Balancing REDOX Reactions: Learn and Practice - KEY

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1 Balancing REDOX Reactions: Learn and Practice - KEY Are these reactions are REDOX reactions? If yes, then balance the reaction using the halfreaction method. 1. 2Au 3+ (aq) + 6I (aq) à 2Au (s) + 3I 2 (s) To balance elements: Insert coefficients. Oxidation ½ reaction: 2I à I 2 Reduction ½ reaction: Au 3+ à Au Oxidation ½ reaction: 2I à I 2 + 2e Reduction ½ reaction: Au e à Au Oxidation ½ reaction: 3x(2I à I 2 + 2e ) New Oxidation ½ reaction: 6I à 3I 2 + 6e Reduction ½ reaction: 2x(Au e à Au) New Reduction ½ reaction: 2Au e à 2Au Oxidation ½ reaction: Reduction ½ reaction: 6I à 3I 2 + 6e + 2Au e à 2Au Combined Balanced Equation: 6I + 2Au 3+ à 3I Au 2. Cu (s) + 2Ag + (aq) à Cu 2+ (aq) + 2Ag (s) To balance elements: Insert coefficients. Oxidation ½ reaction: Cu à Cu 2+ Reduction ½ reaction: Ag + à Ag Oxidation ½ reaction: Cu à Cu e Reduction ½ reaction: Ag + + 1e à Ag

2 Oxidation ½ reaction: Cu à Cu e Reduction ½ reaction: 2x(Ag + + 1e à Ag) New Reduction ½ reaction: 2Ag + + 2e à 2Ag Oxidation ½ reaction: Reduction ½ reaction: Cu à Cu e + 2Ag + + 2e à 2Ag Combined Balanced Equation: Cu + 2Ag + à Cu Ag 3. BaSO 3 (s) à BaO (s) + SO 2 (g) NOT A REDOX REACTION. Also, it is already balanced :) Balance the following reactions using the half-reaction method in an acidic solution NbO 2 + 2W + 2H 2 O à 3Nb + 2WO 4 + 4H + 2- Oxidation ½ reaction: W à WO 4 Reduction ½ reaction: NbO 2 à Nb To balance oxygens: Add water. 2- Oxidation ½ reaction: 4H 2 O + W à WO 4 Reduction ½ reaction: NbO 2 à Nb + 2H 2 O To balance hydrogens: Add H + (since we re in acidic solutions). Oxidation ½ reaction: 4H 2 O + W à WO H + Reduction ½ reaction: 4H + + NbO 2 à Nb + 2H 2 O Oxidation ½ reaction: 4H 2 O + W à WO H + + 6e Reduction ½ reaction: 4e + 4H + + NbO 2 à Nb + 2H 2 O

3 Oxidation ½ reaction: 2x(4H 2 O + W à WO H + + 6e ) New Oxidation ½ reaction: 8H 2 O + 2W à 2WO H + 12e Reduction ½ reaction: 3x(4e + 4H + + NbO 2 à Nb + 2H 2 O) New Reduction ½ reaction: 12e + 12H + + 3NbO e à 3Nb + 6H 2 O Oxidation ½ reaction: 8H 2 O + 2W à 2WO H + 12e Reduction ½ reaction: 12 e + 12H + + 3NbO e à 3Nb + 6H 2 O Combined Balanced Equation: 3NbO 2 + 2W + 2H 2 O à 2WO Nb + 4H C 2 H 5 OH (aq) + 4MnO 4 (aq) + 12H + à 4Mn 2+ (aq) + 5CH 3 COOH (aq) + 11H 2 O Here the assignment of oxidation numbers can be challenging. Refer to the following diagrams for the assignment of oxidation numbers on the hydrocarbons! Ethanol: Acetic Acid:

4 Oxidation ½ reaction: C 2 H 5 OH à CH 3 COOH Reduction ½ reaction: MnO 4 à Mn 2+ To balance oxygens: Add water. Oxidation ½ reaction: H 2 O + C 2 H 5 OH à CH 3 COOH Reduction ½ reaction: MnO 4 à Mn H 2 O To balance hydrogens: Add H + (since we re in acidic solutions). Oxidation ½ reaction: H 2 O + C 2 H 5 OH à CH 3 COOH + 4H + Reduction ½ reaction: 8H + + MnO 4 à Mn H 2 O Oxidation ½ reaction: H 2 O + C 2 H 5 OH à CH 3 COOH + 4H + + 4e Reduction ½ reaction: 8H + + MnO 4 + 5e à Mn H 2 O Oxidation ½ reaction: 5x(H 2 O + C 2 H 5 OH à CH 3 COOH + 4H + + 4e ) New Oxidation ½ reaction: 5H 2 O + 5C 2 H 5 OH à 5CH 3 COOH + 20H e Reduction ½ reaction: 4x(8H + + MnO 4 + 5e à Mn H 2 O) New Reduction ½ reaction: 32H + + 4MnO e à 4Mn H 2 O Oxidation ½ reaction: 5H 2 O + 5C 2 H 5 OH à 5CH 3 COOH + 20H e Reduction ½ reaction: + 32H + + 4MnO e à 4Mn H 2 O Combined Balanced Equation: 12H + + 5C 2 H 5 OH + 4MnO - 4 à 5CH 3 COOH + 4Mn H 2 O 3. ClO + 2ZnO + 6H + à Cl + 2Zn H 2 O Oxidation ½ reaction: ZnO à Zn 3+ Reduction ½ reaction: ClO à Cl

5 To balance oxygens: Add water. Oxidation ½ reaction: ZnO à Zn 3+ + H 2 O Reduction ½ reaction: ClO à Cl + H 2 O To balance hydrogens: Add H + (since we re in acidic solutions). Oxidation ½ reaction: 2H + + ZnO à Zn 3+ + H 2 O Reduction ½ reaction: 2H + + ClO à Cl + H 2 O Oxidation ½ reaction: 2H + + ZnO à Zn 3+ + H 2 O + 1e Reduction ½ reaction: 2H + + ClO + 2e à Cl + H 2 O Oxidation ½ reaction: 2x(2H + + ZnO à Zn 3+ + H 2 O + 1e ) New Oxidation ½ reaction: 4H + + 2ZnO à 2Zn H 2 O + 2e Reduction ½ reaction: 2H + + ClO + 2e à Cl + H 2 O Oxidation ½ reaction: 4H + + 2ZnO à 2Zn H 2 O + 2e Reduction ½ reaction: + 2H + + ClO + 2e à Cl + H 2 O Combined Balanced Equation: 6H + + 2ZnO + ClO à 2Zn 3+ + Cl + 3H 2 O Balance the following reactions using the half-reaction method in a basic solution. 1. 2NH 3 + 2ClO - à 1N 2 H 2 + 2Cl - + 2H 2 O Oxidation ½ reaction: 2NH 3 à N 2 H 2 Reduction ½ reaction: ClO à Cl To balance oxygens: Add water. Oxidation ½ reaction: 2NH 3 à N 2 H 2 Reduction ½ reaction: ClO à Cl + H 2 O

6 To balance hydrogens: Add H +. Oxidation ½ reaction: 2NH 3 à N 2 H 2 + 4H + Reduction ½ reaction: 2H + + ClO à Cl + H 2 O BUT it is a BASIC solution. Add OH - to BOTH sides (enough to combine with all H + ) Oxidation ½ reaction: 4OH + 2NH 3 à N 2 H 2 + 4H + + 4OH Combine to make water: 4OH + 2NH 3 à N 2 H 2 + 4H 2 O Reduction ½ reaction: 2OH + 2H + + ClO à Cl + H 2 O + 2OH Combine to make water: 2H 2 O + ClO à Cl + H 2 O + 2OH Cancel any waters on both sides: H 2 O + ClO à Cl + 2OH Oxidation ½ reaction: 4OH + 2NH 3 à N 2 H 2 + 4H 2 O + 4e Reduction ½ reaction: 2e + H 2 O + ClO à Cl + 2OH Oxidation ½ reaction: 4OH + 2NH 3 à N 2 H 2 + 4H 2 O + 4e Reduction ½ reaction: 2x(2e + H 2 O + ClO à Cl + 2OH ) NEW Reduction ½ reaction: 2H 2 O + 2ClO + 4e à 2Cl + 4OH Oxidation ½ reaction: 4OH + 2NH 3 à N 2 H 2 + 4H 2 O + 4e Reduction ½ reaction: + 2H 2 O + 2ClO + 4e à 2Cl + 4OH Combined Balanced Equation: 2NH 3 + 2ClO à 2Cl + N 2 H 2 + 2H 2 O 2. Fe + NiO 2 + 2H 2 O à Fe(OH) 2 + Ni(OH) 2 Oxidation ½ reaction: Fe à Fe(OH) 2 Reduction ½ reaction: NiO 2 à Ni(OH) 2

7 To balance oxygens: Add water. Oxidation ½ reaction: Fe + 2H 2 O à Fe(OH) 2 Reduction ½ reaction: NiO 2 à Ni(OH) 2 To balance hydrogens: Add H +. Oxidation ½ reaction: Fe + 2H 2 O à Fe(OH) 2 + 2H + Reduction ½ reaction: NiO 2 + 2H + à Ni(OH) 2 BUT it is a BASIC solution. Add OH - to BOTH sides (enough to combine with all H + ) Oxidation ½ reaction: Fe + 2H 2 O + 2OH - à Fe(OH) 2 + 2H + + 2OH - Combine H + and OH - : Fe + 2H 2 O + 2OH - à Fe(OH) 2 + 2H 2 O Cancel Extra H 2 O: Fe + 2OH - à Fe(OH) 2 Reduction ½ reaction: NiO 2 + 2H + + 2OH - à Ni(OH) 2 + 2OH - Combine H + and OH - : NiO 2 + 2H 2 Oà Ni(OH) 2 + 2OH - Cancel Extra H 2 O: NiO 2 + 2H 2 Oà Ni(OH) 2 + 2OH - Oxidation ½ reaction: Fe + 2OH - à Fe(OH) 2 + 2e Reduction ½ reaction: NiO 2 + 2H 2 O + 2e à Ni(OH) 2 + 2OH - Not necessary! 2e are already on either side! Oxidation ½ reaction: Fe + 2OH - à Fe(OH) 2 + 2e Reduction ½ reaction: + NiO 2 + 2H 2 O + 2e à Ni(OH) 2 + 2OH - Combined Balanced Equation: Fe + 2H 2 O +NiO 2 à Ni(OH) 2 + Fe(OH) MnO 4 + 3CN + H 2 O à 2MnO 2 + 3CNO + 2OH - Oxidation ½ reaction: CN - à CNO - Reduction ½ reaction: MnO - 4 à MnO 2

8 To balance oxygens: Add water. Oxidation ½ reaction: CN - + H 2 O à CNO - Reduction ½ reaction: MnO - 4 à MnO 2 + 2H 2 O To balance hydrogens: Add H +. Oxidation ½ reaction: CN - + H 2 O à CNO - + 2H + Reduction ½ reaction: MnO H + à MnO 2 + 2H 2 O BUT it is a BASIC solution. Add OH - to BOTH sides (enough to combine with all H + ) Oxidation ½ reaction: CN - + H 2 O + 2OH - à CNO - + 2H + + 2OH - Combine H + and OH - : CN - + H 2 O + 2OH - à CNO - + 2H 2 O Cancel Extra H 2 O: CN - + 2OH - à CNO - + H 2 O Reduction ½ reaction: MnO H + + 4OH - à MnO 2 + 2H 2 O + 4OH - Combine H + and OH - : MnO H 2 O à MnO 2 + 2H 2 O + 4OH - Cancel Extra H 2 O: MnO H 2 O à MnO 2 + 4OH - Oxidation ½ reaction: CN - + 2OH - à CNO - + H 2 O + 2e Reduction ½ reaction: MnO H 2 O + 3e à MnO 2 + 4OH - Oxidation ½ reaction: 3x(CN - + 2OH - à CNO - + H 2 O + 2e ) New Oxidation ½ reaction: 3CN - + 6OH - à 3CNO - + 3H 2 O + 6e Reduction ½ reaction: 2x(MnO H 2 O + 3e à MnO 2 + 4OH - ) New Reduction ½ reaction: 2MnO H 2 O + 6e à 2MnO 2 + 8OH - 3CN - + 6OH - à 3CNO - + 3H 2 O + 6e + 2MnO H 2 O + 6e à 2MnO 2 + 8OH - Combined Balanced Equation: 3CN - + 2MnO H 2 O à 3CNO - + 2MnO 2 + 2OH -

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