words. For example, prepositional phrases, participial phrases, infinitive

More information

Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words

Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words The Fry list of 600 words are the most frequently used words for reading and writing. The words are listed in rank order. First Hundred Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group

More information

NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES

NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES Universidad de Los Andes Facultad de Humanidades y Educación Escuela de Idiomas Modernos NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES In English, as in many other languages in the world, individual words

More information

English Grammar. A Short Guide. Graham Tulloch

English Grammar. A Short Guide. Graham Tulloch English Grammar A Short Guide Graham Tulloch This book was prepared in the English Discipline of the Flinders University of South Australia and printed by Flinders Press. 1990 Graham Tulloch FURTHER READING

More information

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Language is used to communicate with other people. People need to study how to use language especially foreign language. Language can be study in linguistic

More information

A Note About Commas Before We Begin

A Note About Commas Before We Begin COURT REPORTING: Bad Grammar/ Good Punctuation mww@margiewakemanwells.com 1 A Note About Commas Before We Begin 2 Commas that separate. Commas that set off. 3 1 I live in Culver City, California. It was

More information

Ling 201 Syntax 1. Jirka Hana April 10, 2006

Ling 201 Syntax 1. Jirka Hana April 10, 2006 Overview of topics What is Syntax? Word Classes What to remember and understand: Ling 201 Syntax 1 Jirka Hana April 10, 2006 Syntax, difference between syntax and semantics, open/closed class words, all

More information

Phrases. Phrases. Phrase Structure. Phrase Structure Rules. Phrases. Phrases

Phrases. Phrases. Phrase Structure. Phrase Structure Rules. Phrases. Phrases Phrases Phrases 1. The Phrase 1. The Noun Phrase (NP) 2. The Adjective Phrase (AdjP) and Adverb Phrase (AdvP) 3. The Verb Phrase (VP) 4. The Prepositional Phrase (PP) 2. Phrases in the Sentence 3. Coordination

More information

Mistakes that students of English Language make in using adverbial clauses of time

Mistakes that students of English Language make in using adverbial clauses of time Mistakes that students of English Language make in using adverbial clauses of time Teuta Agaj Abstract To know a language does not only mean to know its vocabulary, but how to link the words, the word

More information

Fry Instant Phrases. Give them to me. Then we will go.

Fry Instant Phrases. Give them to me. Then we will go. Fry Instant Phrases The words in these phrases come from Dr. Edward Fry s Instant Word List (High Frequency Words). According to Fry, the first 300 words in the list represent about 67% of all the words

More information

Fry Phrases Set 1. TeacherHelpForParents.com help for all areas of your child s education

Fry Phrases Set 1. TeacherHelpForParents.com help for all areas of your child s education Set 1 The people Write it down By the water Who will make it? You and I What will they do? He called me. We had their dog. What did they say? When would you go? No way A number of people One or two How

More information

Diagramming Review. WJHS 8 th Grade English 29 April 2013

Diagramming Review. WJHS 8 th Grade English 29 April 2013 Diagramming Review WJHS 8 th Grade English 29 April 2013 Sentence Basics The subject of the sentence is the person or thing is performing the action of the sentence or is being described by the sentence.

More information

Using Positive Reinforcement to Increase Connectedness

Using Positive Reinforcement to Increase Connectedness Using Positive Reinforcement to Increase Connectedness Part 1 About Knee-Jerk Reactions Time Required: 3 minutes Relationships between parents and teens are full of emotions like laughter, joy, fear, anger,

More information

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Part of Speech Part of speech is word classification based on their function. Sherlock (2012, p.12) says that there are eight kinds of part of speech in English namely

More information

3.1 Grammatical Units

3.1 Grammatical Units Lengua Inglesa II 2009-2010 Topic 3: Grammatical Units Subtopic 1: Units and Boundaries Subtopic 2: The Noun Phrase Mick O Donnell VI-bis 302 michael.odonnell@uam.es 1. Units and rank scale Unit: any stretch

More information

Grammar Core Sentence Parts

Grammar Core Sentence Parts Grammar Core Sentence Parts Simple Subject: noun or pronoun in the sentence that answers the question who? or what? Simple Predicate: the verb/verb phrase in the sentence that answers the question did

More information

Sentences: Types, and Common Mistakes

Sentences: Types, and Common Mistakes Sentences: Types, and Common Mistakes Sentences are classified as simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex. This designation is based on the clauses used to create the sentence. Clauses: Every clause

More information

According to the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges, in the Celestial Emporium of Benevolent Knowledge, animals are divided

According to the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges, in the Celestial Emporium of Benevolent Knowledge, animals are divided Categories Categories According to the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges, in the Celestial Emporium of Benevolent Knowledge, animals are divided into 1 2 Categories those that belong to the Emperor embalmed

More information

Parts of Speech, Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences Foundation Lesson

Parts of Speech, Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences Foundation Lesson Parts of Speech, Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences Foundation Lesson Skill Focus Materials and Resources Foundation Lesson: Sentence Structure Basics Composition Foundation Lesson: Writer s Workshop Using

More information

Lecture Nonfinite Verb Phrases Infinitive Phrases. English 3318: Studies in English Grammar. Dr. Svetlana Nuernberg

Lecture Nonfinite Verb Phrases Infinitive Phrases. English 3318: Studies in English Grammar. Dr. Svetlana Nuernberg Lecture 23-24 English 3318: Studies in English Grammar Nonfinite Verb Phrases Infinitive Phrases Dr. Svetlana Nuernberg Objectives Identify Infinitive Phrases Recognize infinitives with or without to and

More information

Adjective, Adverb, Noun Clauses. Gerund,Participial and Infinitive Phrases. English Department

Adjective, Adverb, Noun Clauses. Gerund,Participial and Infinitive Phrases. English Department Adjective, Adverb, Noun Clauses Gerund,Participial and Infinitive Phrases Jafar Asgari English Department Kashan University of Medical Sciences Structure of Complex Sentences Every Complex sentence is

More information

Verbals. Gerunds Infinitives Participles

Verbals. Gerunds Infinitives Participles Verbals Gerunds Infinitives Participles Gerunds A Gerund is a verbal that ends in ing and functions as a noun (S, SC, DO, APP, OP). Gerund as subject: Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences.

More information

I was finishing to write a new article for my work when I received a call from my friend. She said that she had an idea for me to make a new article w

I was finishing to write a new article for my work when I received a call from my friend. She said that she had an idea for me to make a new article w I was finishing to write a new article for my work when I received a call from my friend. She said that she had an idea for me to make a new article which can make the first page of London's newspaper.

More information

Analytical Grammar Pre/Post Test

Analytical Grammar Pre/Post Test Analytical Grammar Pre/Post Test Name Season One: 1. In the following sentence: I really enjoyed the basketball game. What part of speech is the word BASKETBALL? a. verb b. adjective c. noun d. article

More information

The parts of speech: the basic labels

The parts of speech: the basic labels CHAPTER 1 The parts of speech: the basic labels The Western traditional parts of speech began with the works of the Greeks and then the Romans. The Greek tradition culminated in the first century B.C.

More information

Phrases and Clauses. Walton College of Business Writing Center

Phrases and Clauses. Walton College of Business Writing Center Phrases and Clauses Walton College of Business Writing Center What is a Clause? A clause is a group of words that contains both a subject and a verb. Each of the following samples is a clause: The toddler

More information

PUSD High Frequency Word List

PUSD High Frequency Word List PUSD High Frequency Word List For Reading and Spelling Grades K-5 High Frequency or instant words are important because: 1. You can t read a sentence or a paragraph without knowing at least the most common.

More information

L130: Chapter 5d. Dr. Shannon Bischoff. Dr. Shannon Bischoff () L130: Chapter 5d 1 / 25

L130: Chapter 5d. Dr. Shannon Bischoff. Dr. Shannon Bischoff () L130: Chapter 5d 1 / 25 L130: Chapter 5d Dr. Shannon Bischoff Dr. Shannon Bischoff () L130: Chapter 5d 1 / 25 Outline 1 Syntax 2 Clauses 3 Constituents Dr. Shannon Bischoff () L130: Chapter 5d 2 / 25 Outline Last time... Verbs...

More information

Superstars Building Fry List Fluency

Superstars Building Fry List Fluency Sight Word Superstars Building Fry List Fluency By Jennifer Bates http://finallyinfirst.blogspot.com/ How I use this program I developed this program because I noticed many of my students were still trying

More information

word phrase clause - while he was studying chemistry - the man standing over there - space Clause

word phrase clause - while he was studying chemistry - the man standing over there - space Clause word phrase clause - while he was studying chemistry - the man standing over there - space Clause -Where she went is none of your business. -An antecedent is a word to which a pronoun refers. - The man

More information

Summary of Basic Grammar

Summary of Basic Grammar Page 1 of 8 Summary of Basic Grammar Prepared by Marjorie D. Lewis Part of Speech Noun = naming words Forms that can function as nouns: Common noun: names a thing (house), person (man), or concept (love)

More information

ACCUPLACER ESL Language Use Test. Answers and Explanations

ACCUPLACER ESL Language Use Test. Answers and Explanations ACCUPLACER ESL Language Use Test Answers and Explanations The ESL Language Use test measures your proficiency in using correct grammar in English sentences. There are five content areas measured on this

More information

Sentence structure

Sentence structure Semester III Group B Grammar 3 Mrs. Skirdj Sentence structure The subject is a noun, noun phrase or pronoun representing the person or thing that performs the action of the verb. There are two types of

More information

Ling 130 Notes: English syntax

Ling 130 Notes: English syntax Ling 130 Notes: English syntax Sophia A. Malamud March 13, 2014 1 Introduction: syntactic composition A formal language is a set of strings - finite sequences of minimal units (words/morphemes, for natural

More information

Getting a Sense of the Sentence

Getting a Sense of the Sentence Getting a Sense of the Sentence The purpose of this handout is to give you a brief overview of what a correct sentence is and how to write different types of correct sentences. Definition of a Correct

More information

Talking about the past Past Simple

Talking about the past Past Simple Talking about the past Past Simple We use the Past Simple to talk about something that happened and finished in the past, a completed action. We usually say or know when the action happened. The moment

More information

I have eaten. The plums that were in the ice box

I have eaten. The plums that were in the ice box in the Sentence 2 What is a grammatical category? A word with little meaning, e.g., Determiner, Quantifier, Auxiliary, Cood Coordinator, ato,a and dco Complementizer pe e e What is a lexical category?

More information

JESUS HEALS A MAN WITH LEPROSY mark 1:40-45

JESUS HEALS A MAN WITH LEPROSY mark 1:40-45 JESUS HEALS A MAN WITH LEPROSY mark 1:40-45 A man with leprosy knelt down in front of Jesus. He begged Jesus to heal him. People with leprosy had to stay away from other people. They could not live with

More information

The Structure of English Language - Clause Functions

The Structure of English Language - Clause Functions Coordinate The Structure of English Language - Clause Functions Coordinate subordinate adverbial adjectival The simplest sentences may contain a single clause. (Simple is a standard description of one

More information

Verb Lists: Infinitives and Gerunds Principles of Composition

Verb Lists: Infinitives and Gerunds Principles of Composition Verb Lists: Infinitives and Gerunds Principles of Composition Verbs Followed by an Infinitive agree aim appear arrange ask attempt be able beg begin care choose condescend consent continue dare decide

More information

Phrase Structure. A formal hypothesis for representing constituency

Phrase Structure. A formal hypothesis for representing constituency Phrase Structure A formal hypothesis for representing constituency Constituents are hierarchically organized TP NP VP The man eats at fancy restaurants. D N V PP the man eats P at AdjP Adj fancy NP N restaurants

More information

ENGELSKA NIVÅTEST (1) Medel Sid 1(7)

ENGELSKA NIVÅTEST (1) Medel Sid 1(7) Medel Sid 1(7) Namn: Poäng: Nivå : Adress: Tel: Complete each sentence with one item from those given below. Use each item once only. Note: Each question has One mark. You must have all words in the correct

More information

Quick and Handy Grammar Review: Adverb Clauses 2. Time words and phrases chart 2-3

Quick and Handy Grammar Review: Adverb Clauses 2. Time words and phrases chart 2-3 Table of Contents Quick and Handy Grammar Review: Adverb Clauses 2 Time words and phrases chart 2-3 Exercise 1: Error Correction. Correct the errors in the sentences. 4 Exercise 2: Insert the correct adverb

More information

I / He / They me / him / them

I / He / They me / him / them Day 1 2 English Grammar Upgrade S1 Date: Personal pronouns Lesson 1: I / He / They me / him / them Time limit: 15 min 1. A pronoun is a word that stands instead of a noun. Examples of personal pronouns

More information

Dear Billy, Dear mother,

Dear Billy, Dear mother, Dear Billy, I am writing to let you know how much I am missing you. I have some good news. I am going to be an auntie. I am so excited about finding out what my sister is having. I am very proud of you,

More information

Lecture 19. Finite Verb Clauses I Part II Adjective clauses. English 3318: Studies in English Grammar. Dr. Svetlana Nuernberg

Lecture 19. Finite Verb Clauses I Part II Adjective clauses. English 3318: Studies in English Grammar. Dr. Svetlana Nuernberg Lecture 19 English 3318: Studies in English Grammar Finite Verb Clauses I Part II Adjective clauses Dr. Svetlana Nuernberg Objectives Distinguish between subordinate and relative dependent clauses Identify

More information

Combined Fragments, Run-ons, and Comma Splices S-1

Combined Fragments, Run-ons, and Comma Splices S-1 Definition: What is a fragment? A fragment is an incomplete sentence. It does not express a complete thought. A group of words must not depend on the sentence before it or after it to provide a complete

More information

Table of Contents INTRODUCTION... 3 SUBJECT AND VERB... 4 OBJECTS AND COMPLEMENTS... 5 ADVERBS, ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES...

Table of Contents INTRODUCTION... 3 SUBJECT AND VERB... 4 OBJECTS AND COMPLEMENTS... 5 ADVERBS, ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES... Pg. 2 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION... 3 SUBJECT AND VERB... 4 OBJECTS AND COMPLEMENTS... 5 ADVERBS, ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES... 6 GENITIVES AND DATIVES... 7 APPOSITIONAL CONSTRUCTIONS...

More information

Module 4 Simple, compound and complex sentences

Module 4 Simple, compound and complex sentences Module 4 Simple, compound and complex sentences Aim This module highlights the difference between compound and complex sentences. It also shows a variety of ways in which complex sentences can be constructed.

More information

Grammar Goal Sheets. 3. My dog Sally is (cute) than my dog Rascal. Is Michael Jordan (famous) than Kobe Bryant?

Grammar Goal Sheets. 3. My dog Sally is (cute) than my dog Rascal. Is Michael Jordan (famous) than Kobe Bryant? Grammar Goal Sheets 1. Correct the following sentences. (Subject-Verb Agreement) The girls jumps up and down. The boy tell his mom he was sleepy. 2. A. past She jumped to the next step. B. present Mom

More information

Participle clauses (1)

Participle clauses (1) Participle clauses (1) (- ing - ed and being - ed ) We can give information about someone or something using an -ing, past participle (-ed) or being + past participle (-ed) clause after a noun. These clauses

More information

Syntax: Phrases. 1. The phrase

Syntax: Phrases. 1. The phrase Syntax: Phrases Sentences can be divided into phrases. A phrase is a group of words forming a unit and united around a head, the most important part of the phrase. The head can be a noun NP, a verb VP,

More information

Checklist for Recognizing Complete Verbs

Checklist for Recognizing Complete Verbs Checklist for Recognizing Complete Verbs Use the following six guidelines to help you determine if a word or group of words is a verb. 1. A complete verb tells time by changing form. This is the number

More information

talking about the past

talking about the past talking about the past simple the past The simple past tense in regular verbs is formed by adding ed to the infinitive (workworked). But there are some irregular verbs that must be learnt. The past simple

More information

Adjective Clauses transcript

Adjective Clauses transcript Adjective Clauses transcript So, adjective clauses. How many of you know what adjective clauses are? Raise your hand if you know. We have one person. Sandra is the only one who knows what adjective clauses

More information

Past tenses practice. Past tenses While, during, for Passive Prepositions in, at, on for time Adverbs.

Past tenses practice. Past tenses While, during, for Passive Prepositions in, at, on for time Adverbs. Past tenses practice Past tenses While, during, for Passive Prepositions in, at, on for time Adverbs Past Simple or Past Continuous? Choose the correct form of the verb. She read/ was reading quietly in

More information

b- Why do I promise? (in order) to make you happy Please note the comma, which indicates a pause.

b- Why do I promise? (in order) to make you happy Please note the comma, which indicates a pause. KEY 1 ENGLISH GRAMMAR WORKSHEET # 7: WORD ORDER A. Explain grammatically the difference in meaning between 1. a. He went forward to welcome her. b. He looked forward to welcoming her. a- He went forward

More information

Participle / Participial / Converb/ Coverb

Participle / Participial / Converb/ Coverb Participle / Participial / Converb/ Coverb A participle is a non-finite form of the verb that can be used either as a verb or an adjective. If you re-called, we must have learned in Morphology that the

More information

Animal Farm: An Abridged Text

Animal Farm: An Abridged Text Animal Farm: An Abridged Text 5256 Introduction to Animal Farm Animal Farm is a novel. It is a famous story. Animal Farm was written by George Orwell in 1945. Mr Orwell went to a farm. He saw a boy walking

More information

Past form of Verb To Be

Past form of Verb To Be Past form of Verb To Be A) Fill in the blanks. Use WAS / WERE: 1. Martin and Sam were ill yesterday. 2. The weather.. very cold last year. 3. My brother and my father.. at the cinema last night. 4. Benson..

More information

DRAW SOME MORE TOYS FOR THEM TO PLAY WITH

DRAW SOME MORE TOYS FOR THEM TO PLAY WITH BIBLE LESSON 8 1. Genesis 16 Abraham and Sarah were very sad. They didn't have any children! No little boys to run and play with, no little girls to dance and pick flowers with. One day Abraham decided

More information

Language and Mind Prof. Rajesh Kumar Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Language and Mind Prof. Rajesh Kumar Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Language and Mind Prof. Rajesh Kumar Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 06 Lecture - 28 Sentence Semantic Relations We are looking at sentences

More information

Sentence Fragments. Part I: Finding the Subject

Sentence Fragments. Part I: Finding the Subject Sentences Fragments Sentence Fragments Every well-formed sentence in English must have a subject (what the sentence is about) and a predicate (what is being said about the subject). A sentence fragment

More information

LESSON TITLE: Jesus Heals Blind Bartimaeus

LESSON TITLE: Jesus Heals Blind Bartimaeus Devotion NT257 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: Jesus Heals Blind Bartimaeus THEME: Jesus always has time for us! SCRIPTURE: Mark 10:46-52 Dear Parents Welcome to Bible Time for Kids!

More information

Grammar Imitation Lessons: Simple Sentences

Grammar Imitation Lessons: Simple Sentences Name: Block: Date: Grammar Imitation Lessons: Simple Sentences This week we will be learning about simple sentences with a focus on subject-verb agreement. Follow along as we go through the PowerPoint

More information

Using the Passive Voice: (Part 2)

Using the Passive Voice: (Part 2) Success Center Directed Learning Activity (DLA) Using the Passive Voice: (Part 2) G020.1 Directed Learning Activity Using the Passive Voice (Part Two) Description: In this Directed Learning Activity (DLA),

More information

Las Vegas High School 2010-11 Writing Workshop. Combining Sentences

Las Vegas High School 2010-11 Writing Workshop. Combining Sentences Las Vegas High School 2010-11 Writing Workshop Combining Sentences If you continually use short sentences in your writing, your paragraphs will sound very choppy. Read this paragraph and notice how it

More information

Clauses in a complex sentence are joined either by co-ordination or by subordination.

Clauses in a complex sentence are joined either by co-ordination or by subordination. The Complex Sentence Co-ordinate Clauses Clauses in a complex sentence are joined either by co-ordination or by subordination. In co-ordination the constituent clauses are on the same level, i.e. they

More information

FRAGMENTS. Let's take at a complete sentence with a subordinating conjunction in front of it.

FRAGMENTS. Let's take at a complete sentence with a subordinating conjunction in front of it. There are basically two kinds of fragments: FRAGMENTS 1. A complete sentence with a subordinating conjunction in front of it. 2. A word group without a subject or verb. Let's take at a complete sentence

More information

CRAZY BEAUTIFUL LIFE (Callaghan/ Matkosky)

CRAZY BEAUTIFUL LIFE (Callaghan/ Matkosky) CRAZY BEAUTIFUL LIFE (Callaghan/ Matkosky) Here we are You and me and we got nothing to do It's a perfect day, shining all around us The sky's never been so blue Here we go, walking on sunshine Every step,

More information

SPAG. Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar. Glossary for Parents

SPAG. Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar. Glossary for Parents SPAG Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar Glossary for Parents Exclamation mark: an exclamation mark is used at the end of a sentence to indicate strong emotion, e.g. Get out! Finite verb: the finite verb

More information

Compound Sentences and Coordination

Compound Sentences and Coordination Compound Sentences and Coordination Mary Westervelt Reference: Ann Hogue (2003) The Essentials of English: A Writer s Handbook. New York, Pearson Education, Inc. When two sentences are combined in a way

More information

Sentence Structure/Sentence Types HANDOUT

Sentence Structure/Sentence Types HANDOUT Sentence Structure/Sentence Types HANDOUT This handout is designed to give you a very brief (and, of necessity, incomplete) overview of the different types of sentence structure and how the elements of

More information

Reported speech: On the other hand, if the reporting verb is in the past tense, then usually we change the tenses in the reported speech:

Reported speech: On the other hand, if the reporting verb is in the past tense, then usually we change the tenses in the reported speech: Reported Speech Reported Statements When do we use reported speech? Sometimes someone says a sentence, for example "I'm going to the cinema tonight". Later, maybe we want to tell someone else what the

More information

TERMS. Parts of Speech

TERMS. Parts of Speech TERMS Parts of Speech Noun: a word that names a person, place, thing, quality, or idea (examples: Maggie, Alabama, clarinet, satisfaction, socialism). Pronoun: a word used in place of a noun (examples:

More information

Proficiency Evaluation Test Intermediate to Advanced

Proficiency Evaluation Test Intermediate to Advanced Proficiency Evaluation Test Intermediate to Advanced Name I. Grammar / Vocabulary II. Reading Comprehension III. Writing Sample IV. Conversation / Interview Directions for the Tutor: Allow the participant

More information

The Basics of Syntax. Supplementary Readings. Introduction. Lexical Categories. Phrase Structure Rules. Introducing Noun Phrases. Some Further Details

The Basics of Syntax. Supplementary Readings. Introduction. Lexical Categories. Phrase Structure Rules. Introducing Noun Phrases. Some Further Details The following readings have been posted to the Moodle course site: Language Files: Chapter 5 (pp. 194-198, 204-215) Language Instinct: Chapter 4 (pp. 74-99) The System Thus Far The Fundamental Question:

More information

A DESPERATE CRY TO GOD FOR HEALING

A DESPERATE CRY TO GOD FOR HEALING Explanatory Notes: A DESPERATE CRY TO GOD FOR HEALING Bible verses: Psalm 6 NIrV Introduction: Are you in good health today? Most people greet each other with the question, How are you? We are happy when

More information

Excellence in Business Communication, 12e (Thill/Bovee) Chapter 17 Handbook of Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage

Excellence in Business Communication, 12e (Thill/Bovee) Chapter 17 Handbook of Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage Excellence in Business Communication, 12e (Thill/Bovee) Chapter 17 Handbook of Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 1) Which of the following is a demonstrative pronoun? A) he B) this C) who D) anyone E) either

More information

Grade 3 ELA Unit 1 Pretest (Teacher Edition) Assessment ID: dna.11008 ib.146131. The Bundle of Sticks

Grade 3 ELA Unit 1 Pretest (Teacher Edition) Assessment ID: dna.11008 ib.146131. The Bundle of Sticks Directions: Read the passage below and answer the question(s) that follow. The Bundle of Sticks A dying old man called his sons around him to give them some last advice. He ordered them to bring in a bundle

More information

Adjectives, adverbs, adverbials L I L I P R E K U P

Adjectives, adverbs, adverbials L I L I P R E K U P Adjectives, adverbs, adverbials L I L I P R E K U P Adjectives 1. Two major functions of adjectives Attributive Predicative lonely people a hot day this excellent play They seem lonely. It is hot. I found

More information

Phrases & Clauses. Source URL: Saylor URL:

Phrases & Clauses. Source URL:  Saylor URL: Phrases & Clauses Source URL: http://serrano.wikispaces.com/chapter+4+and+5,+clauses+and+phrases Saylor URL: www.saylor.org/courses/k12ela007#7.4.1.2 Attributed to: WikiSpaces www.saylor.org Phrases a

More information

BIG MAC & LITTLE DIPPER. The Stair Case. Danielle Bruckert

BIG MAC & LITTLE DIPPER. The Stair Case. Danielle Bruckert BIG MAC & LITTLE DIPPER The Stair Case Danielle Bruckert PUBLISHERS NOTE: MAC and DIPPER Series Produced by Red Sky Ventures Written By Danielle Bruckert Copyright 2005 BETA Version 2005 Version 1 2009

More information

Romeo & Juliet. by William Shakespeare -1-

Romeo & Juliet. by William Shakespeare -1- Romeo & Juliet by William Shakespeare of old Capulet s servants approached Romeo and Benvolio. Unaware that they were Montagues, the servant asked them to help him read the names of people whom Capulet

More information

Subordinating Ideas Using Phrases It All Started with Sputnik

Subordinating Ideas Using Phrases It All Started with Sputnik NATIONAL MATH + SCIENCE INITIATIVE English Subordinating Ideas Using Phrases It All Started with Sputnik Grade 9-10 OBJECTIVES Students will demonstrate understanding of how different types of phrases

More information

Nouns may show possession or ownership. Use an apostrophe with a noun to show something belongs to someone or to something.

Nouns may show possession or ownership. Use an apostrophe with a noun to show something belongs to someone or to something. Nouns Section 1.4 Possessive Nouns Nouns may show possession or ownership. Use an apostrophe with a noun to show something belongs to someone or to something. Jane s dress is red. The table s legs were

More information

Joel and the storm. A story for children who have experienced trauma

Joel and the storm. A story for children who have experienced trauma Joel and the storm A story for children who have experienced trauma Hi, my name is Joel. I am 9 years old. I want to tell you what happened to me when a really bad storm went through my town eight months

More information

describe a complete thought

describe a complete thought Fundamentals of Writing 2 Lesson 1 The format of this and future lessons will be very similar. In each lesson, we will go over writing, punctuation, and grammar. Additionally, in this lesson, you will

More information

Year 3 Grammar Guide. For Children and Parents MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL

Year 3 Grammar Guide. For Children and Parents MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL Year 3 Grammar Guide For Children and Parents A guide to the key grammar skills and understanding that your child will be learning this year with examples and practice questions

More information

The necessary entries of the dissertation: Contents:

The necessary entries of the dissertation: Contents: The necessary entries of the dissertation: Contents: Abbreviations and symbols 0. Introductory remarks Land, People and Culture of the speech-community Previous studies (what is know as literature-survey,

More information

A third kind of English sentence is a complex sentence. Before we study this, let s learn

A third kind of English sentence is a complex sentence. Before we study this, let s learn Sentence Structure: Complex sentences (Adapted from Hogue, A. 1996. First steps in academic writing. Addison- Wesley Longman. New york.) A third kind of English sentence is a complex sentence. Before we

More information

The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma.

The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma. Lesson 3. Topic Great Britain Grammar material: Conditionals. Grammar: IF Clause Type 1 Form if + Simple Present, will-future Example: If I find her address, I will send her an invitation. The main clause

More information

How to form the Present Perfect

How to form the Present Perfect The present perfect verb tense is a little difficult in English it is used in several different ways, and there are lots of rules to remember. This lesson will teach you everything you ever wanted to know

More information

60 Errors in English Usage Tests

60 Errors in English Usage Tests 60 Errors in English Usage Tests Index... 1 Elementary Level 1. Much information... 5 2. Be careful... 6 3. She works hard... 7 4. Present Tense... 8 5. Relative Pronouns... 9 6. Stop making plans... 10

More information

Index. 344 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 8

Index. 344 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 8 Index Index 343 Index A A, an (usage), 8, 123 A, an, the (articles), 8, 123 diagraming, 205 Abbreviations, correct use of, 18 19, 273 Abstract nouns, defined, 4, 63 Accept, except, 12, 227 Action verbs,

More information