Applications of Natural Fibers in Composites. Dr. Egidija Rainosalo, Technology Centre KETEK Ltd

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1 Applications of Natural Fibers in Composites Dr. Egidija Rainosalo, Technology Centre KETEK Ltd

2 1941: Henry Ford designed and built a car from compression-molded 70% cellulose fibers, including industrial hemp, mixed with a resin binder. He designed it to run on hemp biomass fuel. Apparently they were pretty sturdy: Below is a guy beating on the trunk with an axe, he failed to leave a mark. The total weight of the plastic car is about 2,000 pounds, compared with 3,000 pounds for a steel automobile of the same size."- December 1941 issue of Popular Mechanics.

3 Main Drivers Support of Policy US: Public procurement, Japan: Quotas, EU: Lead Market Initiative, Targets? Quotas? (more details are discussed later); many countries ban non-biodegradable plastic bags. Customers are interested in more sustainable materials and products; bio-based materials and products have (still) the image to be a sustainable option Multinational companies using bio-based materials and products because of positive marketing effects ( sustainable company ); because of limited supply of bio-based materials multinational companies often try to get exclusive access. SME realising more and more bio-based solutions for niche applications, some could develop to mainstream markets (like in food packaging)

4 Outline What are natural fibers? What are the properties of natural fibers? Market of products with natural fibers in Europe and Finland Where to use natural fibers?

5

6 Classification of Fibers Natural fibers Synthetic Plant Animal Mineral Celullose (Regenerated cellulose fibers) Mineral Polymer Abacá Bamboo Coir Cotton Flax (Linen) Hemp Jute Kapok Kenaf Piña Raffia palm Ramie Sisal Wood Alpaca Angora Bison down Byssus Camel hair Cashmere Catgut Chiengora Guanaco Llama Mohair Pashmina Qiviut Rabbit Silk Sinew Spider silk Wool Vicuña Yak Asbestos Acetate, triacetate Art silk Bamboo Lyocell (Tencel) Modal Rayon Viscose Glass Carbon (Tenax) Basalt Metallic Acrylic Aramid (Twaron Kevlar Technora Nomex) Derclon Microfiber Modacrylic Nylon Olefin Polyester Polyethylene (Dyneema Spectra) Spandex Vinalon Zylon

7 Properties of some fibers Fiber type Density g/cm 3 Tensile strength, MPa Elongation at break, % E-Modulus, GPa Moisture absorption, % E-Glass Carbon Kenaf Hemp Jute Sisal Cotton Flax Rayon

8 Properties of some fibers

9 Exploration of Properties Flax to increase the thickness with the same weight -In the middle of the laminate Consequently, the stiffness of the composite will increase Coefficient of thermal expansion is close to the one of carbon; allowing compatible associations in hybrid structures with carbon fibers Vibration damping reduced as well as impact resistance

10 Exploration of Properties Reduce the risk of injury Increase the gameplay (sport) Decrease the bursting risk A better productivity (wind blades)

11 Mechanical Properties of Composites Injection Moulding

12 Type of reinforcement available Pellet Non-woven Roving-twistless yarn Yarn Fabric: woven or knitted same weaving patters as with glass fiber or carbon fiber are available

13 Some Process Technologies Extrusion

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15 Wood Plastic Composites Automobiles Construction and Furniture Industrial and Consumer Products Extrusion & Injection Moulding Source: Werzalit 2007, nova-institut 2007, IKEA 2007, Domna 2008

16 WPC Market volume world > 1,5 Mio. t (2010) North-America: > 1 Mio. t China: > t ( 2015: 5 Mio. t) Europe ca t (Germany: t) - Construction & Furniture: ca t - Automotive: ca t Double-digit growth per year North-America / Europe: Using by-products from the wood industry Asia: Using all kind of cellulosic by-products from forest and agriculture

17 BMW 5 Series Total amount: > 40,000 t/a (EU) > 90% compressing moulding Fibre use: > 25,000 t/a (EU) Flax, Hemp, Kenaf, Jute, Sisal, Coir Established and stable market with a new potential Fibr e Non-woven fleece Naked door Finished door New trends - Showing the natural fibres under transparent films or lacquers - Using bio-based polymers From 50-60% bio-based to 100% biobased

18

19

20 + = «FlaxPly» for direct processing Epoxy resin + hardener

21 Racing Boat Sandwiches reinforced with flax and core of the sandwich is of Corecell (*). One to two plies of UD flax fabrics (215 g/m2, nominal thickness 0.96mm) used in the laminate sequence depending on the areas. A taffeta of glass E integrated in the hull s bottom planking. A very light yet rigid and very strong fiber. In total, flax fiber constitutes 50% of the weight of the boat s reinforcement. It accounts for 75 to 80% of the hull and the deck s reinforcement. A high environmental added-value. IDB Marine de Tregunc shipyard in France

22

23 Products in Finland Novoplastik flax/pla (corn suggar) Joensuun Meskari Oy- Kupilka sarjan tuoteet Flaxwood All-Plast Oy UPM Muut Ekolite

24 Why to use natural fibers? Special properties other fibers don t have Low density, leight weight structures High energy absorption Comperatavily high modulus can be used in stiff but not lad bearring stuctures Low thermal expansion, can be combined with e.g. carbon fiber High environmental added value! Material production has less environmental impact Leighter structures comparring to glass fiber composites structures Reduced fuel consumption during transportation More fuel efficient end product in e.g. transport applications Increased recycling possibilities better energy recovery, no large amount of slag

25

26 Used references 1. Bio-Composites. Technologies and Applications. Presentation of Michael Carus, Nova- Institut GmBH, Kemi ( 2. Natural fibers in thermoset composites. Presentation of Francois Vanfleteren, Lineo, Kemi ( 3. Internet google search Other OSKE material which might be interesting to read:

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