Organic Chemistry Laboratory 2230 Final Exam Study Guide

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Organic Chemistry Laboratory 2230 Final Exam Study Guide"

Transcription

1 Organic Chemistry Laboratory 2230 Final Exam Study Guide Many students do not adequately prepare for the final exam in 2230L.The average grade is typically in the mid to upper 60 s. Each semester, some students score in the 90 s, and unfortunately some score in the 40 s or below. It is not unusual for a student to drop a letter grade due to poor performance on the final exam. To prepare for your final exam, it is a good idea to do the following; re-read all on-line notes associated with each experiment, read through the notes you took during each pre-lab lecture, and review all of your old quizzes. In the procedure document of each experiment is a list of topics that a well prepared student should be able to answer or explain. Ensure you understand each of these. Make sure you get all of your questions answered and understood well before the final exam. Two minutes before the final exam is scheduled to begin is not the time to ask questions. Following is a partial list of topics that 2230L has covered over the duration of the class. It is not complete. You should be familiar with each of these topics. Disclaimer: This study guide is to aid you in your studies. If something is or is not present on this study guide it does not mean it will or will not appear on the final exam. General Know the names of all glassware. Know relevant safety procedures. Know how to safely dispose of chemicals and other lab waste. Know general lab techniques. Know proper notebook techniques. Know proper weighing techniques. Know what procedure should be done to accomplish specific goals such as purification of solids, purifications of liquids, functional group analysis, separation of solids, separation of liquids, and material identification. Safety What are some of the terms used to describe the potential dangers of a chemical compound? What is a flash point and what is it used for? What is a LD50? What is a flammable material? Inflammable? Combustable? What is a corrosive material? Mutagen? Teratogen? Carcinogen? Lachrymator? Irritant? Toxic? What is a MSDS and why is it important? What are some precautions taking when working with highly reactive chemicals? What are PPE? Melting Points Thermometer safety What properties should and ideal melt point/range contain?

2 What effects if any does soluble impurities have on melt point / range? Insoluble impurities? Is melting point a physical or chemical property and why? How does the following factors influence melting point? Molecular weight, polarity, hydrogen bonding, branching Should a melting point/ range be taken fast or slow? IF given a series of mixed melting points, be able to identify composition. If given a melting point range and the literature value, be able to assess the purity of the sample. Infrared Define the main regions of interest in the IR. What are the frequency ranges and groups are represented in each region? Understand how the identify a functional group based on the peak location, shape or intensity. Explain in simple terms how an infrared works. Explain the Electromagnetic spectrum What is wavenumber and how is it calculated? Understand the relationship between wavenumber and energy. Is a larger wavenumber higher or lower in energy? Frequency? Be able to recognize the IR spectrum of the following functional groups: terminal alkyne, alkyne, nitrile, carboxylic acid, alcohol, primary amine, secondary amine, alkane, carbonyl, ketone, ester, ether linkage. Be able to select the proper IR if given a structure. Be able to select the proper structure if given an IR spectrum. TLC & Column Know how to calculate Rf. How is the purity of a reaction mixture determined using TLC? How is the identity of a product in a reaction mixture determined using TLC? Given a set of TLC plates or Rf values, be able to determine reaction outcomes. IF F is a starting material and four syntheses were run, what does each plate indicate? Given two structures predict which will have a lower Rf. Given 2 Rf s predict which compound is more polar. How are TLC and column chromatography similar and differ? (i. e. capillary vs. gravity used for separation) What are the various layers in column chromatography and explain their purpose? Why were the solvents introduced into the column in a particular order?

3 What concept or process allow for separation in column chromatography? ( Hint: review all note dealing with separation) What is a mobile phase? Give an example What is a stationary phase? Give an example Distillation Why was a copper mesh used? Why is placement of thermometer important? How to properly read a thermometer? Know names of each piece of glassware. What is a theoretical plate and why is it important? What is reflux and why is it preformed? What is a major safety concern when refluxing? (Hint: formation of peroxide ) When is better to perform a factional distillation over a simple distillation? Be able to properly interpret a distillation composition diagram (see notes.) Recrystallization What is the purpose of recrystallization? Be able to take weight by difference. What are the properties of a good recrystallization solvent? What is percent recovery and how is it calculated? What error/s effect only purity or percent recovery or both? (Review notes, data sheet and quiz) If given an experimental action, be able to predict the effect on purity or percent recovery. Is it possible to have percent yield greater than 100%? Be able to draw structure of all chemicals used in this experiment. When recrystallization why should solvent be added until the entire solid dissolves and no more? What happens if additional solvent is added? What happens if not enough solvent was added? Why should the product be allowed to crystallize slowly and not plunge directly into ice water? Separation of Acidic Substances What type of extraction is used in this experiment? The first extraction of benzoic acid and 2-naphthol why do we use NaHCO3? The second extraction of BA and 2-naphthol why do we use NaOH? What forms when the acids are mixed with the bases? Explain partitioning. Explain what drives a compound to move from one phase to another. If given a series of structures be able to predict the highest solubility in a given phase.

4 What would happen if you extracted a solution containing both a strong and weak acid with NaOH? S.A. + S.B W.B. + W.A. W.B. +W.A. x-> S.A. + S.B. Looking at pka values, what makes a reaction proceed to the right What is the purpose of the HCl? What product forms once NaHCO3 has been added? What product forms once NaOH has been added? Know the solubility changes from benzoic acid to sodium benzoate. What would cause a low % recovery for BA? What would cause a higher % recovery for 2-Naphthol? Know safety about using concentracted NaOH and HCl. If given a set of Pkas, be able to predict if the reaction will proceed in the forward direction or not. Gas Chromatography Explain chromatography. Explain how GC works. What properties dictate the relative retention time of a series of chemicals. Be able to predict the impact on retention time by changing column temperature, flow rate, sample size, column length. If given a GC trace, be able to calculate the retention time and percent composition of any peak. Be able to read a GC and understand the composition of a sample. What unique safety concerns are associated with a GC. Refractive Index Explain in simple terms how a RI works. Be able to accurately read a RI graph. Be able to calculate a corrected RI value if given a RI for water and the compound. Be able to select the proper identification of a sample if given experimental RI values and a list of possible materials with their RI. Stereochemistry Know how to identify a chiral or achiral compound. Know how to identify stereocenters. Know how to identify different types of isomers. Know how to identify the type of compound: same, constitutional, diasteromer, enantiomers, meso. Know how to assign priority and R and S configuration. Know how to calculate specific rotation. If given the specific rotation of a mixture and the specific rotations of the pure compounds, calculate the composition of the mixture. Isolation of Caffeine

5 What type of extractions take place during this reaction? What is the purpose of Na2CO3? What is an emulsion? We use dichloromethane in this experiment, where should the excess waste be placed? Know how to calculate Rf. How is the purity of a reaction mixture determined using TLC? How is the identity of caffeine in the reaction mixture determined using TLC? Know how to calculate the % of caffeine. Review solubility of caffeine in water and CH2Cl2. How would the following impact % caffeine recovered: -Too much sodium sulfate was used -Too little sodium sulfate was used -Some black aqueous was removed with the clear CH2Cl2 layer -Some water condensed on watch glass when drying -The bag and string were weighed along with the tea -Some tea spilled on while transferring to centrifuge tube. SN1 Know the mechanism. Know the relative stability of carbocation. What is sodium bicarbonate? What is sodium biocarbonate, NaHCO3 used for in this reaction? What is sodium chloride called in this reaction (not salt)? What is the sodium chloride used for in this reaction? Know why the product separates from the starting material. Know why or how silver nitrate test is used to analyze the product. What should happen to the ph of the test solution after silver nitrate was added to the product? What does SN1 mean? What is sodium sulfate and what role does it perform? What is the purpose of using sodium sulfate in this experiment? Know how to calculate the % yield. Know safety associated with using concentrated HCL. Qualitative Analysis 1 If given a boiling point, RI and IR be able to select identification of compound. Percent Yield Be able to calculate theoretical maximum amount of product and limiting reagent for any reaction. The starting materials may be neat liquids, solutions or solids.

Separation by Solvent Extraction

Separation by Solvent Extraction Experiment 3 Separation by Solvent Extraction Objectives To separate a mixture consisting of a carboxylic acid and a neutral compound by using solvent extraction techniques. Introduction Frequently, organic

More information

Acid/Base Extraction

Acid/Base Extraction Acid/Base Extraction Theory: Extraction is one of the most frequently used separation techniques in organic chemistry. An extraction essentially separates water-insoluble organic compounds from water-soluble

More information

An Investigation into the Structure, Properties and Synthesis of 3-nitrobenzoic Acid. Jane Smith

An Investigation into the Structure, Properties and Synthesis of 3-nitrobenzoic Acid. Jane Smith An Investigation into the Structure, Properties and Synthesis of 3-nitrobenzoic Acid. Jane Smith Chemistry 101 Laboratory, Section 43 Instructor: Marie Curie January 2, 2003 Abstract This paper describes

More information

Interpretation of Experimental Data

Interpretation of Experimental Data Lab References When evaluating experimental data it is important to recognize what the data you are collecting is telling you, as well as the strengths and limitations of each method you are using. Additionally,

More information

Syllabus CHM 2202 Organic Chemistry Laboratory II Spring 2011

Syllabus CHM 2202 Organic Chemistry Laboratory II Spring 2011 Villanova University Department of Chemistry Syllabus CHM 2202 Organic Chemistry Laboratory II Spring 2011 Text: C.E. Bell, D.F. Taber and A.K. Clark, Organic Chemistry Laboratory with Qualitative Analysis,

More information

CHEM 2423 Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid EXPERIMENT 4 - Purification - Recrystallization of Benzoic acid

CHEM 2423 Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid EXPERIMENT 4 - Purification - Recrystallization of Benzoic acid EXPERIMENT 4 - Purification - Recrystallization of Benzoic acid Purpose: a) To purify samples of organic compounds that are solids at room temperature b) To dissociate the impure sample in the minimum

More information

Experiment 1: Thin Layer Chromatography

Experiment 1: Thin Layer Chromatography Experiment 1: Thin Layer Part A: understanding R f Part B: R f & solvent polarity Part C: R f & compound functionality Part D: identification of commercial food dye components Reading: MHS Ch. 17 pgs 219-235

More information

Purification by Recrystallization

Purification by Recrystallization Experiment 2 Purification by Recrystallization Objectives 1) To be able to select an appropriate recrystallizing solvent. 2) To separate and purify acetanilide by recrystallization. 3) To compare the melting

More information

PURIFICATION TECHNIQUES

PURIFICATION TECHNIQUES DETERMINACIÓN DE ESTRUCTURAS ORGÁNICAS (ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY) PURIFICATION TECHNIQUES Hermenegildo García Gómez Departamento de Química Instituto de Tecnología Química Universidad Politécnica de Valencia

More information

EXPERIMENT 5: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution A Friedel-Crafts Acylation Reaction

EXPERIMENT 5: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution A Friedel-Crafts Acylation Reaction XPRIMNT 5: lectrophilic Aromatic Substitution A Friedel-Crafts Acylation Reaction Relevant Sections in the text (Wade, 7 th ed.) 17.1-17.2 (p. 751-755) lectrophilic aromatic substitution 17.6-17.8 (p.

More information

EXPERIMENT 2: Recrystallization and Melting Point

EXPERIMENT 2: Recrystallization and Melting Point Recrystallization (or Crystallization) is a technique used to purify solids. This procedure relies on the fact that solubility increases as temperature increases (you can dissolve more sugar in hot water

More information

Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility

Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility Deductions based upon interpretation of simple solubility tests can be extremely useful in organic structure determination. Both solubility and

More information

RIYADH COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY AND PHARMACY LEVEL V-PHARMACY STUDENTS MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY -I LAB NOTEBOOK FIRST SEMESTER COURSE DIRECTOR:

RIYADH COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY AND PHARMACY LEVEL V-PHARMACY STUDENTS MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY -I LAB NOTEBOOK FIRST SEMESTER COURSE DIRECTOR: RIYADH COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY AND LEVEL V- STUDENTS MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY -I LAB NOTEBOOK FIRST SEMESTER 2007-2008 COURSE DIRECTOR: DR.MAHA ELHAKEEM Name: Student No.: 1 Level V PHRM 312 Lab -1 RIYADH COLLEGE

More information

EXPERIMENT 1: MELTING POINTS

EXPERIMENT 1: MELTING POINTS EXPERIMENT 1: MELTING POINTS 1. Prepare a known sample of urea and determine its melting point. (Use a well packed capillary with ~1-2 mm of sample, with a rise in temperature of ~ 1-2 o C per min near

More information

Separation of Acidic, Basic and Neutral Compounds

Separation of Acidic, Basic and Neutral Compounds Separation of Acidic, Basic and Neutral Compounds Contents Objectives Introduction Background Experimental section H NM Spectra Manuscript prepared by Dr. Almas I. Zayya, Dr. A. Jonathan Singh and Dr.

More information

Extraction: Separation of Acidic Substances

Extraction: Separation of Acidic Substances Extraction: Separation of Acidic Substances Chemists frequently find it necessary to separate a mixture of compounds by moving a component from one solution or mixture to another. The process most often

More information

ISOLATION OF CAFFEINE FROM TEA

ISOLATION OF CAFFEINE FROM TEA ISLATIN F CAFFEINE FRM TEA Introduction In this experiment, caffeine is isolated from tealeaves. The chief problem with the isolation is that caffeine does not exist alone in the tealeaves, but other natural

More information

Experiment 3: Extraction: Separation of an Acidic, a Basic and a Neutral Substance

Experiment 3: Extraction: Separation of an Acidic, a Basic and a Neutral Substance 1 Experiment 3: Extraction: Separation of an Acidic, a Basic and a Neutral Substance Read pp 142-155, 161-162, Chapter 10 and pp 163-173, Chapter 11, in LTOC. View the videos: 4.2 Extraction (Macroscale);

More information

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry general characteristics of organic molecules introduction to hydrocarbons alkanes unsaturated hydrocarbons functional groups: alcohols and ethers compounds

More information

Separation of Active Components from Excedrin ES

Separation of Active Components from Excedrin ES Separation of Active Components from Excedrin ES Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to isolate the active components present in Exedrin ES tablets, namely acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine. To accomplish

More information

12BL Experiment 10: Friedel Crafts Acylation An EAS Reaction

12BL Experiment 10: Friedel Crafts Acylation An EAS Reaction 12BL Experiment 10: Friedel Crafts Acylation An EAS Reaction Safety: Proper lab goggles/glasses must be worn (even over prescription glasses). WEAR GLOVES! Acetic anhydride is corrosive and a lachrymator

More information

Experiment 5: Column Chromatography

Experiment 5: Column Chromatography Experiment 5: Column Chromatography Separation of Ferrocene & Acetylferrocene by Column Chromatography Reading: Mohrig, Hammond & Schatz Ch. 18 pgs 235-253 watch the technique video on the course website!

More information

Introduction to Organic Chemistry Syllabus Day 1: Session 1 (evening session):

Introduction to Organic Chemistry Syllabus Day 1: Session 1 (evening session): Introduction to Organic Chemistry Syllabus Day 1: Session 1 (evening session): 1. Introduction to Organic Chemistry: 2. General discussion about what is chemistry? 3. What is organic chemistry? 4. What

More information

Synthesis, Isolation, and Purification of an Ester

Synthesis, Isolation, and Purification of an Ester Synthesis, Isolation, and Purification of an Ester AP Chemistry Laboratory Introduction An ester is a chemical compound that is formed when an organic acid reacts with an alcohol. Esters frequently have

More information

Chemistry of the Functional Group

Chemistry of the Functional Group Name Lab Day Chemistry of the Functional Group Introduction: rganic molecules comprised only of carbon and hydrogen would be relatively unreactive and biologically unimportant. Inclusion of atoms of other

More information

Lab # 4: Separation of a Mixture Lab Objective Introduction

Lab # 4: Separation of a Mixture Lab Objective Introduction Name: Lab Partner(s): Date Completed: Lab # 4: Separation of a Mixture Lab Accelerated Chemistry 1 Objective You will be given a mixture containing sodium chloride (NaCl, table salt), benzoic acid (C 7

More information

Experiment 9 Chem 276 Fall Semester 2010 Page 1 of 8. Separation of compounds using acid-base extraction

Experiment 9 Chem 276 Fall Semester 2010 Page 1 of 8. Separation of compounds using acid-base extraction Experiment 9 Chem 276 Fall Semester 2010 Page 1 of 8 Introduction: Separation of compounds using acid-base extraction Organic compounds are generally insoluble in water. Instead, they are soluble in organic

More information

Expt #4 - Properties of Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Amines Acid/Base and Redox Reactions

Expt #4 - Properties of Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Amines Acid/Base and Redox Reactions EXPERIMENT 4 Expt #4 - Properties of Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Amines Acid/Base and Redox Reactions Materials Needed cyclohexanone, acetone, benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, acetic acid, cyclohexylamine

More information

Functional Group Chemistry

Functional Group Chemistry 48 Experiment #3. rganic hemistry Functional Group Unknowns Functional Group hemistry Introduction The chemistry of an organic molecule is primarily dictated by its functional groups. Some functional groups

More information

CHEM 208(Organic Chemistry I) Instructor: Dr. Niranjan Goswami. Tel: (618)545-3361. Email: Ngoswami@kaskaskia.edu. Web: www.kc.cc.il.

CHEM 208(Organic Chemistry I) Instructor: Dr. Niranjan Goswami. Tel: (618)545-3361. Email: Ngoswami@kaskaskia.edu. Web: www.kc.cc.il. CHEM 208(Organic Chemistry I) Instructor: Dr. Niranjan Goswami Tel: (618)545-3361 Email: Ngoswami@kaskaskia.edu Web: www.kc.cc.il.us/ngoswami CHEM 208 COURSE SYLLABUS KASKASKIA COLLEGE NAME TERM YEAR TEXT:

More information

Practical I: Resolution of 1-Phenylethylamine

Practical I: Resolution of 1-Phenylethylamine Practical I: Resolution of 1-Phenylethylamine Reference: Adapted from Ault, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 269. Readings: rganic Chemistry by David Klein, Chapter 5 Summary In this experiment (S)-( )-1-phenylethylamine

More information

Chemical Tests for Alkanes, Alkenes, and Aromatic Compounds

Chemical Tests for Alkanes, Alkenes, and Aromatic Compounds Chemical Tests for Alkanes, Alkenes, and Aromatic Compounds Introduction There are four types of hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic compounds, each type with different chemical properties.

More information

Recrystallization and Melting Points. Benzoic Acid was recrystallized with a 41% recovery using 95% ethanol and water as

Recrystallization and Melting Points. Benzoic Acid was recrystallized with a 41% recovery using 95% ethanol and water as Lab #1 (Section 102) September 17, 2002 Recrystallization and Melting Points Abstract: Benzoic Acid was recrystallized with a 41% recovery using 95% ethanol and water as the mixed-solvent. Benzoic acid

More information

Synthesize t-butyl (or t-pentyl) Chloride

Synthesize t-butyl (or t-pentyl) Chloride Synthesize t-butyl (or t-pentyl) Chloride Note: This experiment may utilize either t-butyl Alcohol (m.p. 25.7 o C) or t-pentyl Alcohol (m.p. -9.5 o C) as one of the starting reactants Text References Slayden

More information

Chemical Tests for Unknowns

Chemical Tests for Unknowns Chemical Tests for Unknowns Chemical tests have been developed as a means of identifying what functional groups are present in an unknown compound. Since IR and NMR spectroscopy has been developed, they

More information

Acid-Base Extraction.

Acid-Base Extraction. Acid-Base Extraction. Extraction involves dissolving a compound or compounds either (1) from a solid into a solvent or (2) from a solution into another solvent. A familiar example of the first case is

More information

Experiment #2 Liquid/Liquid Extraction Organic Chem I 1

Experiment #2 Liquid/Liquid Extraction Organic Chem I 1 Experiment #2 Liquid/Liquid Extraction rganic Chem I 1 Alternative Title: Shake it all out! Liquid/liquid extraction is the most common technique used to separate a desired organic product from a reaction

More information

CHEM 151 CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF COPPER Fall 2008

CHEM 151 CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF COPPER Fall 2008 CHEM 151 CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF COPPER Fall 2008 Fill-in!!! Pre-lab attached (p 9) Lecture Instructor Stamp Here Name Partner Date Before you begin, read the following section in your Laboratory Handbook:

More information

Isolation of Caffeine from Tea

Isolation of Caffeine from Tea Isolation of Caffeine from Tea Introduction A number of interesting, biologically active compounds have been isolated from plants. Isolating some of these natural products, as they are called, can require

More information

IDENTIFICATION OF AN UNKNOWN ORGANIC COMPOUND Classification Tests

IDENTIFICATION OF AN UNKNOWN ORGANIC COMPOUND Classification Tests IDENTIFICATION OF AN UNKNOWN ORGANIC COMPOUND Classification Tests In this experiment you will attempt to identify an organic unknown from a selected group of compounds from the class of alcohols, aldehydes,

More information

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certifi cate of Secondary Education

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certifi cate of Secondary Education www.smarteduhub.com UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certifi cate of Secondary Education *0367948514* CHEMISTRY 06/61 Paper 6 Alternative to Practical May/June 12

More information

Exercises: Exercise 1: Safety Contract Students complete a safety contract in order to eliminate, prevent, and be aware of possible hazards.

Exercises: Exercise 1: Safety Contract Students complete a safety contract in order to eliminate, prevent, and be aware of possible hazards. Lab 1: Introduction to Laboratory and Safety Procedures Learning Objectives: Understand the importance of safety in the chemistry laboratory; Learn the chemistry safety rules; Understand what to do in

More information

H 2 SO 4 heat + H 3 O +

H 2 SO 4 heat + H 3 O + Dehydration of Cyclohexanol DISCUSSION OF TE EXPERIMENT In this experiment, cyclohexanol is dehydrated by aqueous sulfuric acid to produce cyclohexene as the sole product, and carbocation rearrangement

More information

Classification of organic compounds By solubility

Classification of organic compounds By solubility Classification of organic compounds By solubility In this experiment we begin the process of determining the structural composition of organic compounds based upon interpretation of simple solubility tests

More information

Enantiomers: Synthesis, characterization, and resolution of tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(iii) chloride Introduction:

Enantiomers: Synthesis, characterization, and resolution of tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(iii) chloride Introduction: Enantiomers: Synthesis, characterization, and resolution of tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(iii) chloride Introduction: The development of coordination chemistry prior to 1950 involved the synthesis and characterization

More information

Name Lab #3: Solubility of Organic Compounds Objectives: Introduction: soluble insoluble partially soluble miscible immiscible

Name  Lab #3: Solubility of Organic Compounds Objectives: Introduction: soluble insoluble partially soluble miscible immiscible Lab #3: Solubility of rganic Compounds bjectives: - Understanding the relative solubility of organic compounds in various solvents. - Exploration of the effect of polar groups on a nonpolar hydrocarbon

More information

THE LABORATORY NOTEBOOK CHEM 7A/7B

THE LABORATORY NOTEBOOK CHEM 7A/7B THE LABORATORY NOTEBOOK CHEM 7A/7B GENERAL COMMENTS It takes a lot of time and work to keep a good laboratory notebook. Your organic chemistry lab notebook techniques are the kinds expected in a professional

More information

experiment5 Understanding and applying the concept of limiting reagents. Learning how to perform a vacuum filtration.

experiment5 Understanding and applying the concept of limiting reagents. Learning how to perform a vacuum filtration. 81 experiment5 LECTURE AND LAB SKILLS EMPHASIZED Synthesizing an organic substance. Understanding and applying the concept of limiting reagents. Determining percent yield. Learning how to perform a vacuum

More information

INTRODUCTION TO MATTER: CLASSI F ICATION OF MATTER, PHYSICAL AND C He MICAL PROPERTIES, AND PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

INTRODUCTION TO MATTER: CLASSI F ICATION OF MATTER, PHYSICAL AND C He MICAL PROPERTIES, AND PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES Experiment 3 Name: INTRODUCTION TO MATTER: 9 4 CLASSI F ICATION OF MATTER, PHYSICAL AND C He MICAL e PROPERTIES, AND PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES In this experiment, you will encounter various classification

More information

CHEM 344 Thin Layer Chromatography

CHEM 344 Thin Layer Chromatography CHEM 344 Thin Layer Chromatography Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a useful technique for the separation and identification of compounds in mixtures. TLC is used routinely to follow the progress of

More information

Identification of Unknown Organic Compounds

Identification of Unknown Organic Compounds Identification of Unknown Organic Compounds Introduction The identification and characterization of the structures of unknown substances are an important part of organic chemistry. Although it is often

More information

What is a Chemical Reaction?

What is a Chemical Reaction? Lab 8 Name What is a Chemical Reaction? Macroscopic Indications and Symbolic Representations Pre-Lab Assignment This written pre-lab is worth 25% (5 POINTS) of your lab report grade and must be turned

More information

Organic Lab 1 Make-up Experiment. Extraction of Caffeine from Beverages. Introduction

Organic Lab 1 Make-up Experiment. Extraction of Caffeine from Beverages. Introduction Organic Lab 1 Make-up Experiment Extraction of Caffeine from Beverages Introduction Few compounds consumed by Americans are surrounded by as much controversy as caffeine. One article tells us that caffeine

More information

EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield

EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield INTRODUCTION Stoichiometry calculations are about calculating the amounts of substances that react and form in a chemical reaction. The word stoichiometry

More information

Experiment #7: Esterification

Experiment #7: Esterification Experiment #7: Esterification Pre-lab: 1. Choose an ester to synthesize. Determine which alcohol and which carboxylic acid you will need to synthesize your ester. Write out the reaction for your specific

More information

Melting Point, Boiling Point, and Index of Refraction

Melting Point, Boiling Point, and Index of Refraction Melting Point, Boiling Point, and Index of Refraction Melting points, boiling points, and index of refractions are easily measured physical properties of organic compounds useful in product characterization

More information

Laboratory 22: Properties of Alcohols

Laboratory 22: Properties of Alcohols Introduction Alcohols represent and important class of organic molecules. In this experiment you will study the physical and chemical properties of alcohols. Solubility in water, and organic solvents,

More information

CHM220 Nucleophilic Substitution Lab. Studying S N 1 and S N 2 Reactions: Nucloephilic Substitution at Saturated Carbon*

CHM220 Nucleophilic Substitution Lab. Studying S N 1 and S N 2 Reactions: Nucloephilic Substitution at Saturated Carbon* CHM220 Nucleophilic Substitution Lab Studying S N 1 and S N 2 Reactions: Nucloephilic Substitution at Saturated Carbon* Purpose: To convert a primary alcohol to an alkyl bromide using an S N 2 reaction

More information

Protonation. favored H 3 O + R O O H

Protonation. favored H 3 O + R O O H arboxylic Acids arboxylic acids have one property that distinguishes them from most other organic compounds they re acidic. Now not as acidic as fuming sulfuric acid, but still pretty darned acidic. The

More information

Green Principles Atom Economy Solventless Reactions Catalysis

Green Principles Atom Economy Solventless Reactions Catalysis Lab 5: The Aldol Reaction Solventless vs Traditional Reactions: (Melting Point Study & Recrystallization) (adapted from Doxsee, K.M. and Hutchison, J.E., Green Organic Chemistry and John Thompson; Lane

More information

Example Lab Report for Organic Labs Actual lab report is in black; notes about how to write reports are in red.

Example Lab Report for Organic Labs Actual lab report is in black; notes about how to write reports are in red. Example Lab Report for Organic Labs Actual lab report is in black; notes about how to write reports are in red Jacquie Richardson CHEM 3321-100 1/1/2000 The introduction, physical data, and procedure make

More information

PHYSICAL SEPARATION TECHNIQUES. Introduction

PHYSICAL SEPARATION TECHNIQUES. Introduction PHYSICAL SEPARATION TECHNIQUES Lab #2 Introduction When two or more substances, that do not react chemically, are blended together, the result is a mixture in which each component retains its individual

More information

In this experiment, we will use three properties to identify a liquid substance: solubility, density and boiling point..

In this experiment, we will use three properties to identify a liquid substance: solubility, density and boiling point.. Identification of a Substance by Physical Properties 2009 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for academic use provided the original copyright is included Every substance has a unique set

More information

6. A Six-Bottle Study of Ionic Compounds

6. A Six-Bottle Study of Ionic Compounds 6. A Six-Bottle Study of Ionic Compounds What you will accomplish in this experiment In last week s experiment, you observed a chemical change: a chemical reaction that resulted in a change in the composition,

More information

ANALYSIS OF ASPIRIN INFRARED (IR) SPECTROSCOPY AND MELTING POINT DETERMINATION

ANALYSIS OF ASPIRIN INFRARED (IR) SPECTROSCOPY AND MELTING POINT DETERMINATION Chem 306 Section (Circle) M Tu W Th Name Partners Date ANALYSIS OF ASPIRIN INFRARED (IR) SPECTROSCOPY AND MELTING POINT DETERMINATION Materials: prepared acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), stockroom samples

More information

Experiment 3 Chemical Properties of Aliphatic and Aromatic Alcohols

Experiment 3 Chemical Properties of Aliphatic and Aromatic Alcohols Experiment 3 Chemical Properties of Aliphatic and Aromatic Alcohols In the first part of this experiment you will learn the difference between 1 o, 2 o and 3 o alcohols and aromatic alcohols with respect

More information

Laboratory 2. Separation of the Components of a Mixture. Objectives. Introduction

Laboratory 2. Separation of the Components of a Mixture. Objectives. Introduction Laboratory 2 Separation of the Components of a Mixture Objectives Use extraction methods to separate the components of a mixture and determine the mass percent of each component of the mixture. Learn the

More information

SEPARATION OF A MIXTURE OF SUBSTANCES LAB

SEPARATION OF A MIXTURE OF SUBSTANCES LAB SEPARATION OF A MIXTURE OF SUBSTANCES LAB Purpose: Every chemical has a set of defined physical properties, and when combined they present a unique fingerprint for that chemical. When chemicals are present

More information

Professor Kathleen V. Kilway and Robert Clevenger, Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri Kansas City, 2006

Professor Kathleen V. Kilway and Robert Clevenger, Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri Kansas City, 2006 Professor Kathleen V. Kilway and Robert Clevenger, Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri Kansas City, 2006 3. Extraction J.R. Mohrig, C.N. Hammond, and P.F. Schatz: Chapters 11 (extraction) and

More information

Properties of Matter and Density

Properties of Matter and Density Cautions Flames will be used and some of the chemicals will have odors and may stain your hands or clothes if you come into direct contact with them. Purpose In this experiment you will characterize common

More information

Oxidation of Alcohols Use of an Environmentally Friendly (Green) Oxidant

Oxidation of Alcohols Use of an Environmentally Friendly (Green) Oxidant xidation of Alcohols Use of an Environmentally Friendly (Green) xidant xidation of Alcohols xidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds is one of the most important reactions of alcohols. [] In the oxidation

More information

The Friedel-Crafts Reaction: Acetylation of Ferrocene

The Friedel-Crafts Reaction: Acetylation of Ferrocene The Friedel-Crafts Reaction: Acetylation of Ferrocene Objective This reaction illustrates electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction, in which an electrophile replaces a hydrogen atom in an aromatic

More information

CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF COPPER AND PERCENT YIELD KEY

CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF COPPER AND PERCENT YIELD KEY CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF COPPER AND PERCENT YIELD Objective To gain familiarity with basic laboratory procedures, some chemistry of a typical transition element, and the concept of percent yield. Apparatus

More information

Recrystallization Introduction Solubility

Recrystallization Introduction Solubility 1 Recrystallization Introduction Solubility Most compounds are more soluble in a given solvent at higher temperatures. As you can see from the data in the table below, the solubilities in water of salt

More information

Covalent Bonding - Benzoic Acid from Ethyl Benzoate by Base Hydrolysis

Covalent Bonding - Benzoic Acid from Ethyl Benzoate by Base Hydrolysis EXPERIMENT 2: Introduction ovalent Bonding - Benzoic Acid from Ethyl Benzoate by Base Hydrolysis Ethyl benzoate (boiling point 211-213, melting point -34 ) belongs to a class of compounds called esters.

More information

Fractional Distillation and Gas Chromatography

Fractional Distillation and Gas Chromatography Fractional Distillation and Gas Chromatography Background Distillation The previous lab used distillation to separate a mixture of hexane and toluene based on a difference in boiling points. Hexane boils

More information

Chemistry 1215 Experiment #9 Copper and its Compounds

Chemistry 1215 Experiment #9 Copper and its Compounds Chemistry 1215 Experiment #9 Copper and its Compounds Objective The objective of this experiment is to take a piece of copper as efficiently as possible through a series of chemical reactions. The final

More information

Austin Peay State University Department of Chemistry CHEM 1111. Copper Cycle

Austin Peay State University Department of Chemistry CHEM 1111. Copper Cycle Cautions Nitric acid and sulfuric acid are toxic and oxidizers and may burn your skin. Nitrogen dioxide gas produced is hazardous if inhaled. Sodium hydroxide is toxic and corrosive and will cause burns

More information

Physical and Chemical Properties

Physical and Chemical Properties Physical and Chemical Properties Introduction Matter can be classified in different ways using physical and chemical properties. Physical properties include color, odor, density, hardness, structure, solubility,

More information

High School Core Science Standards Chemistry

High School Core Science Standards Chemistry Overview The standards for chemistry establish scientific inquiry skills and core content for all chemistry courses in DoDEA schools. In chemistry, students acquire a fundamental knowledge of the substances

More information

Names of students present in your group

Names of students present in your group Your name Names of students present in your group Lab & Table Number SCI 265: SOLUTIONS AND ELECTROLYTES IONIC AND COVALENT COMPOUNDS 1. What is an ion? 2. What is a molecule? 3. What is the difference

More information

Water Lab. Objective: To distill samples of water that contains volatile and nonvolatile components.

Water Lab. Objective: To distill samples of water that contains volatile and nonvolatile components. Water Lab I. Distillation Hypothesis: Water can be purified by distillation. Objective: To distill samples of water that contains volatile and nonvolatile components. Materials and Equipment: Sodium chloride,

More information

Extraction Theory. Org I Lab W. J. Kelly. Liquid-liquid extraction is a useful method to separate components (compounds) of a mixture

Extraction Theory. Org I Lab W. J. Kelly. Liquid-liquid extraction is a useful method to separate components (compounds) of a mixture Extraction Theory Org I Lab W. J. Kelly Liquid-liquid extraction is a useful method to separate components (compounds) of a mixture Let's see an example. Suppose that you have a mixture of sugar in vegetable

More information

CSUS Department of Chemistry Experiment 4 Chem.1A

CSUS Department of Chemistry Experiment 4 Chem.1A Name: Section: Experiment 4: Synthesis of Alum Pre-laboratory Assignment (Read through the experiment before starting!) 1. a) What are the strong acid and strong base used in this synthesis? b) What should

More information

Qualitative Analysis of Group 1 Cations

Qualitative Analysis of Group 1 Cations Qualitative Analysis of Group 1 Cations Objectives The objectives of this laboratory are to follow a classic analytical scheme to separate and identify the ions in a known mixture of Group 1 cations, and

More information

Stereochemistry - Chirality. Chapter 5 Organic Chemistry, 8th Edition John E. McMurry

Stereochemistry - Chirality. Chapter 5 Organic Chemistry, 8th Edition John E. McMurry Stereochemistry - Chirality Chapter 5 Organic Chemistry, 8th Edition John E. McMurry Isomerism The two major classes of isomers are constitutional isomers and stereoisomers. Constitutional/structural isomers

More information

Paper Chromatography: Separation and Identification of Five Metal Cations

Paper Chromatography: Separation and Identification of Five Metal Cations Paper Chromatography: Separation and Identification of Five Metal Cations Objectives Known and unknown solutions of the metal ions Ag +, Fe 3+, Co 2+, Cu 2+ and Hg 2+ will be analyzed using paper chromatography.

More information

Syllabus for General Organic Chemistry M07A- Fall 2013 Prof. Robert Keil

Syllabus for General Organic Chemistry M07A- Fall 2013 Prof. Robert Keil Syllabus for General Organic Chemistry M07A- Fall 2013 Prof. Robert Keil Textbook and Materials What you must buy: Organic Chemistry 4 th Ed. Janice G. Smith, McGraw Hill. (Older edition is fine) Chem

More information

1,4-Di-t-butylbenzene via Friedel-Crafts Alkylation

1,4-Di-t-butylbenzene via Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Exp t 61 1,4-Di-t-butylbenzene via Friedel-Crafts Alkylation from K. L. Williamson, Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments, 2nd Ed. 1994, Houghton Mifflin, Boston. p435; revised2/28/02 Prelab Exercise:

More information

Recrystallization. Good. Bad. solubility ---> Bad. temperature --->

Recrystallization. Good. Bad. solubility ---> Bad. temperature ---> Recrystallization. Recrystallization is the primary method for purifying solid organic compounds. Compounds obtained from natural sources or from reaction mixtures almost always contain impurities. The

More information

THREE CHEMICAL REACTIONS

THREE CHEMICAL REACTIONS THREE CHEMICAL REACTIONS 1 NOTE: You are required to view the podcast entitled Decanting and Suction Filtration before coming to lab this week. Go to http://podcast.montgomerycollege.edu/podcast.php?rcdid=172

More information

Experiment #6: Isolation of Caffeine from Tea

Experiment #6: Isolation of Caffeine from Tea Experiment #6: Isolation of Caffeine from Tea Pre-Lab: Prepare your notebook. Include: name, partner s name, title of experiment, date, purpose, structure of caffeine, procedures (bulleted list), separation

More information

WATER, ph, ACIDS, BASES, AND BUFFERS

WATER, ph, ACIDS, BASES, AND BUFFERS COURSE READINESS ASSESSMENT FOR PHYSIOLOGY WATER, ph, ACIDS, BASES, AND BUFFERS Sections in this module I. Water is a polar molecule II. Properties of water III. ph IV. Acids and bases V. Buffers I. Water

More information

INVESTIGATING SOLUTIONS. Pre-Lab Queries. Procedure

INVESTIGATING SOLUTIONS. Pre-Lab Queries. Procedure NAME PARTNER(S) SECTION DATE INVESTIGATING SOLUTIONS The objective of this activity is to uncover characteristics of a variety of solutions and factors that affect the making of solutions. Pre-Lab Queries

More information

Unit title: Chemical Laboratory Techniques

Unit title: Chemical Laboratory Techniques Unit title: Chemical Laboratory Techniques Unit code: H/601/0355 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 Aim This unit gives learners the opportunity to practise and become proficient in a range of practical skills

More information

Composition otebook. Student ame: Kip ibly Class: CHM 1025/1045/2210/2211. Instructor: Dr. Barnett

Composition otebook. Student ame: Kip ibly Class: CHM 1025/1045/2210/2211. Instructor: Dr. Barnett Composition otebook Student ame: Kip ibly Class: CM 1025/1045/2210/2211 Instructor: Dr. Barnett (Back of Front Cover) Table of Contents Experimental Title Page Numbers Synthesis of Acetanilide 4 15 1 Table

More information

Determination of Melting Points

Determination of Melting Points Determination of Melting Points This experiment consists of three parts. In the first part, you will determine the melting point range of three known compounds. This part is mostly for practice, to make

More information

Saturated NaCl solution rubber tubing (2) Glass adaptor (2) thermometer adaptor heating mantle

Saturated NaCl solution rubber tubing (2) Glass adaptor (2) thermometer adaptor heating mantle EXPERIMENT 5 (Organic Chemistry II) Pahlavan/Cherif Dehydration of Alcohols - Dehydration of Cyclohexanol Purpose - The purpose of this lab is to produce cyclohexene through the acid catalyzed elimination

More information

Heat of Neutralization

Heat of Neutralization Cautions HCl and NaOH are corrosive and toxic Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine the heat of neutralization for a reaction between a strong acid and a strong base. Introduction Chemical

More information

Experiment 8 Synthesis of Aspirin

Experiment 8 Synthesis of Aspirin Experiment 8 Synthesis of Aspirin Aspirin is an effective analgesic (pain reliever), antipyretic (fever reducer) and anti-inflammatory agent and is one of the most widely used non-prescription drugs. The

More information