Energy. Environmental Science 101. Fall Learning Objectives: Reading Assignment: Energy

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1 Environmental Science 101 Energy Fall Lecture Outline: 7. NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES A. Energy Sources and Uses in USA B. Current Consumption, Uses and Costs 1. Consumption 2. Energy Costs C. Fossil Fuels 1. Definitions 2. Coal 3. Oil 4. Natural Gas 5. Synfuels D. Nuclear Energy Terms You Should Know: Energy Petroleum Work Crude oil Power Petrochemicals Fossil fuels Natural gas Proven reserves Coal Estimated reserves Oil Resources Propane Production Butane Kerogen Synfuels Fission Oil shale Three Mile Island Tar sands Breeder reactor U-235 Chernobyl Artic National Wildlife Refuge Learning Objectives: When you are finished with this unit you should be able to: 1. Describe the evolution of energy use in the United States. 2. Name and describe the 3 major fossil fuels currently used in the USA. 3. Contrast U.S. oil production and consumption in 1970, 1985, 2000, and Contrast the outlook for nuclear power in the 1960s, 10s and 20 years into the future. 5. List the environmental advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power compared to fossil fuels. Reading Assignment: Brennan and Withgott: Chapter 19; pages

2 7. NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES 2 Second principle of ecosystem sustainability: A. ENERGY SOURCES AND USES IN USA TRADITIONAL: y y Domestic animals y 1700s: Machinery (need a power source) Steam engine y y Pushes a piston back and forth in a cylinder Fuel source: Coal dominated fuels by 1800s dominant up to 1940 industrial processes in 1920 coal provided 80% of the USA s energy

3 Developments of the late 1800s: 3 y y y Capacity to refine crude oil into gasoline and other fuels OIL started to replace coal fired engines and furnaces gas and diesel engines TODAY: P P P P P % OIL % NATURAL GAS % COAL % NUCLEAR POWER % RENEWABLE y Similar in other developed countries ENERGY CONSUMPTION: % Electric power generation % Transportation % Industrial % Residential (commercial, space heaters, lighting, motors) 100%

4 B. CURRENT CONSUMPTION, USES AND COSTS 4 1. Consumption Worldwide Current energy consumption worldwide: World Energy Use, 1900 and 2004 Source (est) Fossil fuels Nuclear power Renewables TOTAL millions of tons of oil equivalent Modified from Reinventing the Energy Systems by C. Flavin and S. Dunn. In: State of the World 19, by Lester R. Brown Fossil Fuels (petroleum, natural gas, coal) y y

5 Per capita consumption: 5 y HDC s consumption (as % of total world production) oil natural gas coal World Change in Energy Consumption Source Change Fossil fuels Natural gas Oil Coal Overall Nuclear Power Renewables Wind Solar Geothermal Hydropower a. U.S. Consumption 5% of world s population

6 energy source USA 6 y USA per capita energy consumption: y Poorer LDC s per capita energy consumption: y In USA: 2. Energy Costs y Energy is expensive y y Non-renewable energy use comes with a high environmental price y Non-renewable energy use (fossil fuels) contributes to:

7 C. FOSSIL FUELS 7 1. Definitions PROVEN RESERVES based on exploration and evaluation of extent and depth of oil, gas or coal fields ESTIMATED RESERVES educated guesses as to where exploitable oil, gas or coal fields are RESOURCES educated guesses as to the amount of oil, gas or coal materials that will one day be reserves. Excessive costs or lack of technology prevent calling these materials reserves. PRODUCTION withdrawal of oil, gas or coal from the field 2. Coal y y Coal deposits are at least 10X more extensive than oil and gas combined y if all were to be extracted, would have 2,000 years supply y Deposit distribution: USA / Canada Former USSR China Asia Africa Europe Other

8 y Coal is mined from below ground or surface strip mines 8 y Major problem with coal is pollution high S coal acid mine drainage y Most coal in USA is burned for electricity production y Coal use is in decline because: 3. Oil y Organic PETROLEUM or CRUDE OIL is a thick liquid containing many combustible hydrocarbons y Oil resources: 2008 proven reserves: probable discovery: total: current use rates =

9 at proven reserve level, enough oil for 41 years 9 if consumption grows at 6% a year y Oil reserve distribution Saudi Arabia Iraq Iran United Arab Emirates Kuwait USA y Oil demand: a. USA Oil Situation y Up until 1947, USA was greatest oil exporter y y Reserves of 58,000,000,000 barrels (3% of world total) y Greatest potential for new discoveries: y USA oil use: transportation industry building electric utilities

10 y USA imports as share of oil use PEAK OIL maxing out of global oil production, the point after which each succeeding year produces less oil y The independent Association for the Study of Peak Oil (ASPO) predicts: Projected Oil Demand: Year China USA World Supply million barrels per day Natural Gas Mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbons

11 a. Production and Movement 11 y Major producers (60%) y Movement primarily by pipeline b. Use #1 INDUSTRY #2 RESIDENCES water heaters, stoves, dryers #3 ELECTRICITY is #3 after coal and nuclear 18% of USA's electricity c. Reserves 30 to 50 years reserve supply (USA)

12 Natural gas reserves are increasing 12 FRACKING Fracking has/may: d. Prices prices have steeply increased in the last 20 years 2006 prices: $10 per 1,000 cubic feet e. Consumer Prices consumers purchase in therms f. Environment better than coal still emits CO 2

13 13 g. Trade difficult to transport overseas have to liquify NG for trade 9 9 then transport by tankers imports from 5. Synfuels y Synfuels are petroleum based y Synfuels consist of: y Are unconventional oil resources y y In theory tar sands and oil shale can more than double oil reserves but at tremendous social, economic and environmental costs a. Oil Shale y Vast deposits in western USA

14 14 y World-wide reserves: USA: y Currently mined in: y Oil < $40 per barrel y > $40 per barrel y Sedimentary rock rich in solid organic materials called KEROGEN apply heat (900 F) expensive extraction process that: b. Tar Sands y Vast deposits in Alberta and Venezuela y Can extract oil with hot water, chemicals or stripping processes y A plant that could produce 125,000 barrels of oil per day, would produce:

15 y Also called y Alberta deposits y Mine, extract, and separate to remove bitumen y 40% of Alberta's oil production By 2025: y 50% y 10% Reserves: y Alberta y Saudia Arabia y Entire Middle East Resources Alberta

16 Economics: 16 y Production costs: y S. Arabia oil: Waste problems: 2 tons sand = = land disturbance c. Converting Coal to Oil y Fisher-Tropsch technology (1923) y Nazi's used it in WWII y 1952 y 1980s Economics: Current interest y Montana: y Pennsylvania:

17 y West Virginia: 17 D. NUCLEAR ENERGY Fueled by naturally occurring uranium-235 (U-235) Using uranium to create nuclear fission (splitting) of another uranium atom and release of heat 7% of USA s energy Cost a big factor: in 1970 nuclear power was in 10 nuclear power was Nuclear power is on the decline because of: safety fears waste potential plutonium thefts Ultimate goal is the BREEDER REACTOR high density, high pressure reactors that produce fuel rather than consume it y If we do get to breeder and can safely dispose of wastes, nuclear power might shift into the sustainable energy category

18 Current nuclear power drawbacks: 18 (1) waste disposal problems (2) environmental contamination with long-lasting radioactive materials from accidents (3) (4) (5) (6) low social acceptability (7) high construction costs (8) lack of financial support (insurance & banks) (9) (10) (11) what to do with plants after useful lifespan is finished The Nuclear Debate Europe: France Italy Germany Finland Finland: 2-year national debate

19 Pros: 19

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