3 OBJECTIVE To provide a basic understanding of composite materials and composite types. To understand processing, properties, characterisation and design of composite materials & structures.
4 REFERENCES Krishnan K. Chawla, Composite Materials Science and Engineering, Springer, Matthews, F.L. and R.D. Rawlings, 1999, Composite Materials: Engineering and Science, Woodhead Publishing. Handbook of Composites, American Society of Metals, Derek Hull, Introduction to Composite Materials, Cambridge University Press, 1988.
5 ISSUES TO ADDRESS What is composite? Why are composites used instead of metals/ceramics or polymers? What are the classes and types of composites? What are the typical applications of composite materials?
6 The development of materials over time Composite Materials The materials of pre-history, on the left, all occur naturally; the challenge for the engineers of that era was one of shaping them. The development of thermochemistry and (later) of polymer chemistry enabled manmade materials, shown in the colored zones. Three stone, bronze and iron were of such importance that the era of their dominance is named after them.
7 Classifications of Materials With technological progress, natural materials become insufficient to meet increasing demands on product capabilities and functions. Metals Materials Polymers Ceramics Composites
8 What is composite?
9 Introduction to Composite Materials Historical Perspective Used in ancient Egypt, Americas, and China Straw was used to reinforce bricks Many natural materials are composites Wood, grasses, bones, fingernails, bee hives, bird nests, deer antlers, etc. Composite Materials
10 Introduction to Composite Materials Wood (a natural composite as distinguished from a synthesized composite). This is one of the oldest and the most widely used structural material. It is a composite of strong and flexible cellulose fibers (linear polymer) surrounded and held together by a matrix of lignin and other polymers. Wood has extreme anisotropy because 90 to 95% of all the cells are elongated and vertical (i.e. aligned parallel to the tree trunk). The remaining 5 to 10% of cells are arranged in radial directions, with no cells at all aligned tangentially. Wood is ten times stronger in the axial direction than in the radial or tangential directions. The properties of wood are anisotropic and vary widely among types of wood. A cut-through of a tree trunk Composite Materials
11 Introduction to Composite Materials A composite material is a macroscopic, physical combination of two or more materials in which one material usually provides reinforcement. In most composites one material is continuous and is termed the matrix, while the second, usually discontinuous phase, is termed the reinforcement, in some cases filler is applied. FUNCTION: Dispersed (reinforcing) phase... The second phase (or phases) is imbedded in the matrix in a continuous or discontinuous form. Dispersed phase is usually stronger than the matrix, therefore it is sometimes called reinforcing phase. Can be one of the three basic materials or an element such as carbon or boron
12 Introduction to Composite Materials Matrix material serves several functions in the composite Provides the bulk form of the part or product Holds the imbedded phase in place Shares the load with the secondary phase Protect the reinforcements from surface damage due to abrasion or chemical effect Bonding strength between reinforcement and matrix is important
13 Introduction to Composite Materials Matrix... The continuous phase, the primary phase Purpose is to: transfer stress to other phases protect phases from environment Matrix considerations... End use temperature Toughness Cosmetic ıssues Flame retardant Processing method Adhesion requirements
14 Introduction to Composite Materials Composite Materials Combination of 2 or more materials Each of the materials must exist more than 5% Presence of interphase The properties shown by the composite materials are differed from the initial materials Can be produced by various processing techniques Composite materials- a new emerging class of materials to overcome a current limits of monolithic of conventional materials
15 Introduction to Composite Materials Composites are not new materials. Perhaps the first important engineering structural composite was the Biblical straw-reinforced, sun-dried mud brick adobe. Laminated structures such as bows have been used since prehistoric times. In the early 1900s doped fabric was employed in early aircraft surfaces. Reinforced phenolics were developed in the 1930s and glass-reinforced plastics in the 1940s. More recently, emphasis turned to reinforcements, with graphitic and boronbased fibers developed in the 1960s. High-performance aramids, such as Kevlar, were developed in the 1970s. This and the previous decade have seen new developments in both fiber and matrix with lightweight aerospace MMCs and high-temperature CMCs showing major advances. Composite Materials
16 COMPOSITE MATERIALS Composite materials have been utilized to solve technological problems for a long time but only in the 1960s did these materials start capturing the attention of industries with the introduction of polymeric-based composites. The primary barrier to the use of composite materials is their high initial costs in some cases, as compared to traditional materials. Regardless of how effective the material will be over its life cycle, industry considers high upfront costs, particularly when the life-cycle cost is relatively uncertain. In general, the cost of processing composites is high, especially in the hand lay-up process. Here, raw material costs represent a small fraction of the total cost of a finished product. There is already evidence of work moving to Asia, Mexico, and Korea for the cases where labor costs are a significant portion of the total product costs. The recycling of composite materials presents a problem when penetrating a highvolume market such as the automotive industry, where volume production is in the millions of parts per year. With the new goverment regulations and environmental awareness, the use of composites has become a concern and poses a big challenge for recycling.
17 Driving Force for Composites Common driving forces for the use of composite materials include the ability to save weight, increase mechanical properties, reduce the number of elements in a component, obtain a unique combination of properties, and to increase shaping freedom. Increasingly, composites are being used for the above while also achieving a reduction in part cost. Many of these driving forces, together with the manufacturing cycle, often offset the higher raw material costs of the composite constituents to produce a commercially viable end product. The criteria on which composite materials are selected for a particular application are naturally dependent on the industrial sector for which they are intended. Composite Materials
18 Driving Force for Composites For example, aerospace has traditionally been driven by performance, where longer cycle times and increased scrap levels were tolerated, whereas high volume applications, typified by the automotive industry, require rapid and highly automated techniques but where the full potential of composites in terms of mechanical properties is seldom reached. Composite materials selection criteria as a functional of industrial sector
19 Why are composites used instead of metals/ceramics or polymers?
20 Introduction to Composite Materials CERAMICS Hard, corrosion and wear resistant BUT BRITTLE METALS Soft, conductive, high fracture toughnes, ductile HEAVY, low temperature use GLASSES Non-crystalline solid, hard, brittle, vulnerable to stress concentration POLYMERS Easy to shape Low modulus, low temperature use If two heads are better than one, could two materials be better than one? - COMPOSITES
21 Introduction to Composite Materials A comparison of the properties of ceramics, metals, and polymers If two heads are better than one, could two materials be better than one? - COMPOSITES Composite Materials
22 Design Objectives Performance: Strength, Temperature Manufacturing Techniques Life Cycle Considerations Cost
24 COMPOSITE MATERIALS Composite materials are combinations of materials put together to achieve particular function.
25 COMPOSITE MATERIALS ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS Unique combination of properties For example, tungsten wire is very stiff (405 GPa) but very dense (19.3 Mgm -3 ). A combination of graphite fibre in epoxy resin is nearly as stiff (306 GPa) but with a density of only 1.5 Mgm -3. The carbon fibre itself is much stiffer than the tungsten; values up to 1000GPa at a density of 2.6 M gm 3 are possible.
26 COMPOSITE MATERIALS ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS Properties can be controlled in a wide range If only a small number of simple materials are available the variation of a given property among those materials is digitised to the values the individual materials may show. Figure given below shows the variation of coefficient of expansion with volume fraction for a composite consisting of aluminium containing silicon carbide particles. It is seen that matching the coefficient of thermal expansion with that of other materials is easily obtained. The similar nondigitisation of properties is important in, for example, acoustic wave devices and in many other matching situations, e.g., in prosthetic devices.
27 COMPOSITE MATERIALS ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS Properties can be controlled in a wide range Variation of coefficient of thermal expansion with volume fraction of SiC particles in aluminium. Ordinate values x 10-6 K -1.
28 COMPOSITE MATERIALS ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS Composites can sometimes attain a value of a given physical property not attainable by either of the two components alone. Thermal conductivity of various materials are given below and it is quite clear there that composites can attain a lower thermal conductivity than that of others. This may be regarded as a rather special example since the combination is with air or vacuum as one of the components. However, it indicates the generally important message, which stimulates the imagination, that often empty space can be an important component of the properties of a solid.
29 Advantages of Composites
30 Advantages of Composites Low weight, high specific properties (many natural, and biological materials are composites) Use of extremely high property (strength and modulus) constituents Design flexibility: The rule-of-mixtures - an additional design degree of freedom Synergistic effects: Role of the interface, of heterogeneity / anisotropy / hierarchy Anisotropy: property directionality Heterogeneity: chemical variability
31 Limitations of Composites Some of the associated disadvantages of advanced composites are as follows: High cost of raw materials and fabrication. Composites are more brittle than wrought metals and thus are more easily damaged. Transverse properties may be weak. Matrix is weak, therefore, low toughness. Reuse and disposal may be difficult. Difficult to attach
32 Limitations of Composites Properties of many important composites are anisotropic - the properties differ depending on the direction in which they are measured this may be an advantage or a disadvantage Many of the polymer-based composites are subject to attack by chemicals or solvents, just as the polymers themselves are susceptible to attack Composite materials are generally expensive Manufacturing methods for shaping composite materials are often slow and costly
33 Limitations of Composites Repair introduces new problems, for the following reasons: Materials require refrigerated transport and storage and have limited shelf life. Hot curing is necessary in many cases requiring special tooling. Hot or cold curing takes time. Analysis is difficult. Matrix is subject to environmental degradation.
Introduction to Aerospace Engineering Lecture slides Challenge the future 1 Material types Metals, polymers, ceramics, composites Faculty of Aerospace Engineering 6-12-2011 Delft University of Technology
Composite Materials Mary P. Shafer Fabric Development, Inc. Quakertown, PA 18951 Composite Material Two inherently different materials that when combined together produce a material with properties that
Composite Design Fundamentals David Richardson Contents A review of the fundamental characteristics of composites Stiffness and Strength Anisotropic Role of fibre, matrix and interface Composite failure
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND THERMAL EXPANSION COEFFICIENT OF GFRP COMPOSITE LAMINATES WITH FILLERS K. Devendra $ and T. Rangaswamy & $ Asst. Professor, Dept. of Mech. Engineering, SKSVMACET, Laxmeshwar, KA,
ISSN (ONLINE): 2321-3051 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN AERONAUTICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING FABRICATION, TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF ALUMINIUM 2024 METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE Abstract Marlon Jones Louis
Complex shaped PMI Foam Cores for highly efficient FRP Composite ROHACELL Triple F Sandwich Fabrication for low to - A Novel Particle Foam high volume applications SAMPE tesdr. Kay Brazil Conference 2015
Engineering Material Ferrous material; A general classification of engineering materials is shown in Figure 1.8. Engineering material can be broadly classified as Metallic and Non-Metallic materials. The
T E C H N I C A L D A T A S H E E T PEKK THERMOPLASTIC POLYMER PEKK Thermoplastic Polymer DESCRIPTION Cytec Engineered Materials PEKK composites consist of a matrix of poly(etherketoneketone) polymer with
SECTION 2 INTRODUCTION TO EXTREN Look for this blue line in the left margin of the Design Manual documents. This line shows you where the latest update has been made. 2-1 (This page left blank intentionally)
EPOXY - NG1001 Formulated Resin System for Pre-preg Process General information Description: TECHNICAL DATA SHEET EPOXY - NG1001 is a formulated epoxy based resin system for hot melt pre-preg and pressure
Training Objective After watching the video and reviewing this printed material, the viewer will gain knowledge and understanding of the nature of composite materials and the ways in which these materials
Broad Base. Best Solutions. COMPOSITEs Fibers and MATERIALS SIGRAFIL Continuous Carbon Fiber Tow 2 Carbon fibers and composites made by SGL Group. Q Comprehensive product range Q Integrated value chain
SOLVING SECONDARY CONTAINMENT PROBLEMS CEILCOTE CORROSION CONTROL PRODUCTS Leadership in Corrosion Problem Solving CEILCOTE As the pioneer and technological leader in polymer linings, coatings and flooring
4.461: Building Technology 1 CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS Professor John E. Fernandez FALL TERM 2004 SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING: MIT Concrete and Composites Stadelhofen Station Zurich Santiago Calatrava
A Brief History on Corrosion Derakane epoxy vinyl ester resins: The Evolution of Corrosion Resistant FRP Corrosion in industrial processes has always threatened pipes, ducting, process equipment, scrubbers
ME349 Engineering Design Projects Introduction to Materials Selection The Material Selection Problem Design of an engineering component involves three interrelated problems: (i) selecting a material, (ii)
Topic 1 Study Guide 1 about the general properties of resistant materials. Properties Working characteristics What are Properties and Working Characteristics? When designing a product using resistant materials,
Recycling of plastic composites as basis for a competitive advantage h - GenVind Consortium Justine Beauson (DTU) Qian Wang (Aalborg Universitet) Aalborg Universitet Institut for Kemi, Miljø og Bioteknologi
HexPly 8552 Epoxy matrix (180 C/356 F curing matrix) Product Data Description HexPly 8552 is a high performance tough epoxy matrix for use in primary aerospace structures. It exhibits good impact resistance
Introduction to Composite Materials and Structures Nachiketa Tiwari Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Lecture 13 Other Manufacturing Methods for Composites Composite Fabrication Using Preformed Molding
External Wrapping of Steel Riser Pipe Case Study HJ3 CS200902 Introduction Refineries process a wide variety of petroleum products. As part of the process, they rely on cooling towers, which recycle water
New glass solutions for pultrusion World Pultrusion Conference, April 8 th and 9 th, Barcelona Eric Dallies, Owens Corning Reinforcements Owens Corning in Composites Commercialized glass fibers in 1939
About HEXCEL Hexcel is the largest US producer of carbon fibre; the world s largest weaver of structural fabrics; the number one producer of composite materials such as prepregs, film adhesives and honeycomb;
Wear protection of pump components using hard coatings Abstract Pump components are subject to wear, corrosion and cavitation damage in service, which reduces pump efficiency and component life and significantly
MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEEL RWL-34 RWL 34 is a Rapid Solidified Powder (RSP) Martensitic Stainless Steel, which is variation of the 420 martensitic stainless steel family with minimum 13 percent chromium
Introduction to Metallography Metallography has been described as both a science and an art. Traditionally, metallography has been the study of the microscopic structure of metals and alloys using optical
The Fundamental Principles of Composite Material Stiffness Predictions David Richardson Contents Description of example material for analysis Prediction of Stiffness using Rule of Mixtures (ROM) ROM with
I Applications and Benefits of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) Table of Content 1 Introduction...1 2 Improved Properties...1 3 Potential Applications...1 3.1 Current / short-term applications...3
Solid Cellular Materials Simon Cox University of Wales Aberystwyth firstname.lastname@example.org Define foam? First make a foam which Plateau would recognise, then freeze it. To make an open cell foam, remove the films.
FIBERGLASS REINFORCED PLASTIC (FRP) PIPING SYSTEMS DESIGNING PROCESS / FACILITIES PIPING SYSTEMS WITH FRP A COMPARISON TO TRADITIONAL METALLIC MATERIALS Prepared by: Kevin Schmit, Project Engineer Specialty
MATERIALS FORUM VOLUME 28 - Published 2004 Edited by J.F. Nie, A.J. Morton and B.C. Muddle Institute of Materials Engineering Australasia Ltd 24 Developments and Challenges for Aluminum A Boeing Perspective
Module 3 Machinability Lesson 1 Cutting Tool Materials of common use Instructional Objectives At the end of this lesson, the students will be able to (i) Identify the needs and cite the chronological development
Experiment: Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials Objective To investigate the strength and stiffness characteristics of laminated composite materials as a function of fiber orientation. Abstract Composites
Broad Base. Best Solutions. COMPOSITEs Fibers and MATERIALS SIGRAPREG Prepregs Made from Carbon, Glass, and Aramid Fibers 2 Carbon fibers and composites made by SGL Group. Q Comprehensive product range
DEVELOPMENTS IN SPRAY APPLIED COATINGS FOR THE PROTECTION OF PROCESS VESSELS Presented By : Mr. Ron Campbell Senior Vice President Belzona Asia Pacific NACE Jubail Meeting October 2009 Protective Coatings
CHAPTER 1 Knowledge and Comprehension Problems: 1.1 What are the main classes of engineering materials? Answer1.1: Metallic, polymeric, ceramic, composite, and electronic materials are the five main classes.
Infrastructure The Original Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer System Phone: 52.292.39 Toll Free: 866.38.269 Fax: 52.48.5274 282 E. Fort Lowell Rd. Tucson, AZ 8576 www.dowaksausa.com Test results are supported
1 P age Module 3 : Sewer Material Lecture 3 : Sewer Material 2 P age 3.1 Important Factors Considered for Selecting Material for Sewer Following factors should be considered before selecting material for
Usak University Journal of Material Sciences journal homepage: http://uujms.usak.edu.tr Research article Mechanical properties of bi axial glass fiber and pistachio shell reinforced polyester composites
THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE REPAIR METHODOLOGY On the stage of the repair project, repairing and operating the repaired object arises a number of issues in material science and technology
MATEC Web of Conferences 6, 06002 (2013) DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/20130606002 C Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2013 Experimental assessment of concrete damage due to exposure to high temperature
Girish P. Kelkar, Ph.D. (562) 743-7576 email@example.com www.welding-consultant.com Weld Cracks An Engineer s Worst Nightmare There are a variety of physical defects such as undercut, insufficient
Selective Laser Sintering of Duraform TM Polyamide with Small-Scale Features Vinay Sriram, Kristin Wood, David Bourell and Joseph J Beaman Department of Mechanical Engineering Laboratory of Freeform Fabrication
POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES Master in Nanoscience Low dimensional systems and nanostructures January 24 th 2008 Lourdes del Valle Carrandi POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES INTRODUCTION WHY NANOCOMPOSITES? POLYMER MATRICES
GLOBAL MANUFACTURING ARAUJO, Anna Carla AUG, 2015 Mechanical Engineering Department POLI/COPPE/UFRJ Changing Schedule: 5-24/8 - Fabrication of Plastic, Ceramics and Composites 6-26/8 Fabrication of Ceramics
Chapter Four PERFORMANCE Fatigue A fundamental problem concerning the engineering uses of fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) is the determination of their resistance to combined states of cyclic stress. [4-1]
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 232 243, Article ID: IJMET_07_02_025 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?jtype=ijmet&vtype=7&itype=2
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: GLASS Physical vs. Chemical Properties The forensic scientist must constantly determine those properties that impart distinguishing characteristics to matter, giving it a unique identity.
AUSTENITIC STAINLESS DAMASCENE STEEL Damasteel s austenitic stainless Damascene Steel is a mix between types 304L and 316L stainless steels which are variations of the 18 percent chromium 8 percent nickel
Aramid Fibre/Phenolic Honeycomb Product Data Description HexWeb HRH-10 is manufactured from aramid fibre sheets. A thermosetting adhesive is used to bond these sheets at the nodes, and, after expanding
EUROLAB 25 years The role of metrology and testing to characterize materials and products April 9, 2015, Odense Danmark 1 Origin of Conformity Assessment The New Approach for the European Economic Community
COMPOSITE FIBRE 11 PLASTIC MATERIAL 81 82 GOOD INDUSTRY PRACTICES 11 COMPOSITE FIBRE PLASTIC MATERIAL Natural wood has certain qualities that predispose its use in buildings, especially in outdoor applications.
Ceralink Capabilities and Opportunities Dr. Holly Shulman President, Materials Scientist Ceralink Inc. Rensselaer Technology Park 105 Jordan Rd. Troy, New York 12180 firstname.lastname@example.org www.ceralink.com
2-Introduction to Structure and Bonding in Materials 2-1-Sub-Atomic Structure Electrons and their interaction with the nucleus of the atom. The Bohr model is a simplified view of the arrangement of sub-atomic
Introduction to Materials and Manufacturing Processes Module Leader Dr. N S Mahesh 1 Session Objectives At the end of the session delegates should have understood Overview of materials and manufacturing
International Journal Dr. G L Shekar: Preparation and Characterization of Nanocrystalline CuS Thin Films for Dye-Sensitized Solar cells, ISRN Nanomaterials, Article ID 829430, 8 pp. 2012 Preparation and
Pierre Marchand, product director, speciality product Meeting NEI-NRC March 14th 2013 Agenda Dubuc works: location and overview MMC fabrication process at Rio Tinto Alcan Boralcan product caracteristics
30 Plastic Bonded Magnets History Development of plastic bonded, injection moulded hard ferrite magnets: End of the 1950s Use: Beginning of the 1960s Development of plastic bonded, injection moulded NdFeB
Composites Manufacturing 1 Composites 2 What is a composite Material? Two or more chemically distinct materials combined to have improved properties Natural/synthetic Wood is a natural composite of cellulose
Manufacturing Process and Material Properties of Carbon and Graphite Materials Schunk Kohlenstofftechnik Carbon and graphite materials are manufactured according to processes based on conventional ceramic
Training Objective After watching this video and reviewing the printed material, the student/trainee will learn the basic concepts of the heat treating processes as they pertain to carbon and alloy steels.
PAGE 1/10 1 Density The density of optical glass varies from 239 for N-BK10 to 603 for SF66 In most cases glasses with higher densities also have higher refractive indices (eg SF type glasses) The density
Products / Interface Materials / Adhesives Adhesives Bond 1500 Epoxy casting system for potting and encapsulation Bond 1600 Two part epoxy for bonding Bond 2000 Rapid cure acrylic adhesive bond High strength
CHAPTER10 MATERIALS SUBSTITUTION 1 Chapter 10: Goal and objectives The goal of this chapter is to analyze the various incentives and constraints involved in substituting one material for another in making
Applications Chassis & Suspension Brake system Table of Contents 5 Brake system... 2 5.1 Introduction... 2 5.2 Aluminium in the braking system... 4 5.3 Components of the braking system... 6 5.4 Disc and
Lapping and Polishing Basics Applications Laboratory Report 54 Lapping and Polishing 1.0: Introduction Lapping and polishing is a process by which material is precisely removed from a workpiece (or specimen)
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON COATINGS Surfaces exposed to the environment, may be damaged by elements such as water, snow, ice, heat, dirt, smog, humidity, brake dust, grime, salts, chemical attack, and acid
Combining Orientation Imaging Microscopy and Nanoindentation to investigate localized deformation behaviour Felix Reinauer René de Kloe Matt Nowell Introduction Anisotropy in crystalline materials Presentation
Doctor Blades Doctor Blades Total Blade Inventory Management Program for Greater Safety and Convenience. How many different kinds of blades are used on your machine? How many do you really need? What's
26 TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE AERONAUTICAL SCIENCES CARBON/DYNEEMA INTRALAMINAR HYBRIDS: NEW STRATEGY TO INCREASE IMPACT RESISTANCE OR DECREASE MASS OF CARBON FIBER COMPOSITES J. G. H. Bouwmeester*,
North American Stainless Long Products Stainless Steel Grade Sheet AISI 310S S31008 EN 1.4845 AISI 314 S31400 EN 1.4841 INTRODUCTION Types 310S SS and 314 SS are highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels
E644 is a toughened epoxy resin system for low temperature cures, pre-impregnated into high performance fibers such as carbon, glass & aramid. Designed for the production of composite structures in the
The optimum material solution for Low Voltage energy cables About Borealis and Borouge Borealis is a leading provider of innovative solutions in the fields of polyolefins, base chemicals and fertilizers.
North American Stainless Long Products Stainless Steel Grade Sheet 2205 UNS S2205 EN 1.4462 2304 UNS S2304 EN 1.4362 INTRODUCTION Types 2205 and 2304 are duplex stainless steel grades with a microstructure,
Polystyrene Recycling Sean Derrick Green Manufacturing Initiative Sept. 14 th, 2010 Polystyrene (PS) Aromatic polymer made from styrene monomers Cheap relatively easy to manufacture and process Thermoplastic
FEATURES AND BENEFITS OF DIFFERENT PLATINUM ALLOYS Kris Vaithinathan and Richard Lanam Engelhard Corporation Introduction There has been a significant increase in the world wide use of platinum for jewelry
SIMPLE, EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE RIBS: DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTION ORIENTATED ADVANCED COMPOSITE RIBS Dr M A Hobbs, SP, UK SUMMARY Advanced composites using epoxy resin and carbon fibre reinforcements can bring
LASER MACHINING OF MELT INFILTRATED CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITE Jarmon, D. C. 1, Ojard, G. 2, and Brewer, D. 3 1 United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT 2 Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT
géopolymère GEOPOLYMER for Repair and Rehabilitation of Reinforced concrete beams Project GEO-STRUCTURE Fire-Proof External repair and structural retrofit for aging infrastructure, aging buildings, earthquake