Immunology in pathology (immunopathology) Patology. immunology in pathology. immunologic response. lecture 3

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Immunology in pathology (immunopathology) Patology. immunology in pathology. immunologic response. lecture 3"

Transcription

1 Patology Immunology in pathology (immunopathology) lecture 3 prof. dr hab. n. med. Andrzej Marszałek immunology in pathology Diseases with immunologic mechanism of tissue injury. Hypersensitivity reactions: Type I Type II Type III Type IV Amyloidosis immunologic response

2 - surface barriers - phagocytosis: - neutrophils - macrophages - NK cells - serum proteins - eg. complement elements - lectins binding mannose - C-reactive protein - TLR receptors phagocytosis lymphocytes/ NK cells antibodies

3 disorders of the immune system hypersensitivity reactions autoimmune disease immunologic deficiency syndromes amyloidosis hypersensitivity reactions type I hypersensitivity type I hypersensitivity develops rapidly after the combination of an antigen with antibody (IgE) bound to mast cells or bazophils. when IgE bounds to alergen it leads to: realese of vasoactive amins and mediators which have influence on vascular permeability, constriction of smooth muscle cells in many organs, realese of cytokines, which provoke inflow of inflammatory cells - anaphylaxis - allergies - bronchial asthma (atopic forms) production of IgE - vascular dilatation immediate release of - edema vasoactive amines - smooth muscle and other mediators contraction from mast cells; recruitment of - mucus production inflammatory cells - inflammation (late-phase reaction)

4 type II hypersensitivity type II hypersensitivity Diseases mediated by antibodies Pathologic changes are caused by humoral antibodies, which bind to antigens on the tissue surface or cell surface leading to processes which increase susceptibility of cell to phagocytosis or lysis caused by complement system. -Autoimmune hemolytic anemia -Goodpasture syndrome Production of IgG, IgM binds Ag on target cells/tissues phagocytosis or lysis of target cells by activated complement or Fc rec.; recruitment of leukocytes - cell lysis -inflammation type III hypersensitivity type III hypersensitivity immune complex disease ; antibodies binds to antigens forming complexes, which deposits in vascular wall and activate complement system. immune complexes and fragments of activated complement attract neutrophils and monocytes. Finally in immune complexes diseases activated complement and enzymes and other toxic molecules (e.g.. oxygen metabolites) released from neutrophils cause tissue damage. -SLE -Arthusa reaction -some GN -serum sickness Deposition of Ag-Ab complexes complement activation recruitment of leukocytes complement products or Fc. rec. release of enzymes or other toxic molecules -necrotizing vasculitis (fibrinoid necrosis) -inflammation

5 type IV hypersensitivity type IV hypersensitivity delayed type hypersensitivity cell mediated hypersensitivity diseases caused by cell mediated response in which tissue and cell injury is initiated by antigen-sensitized T lymphocytes -tuberculosis -transplant rejection -DM type I -multiple sclerosis -Contact dermatitis Activated T lymphocytes i) release of cytokines and macrophage activation -perivascular cellular infiltrates -edema -cell destruction -granulomas ii) T cell-mediated cytotoxicity autoimmune diseases rare (about 5%), with exception RA autoimmunologic thyroiditis activation of T and B lymphocytes without infection slight autoreactivity is physiologic

6 scleroderma) generalized abnormality in Fas protein or its receptor demyelinization syndromes after Campylobacter jejuni infection autoreactive lymphocytes B producing autoantibodies against ganglioside Guillain-Barré syndrome over activation of T lymphocytes by jejunal flora inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) transplant rejection amyloidosis

7 amyloidosis group of desesaes tissue deposits of insoluble β-plited protein deposits deposits reveal yellow-green birefringence in polarizing microscope

Type I. Type II. Type III. Type IV Delayed type, cell mediated. Allergy (immediate) cytotoxic, antibody-dependent. Immune complex diseases

Type I. Type II. Type III. Type IV Delayed type, cell mediated. Allergy (immediate) cytotoxic, antibody-dependent. Immune complex diseases Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system Vahid Naseri Supervised: horand; berzsu Type I Allergy (immediate) Type II cytotoxic, antibody-dependent Type III Immune

More information

Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune disorders

Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune disorders Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune disorders Dr Udani Kiriwandeniya Consultant Histopathologist/Senior lecturer Learning utcomes At the end of this section the student should be able to 1.Briefly describe

More information

Types of Hypersensitivity. Type I: Allergic Reactions. more on Allergic Reactions

Types of Hypersensitivity. Type I: Allergic Reactions. more on Allergic Reactions Chapter 19: Disorders of the Immune System 1. Hypersensitivity 2. Autoimmunity 3. Transplant Rejection 1. Hypersensitivity What is Hypersensitivity? Hypersensitivity is an immunological state in which

More information

Immune system Disorders. Chapter 19

Immune system Disorders. Chapter 19 Immune system Disorders Chapter 19 I. Hypersensitivity Definition Once sensitized with an antigen (allergen) the immune system responds to a subsequent exposure by reacting with it in a way that damages

More information

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Hypersensitivity Reactions Hypersensitivity Reactions Introduction Under some circumstances, immunity, rather than providing protection, produces damaging and sometimes fatal results. Such harmful reactions are known collectively

More information

The Immune System and its Diseases. Part 2. Outline 2/18/2011. Jonathan Fox

The Immune System and its Diseases. Part 2. Outline 2/18/2011. Jonathan Fox The Immune System and its Diseases. Part 2. Jonathan Fox jfox7@uwyo.edu Outline Self and non self Introduction to hypersensitivity and autoimmune diseases Type I hypersensitivity i i mechanism of disease

More information

IMMUNE EFFECTOR MECHANISMS. Antibody-Mediated Reactions

IMMUNE EFFECTOR MECHANISMS. Antibody-Mediated Reactions IMMUNE EFFECTOR MECHANISMS Antibody-Mediated Reactions Immunology - the Double-Edged Sword Immunoprotection Immunopathology Both involve the same immune mechanisms! The balancing act between hyporeactivity

More information

ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES. Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1

ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES. Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1 AP BIOLOGY ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION ACTIVITY #4 NAME DATE HOUR BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1 INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE ANTIMICROBIAL

More information

HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TYPE III&IV

HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TYPE III&IV HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TYPE III&IV LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of the lecture student should be able to understand: What is type III Hypersensitivity reactions Different eg type III of hypersensitivity

More information

Type II. Antibody-mediated cytotoxic hypersensitivity

Type II. Antibody-mediated cytotoxic hypersensitivity Type II Antibody-mediated cytotoxic hypersensitivity The four types of hypersensitive responses Kuby J et al., Immunology 2003 Type II hypersensitivity reactions (1) - Caused by antibody to cell surface

More information

What makes an antigen to be an allergen?

What makes an antigen to be an allergen? Hypersensitivity - an inappropriate immune response that causes damage to the individual Type I hypersensitivity - mediated by IgE Type II hypersensitivity - mediated by IgG Type III hypersensitivity -

More information

Autoimmunity and immunemediated. FOCiS. Lecture outline

Autoimmunity and immunemediated. FOCiS. Lecture outline 1 Autoimmunity and immunemediated inflammatory diseases Abul K. Abbas, MD UCSF FOCiS 2 Lecture outline Pathogenesis of autoimmunity: why selftolerance fails Genetics of autoimmune diseases Therapeutic

More information

Lymphatic System - Structures

Lymphatic System - Structures Lymphatic System - Structures Lymphatic vessels Lymphatic tissues and organs 1 Lymphatic System - Functions Returns leaked plasma to blood vessels Cleanses lymph of bacteria & other foreign matter Provides

More information

Immune System A&P II

Immune System A&P II Immune System A&P II Lymphatic Outline Lymphatic System Defense Systems Innate Immune System Adaptive Defense System Immunodeficiencies Immune Responses Lymphatic System: Overview Figure 21.1a, b Lymphatic

More information

IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM

IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM 59 IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM 59.1 INTRODUCTION The immune system is engaged in a constant surveillance of the body for pathogens or tumors. Whether disease develops depends on

More information

Immune-Mediated Diseases. In a Nutshell

Immune-Mediated Diseases. In a Nutshell Immune-Mediated Diseases In a Nutshell Objectives Describe the epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis and pathologic changes of autoimmune diseases, including lupus erythematosis, rheumatoid

More information

THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM

THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM components and functions of the complement system complements (C) are heat labile proteins found in mammalian blood and make up the complement system. This complex, multi-component

More information

Immune System. Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II

Immune System. Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II Immune System Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II 21 The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses Which of the following best describes the immune system? a. the set of organs

More information

11/20/2011. Outline. Immune System Function. Terminology. Two Types of Immune Defense. Innate Immunity = Non Specific

11/20/2011. Outline. Immune System Function. Terminology. Two Types of Immune Defense. Innate Immunity = Non Specific Chapter 43 Immune System Outline I. Nonspecific Defenses A. Barrier B. Protective proteins C. Phagocytes D. Natural killer cells E. Inflammatory reaction II. Specific Defenses A. B cells Antibody mediated

More information

LECTURE 4 IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY: ALLERGY

LECTURE 4 IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY: ALLERGY LECTURE 4 IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY: ALLERGY Allergies represent TYPE I reactions according to the Gell and Coombs classification. Most are caused by IgE ANTIBODIES which are capable of binding to Fc-

More information

Immunity and Abnormal Responses. Immune System. The Normal Immune Response. Bio 375. Pathophysiology

Immunity and Abnormal Responses. Immune System. The Normal Immune Response. Bio 375. Pathophysiology Immunity and Abnormal Responses Bio 375 Pathophysiology Immune System The immune system is a major component of the body s defenses It is a SPECIFIC defense, responding to particular substances: Cells

More information

1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors.

1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors. Prof. Lester s BIOL 210 Practice Exam 4 (There is no answer key. Please do not email or ask me for answers.) Chapters 15, 16, 17, 19, HIV/AIDS, TB, Quorum Sensing 1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins

More information

M I C R O B I O L O G Y WITH DISEASES BY TAXONOMY, THIRD EDITION

M I C R O B I O L O G Y WITH DISEASES BY TAXONOMY, THIRD EDITION M I C R O B I O L O G Y WITH DISEASES BY TAXONOMY, THIRD EDITION Chapter 18 Other Immune Disorders Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Hypersensitivities Hypersensitivity

More information

PowerPoint Lecture Slides for MICROBIOLOGY. Hypersensitivities, Autoimmune Diseases, and Immune Deficiencies

PowerPoint Lecture Slides for MICROBIOLOGY. Hypersensitivities, Autoimmune Diseases, and Immune Deficiencies PowerPoint Lecture Slides for MICROBIOLOGY Hypersensitivities, Autoimmune Diseases, and Immune Deficiencies Hypersensitivity Any immune response against a foreign antigen that is exaggerated beyond the

More information

B Cells and Antibodies

B Cells and Antibodies B Cells and Antibodies Andrew Lichtman, MD PhD Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School Lecture outline Functions of antibodies B cell activation; the role of helper T cells in antibody production

More information

Chapter 43: The Immune System

Chapter 43: The Immune System Name Period Our students consider this chapter to be a particularly challenging and important one. Expect to work your way slowly through the first three concepts. Take particular care with Concepts 43.2

More information

and Antigen Presentation

and Antigen Presentation 1 Innate Immunity and Antigen Presentation Andrew Lichtman, MD PhD Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School 2 Lecture outline Innate immunity Receptors and mechanisms Roles in disease Antigen

More information

Supplemental Material CBE Life Sciences Education. Su et al.

Supplemental Material CBE Life Sciences Education. Su et al. Supplemental Material CBE Life Sciences Education Su et al. APPENDIX Human Body's Immune System Test This test consists of 31 questions, with only 1 answer to be selected for each question. Please select

More information

Hypersensitivity. TYPE I Hypersensitivity Classic allergy. Allergens. Characteristics of allergens. Allergens. Mediated by IgE attached to Mast cells.

Hypersensitivity. TYPE I Hypersensitivity Classic allergy. Allergens. Characteristics of allergens. Allergens. Mediated by IgE attached to Mast cells. Gel and Coombs classification of hypersensitivities. Hypersensitivity Robert Beatty Type I Type II Type III Type IV MCB150 IgE Mediated IgG/IgM Mediated IgG Mediated T cell Classic Allergy rbc lysis Immune

More information

In 1984, Pfeiffer, demonstrated that some cholera

In 1984, Pfeiffer, demonstrated that some cholera The Complement System Definition The Classical Complement Pathway The Lectin Pathway The Alternative Complement Pathway Ways in which Microorganisms can Resist Body Defenses by Circumventing the Complement

More information

The Adaptive Immune System

The Adaptive Immune System Chapter 17 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Lectures prepared by Christine L. Case The Adaptive Immune System Learning Objectives 17-1 Differentiate innate from adaptive immunity.

More information

Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination KEY October 30, 2003

Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination KEY October 30, 2003 KEY October 30, 2003 All questions have equal point value. You may keep the test questions. Multiple Choice (choose the best answer) 1. Receptors associated with innate immunity recognize microbes by detecting:

More information

Core Topic 2. The immune system and how vaccines work

Core Topic 2. The immune system and how vaccines work Core Topic 2 The immune system and how vaccines work Learning outcome To be able to describe in outline the immune system and how vaccines work in individuals and populations Learning objectives Explain

More information

Chapter 7 Part 2: Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity

Chapter 7 Part 2: Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Name I. Terminology of Hypersensitivity Chapter 7 Part 2: Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity A. Hypersensitivity an altered immunological response to an antigen that results in disease or

More information

CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES. Transport excess tissue fluid back to blood stream

CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES. Transport excess tissue fluid back to blood stream CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES 1. Name the organs that compose the lymphatic system and give three general functions performed by this system. Control Disease Bone Marrow Thymus Transport

More information

The Immune System. 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms. Lines of Defense. Line of Defense. Lines of Defense

The Immune System. 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms. Lines of Defense. Line of Defense. Lines of Defense The Immune System 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms Immune System the system that fights infection by producing cells to inactivate foreign substances to avoid infection and disease. Immunity the body s ability

More information

CHAPTER 21 IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY: ALLERGY

CHAPTER 21 IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY: ALLERGY CHAPTER 21 IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY: ALLERGY Allergies represent TYPE I reactions according to the Gell and Coombs classification. Most are caused by IgE ANTIBODIES which are capable of binding to Fc-receptors

More information

KEY POINTS INFLAMMATION CELLS

KEY POINTS INFLAMMATION CELLS THE IMMUNE RESPONSE IN VARIOUS TISSUES HYPERSENSITIVE & AUTOIMMUNE RESPONSES KEY POINTS The immune system has two responses, cell mediated and humoral, Cell mediated involves T lymphocytes Humoral mediated

More information

Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION

Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION TORTORA FUNKE CASE Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION Differentiate between innate and acquired immunity. Chapter 17 Specific Defenses of the Host: The Immune Response B.E Pruitt & Jane J. Stein

More information

The Lymphatic System

The Lymphatic System The Lymphatic System Transports escaped fluids back to the blood Plays essential roles in body defense and resistance to disease Lymph excess tissue fluid carried by lymphatic vessels Properties of lymphatic

More information

Adaptive Immunity. Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Adaptive Immunity. Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display. 34 Adaptive Immunity Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 34.6 B-cell Biology 1. Describe the B-cell receptor structure and function

More information

The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity

The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity Discussion: Introduction Our immune system protects our bodies from the harmful affects of a dizzying array of disease causing pathogens. Although our

More information

Allergy and Immunology Review Corner: Chapter 17 of Immunology IV: Clinical Applications in Health and Disease, by Joseph A. Bellanti, MD.

Allergy and Immunology Review Corner: Chapter 17 of Immunology IV: Clinical Applications in Health and Disease, by Joseph A. Bellanti, MD. Allergy and Immunology Review Corner: Chapter 17 of Immunology IV: Clinical Applications in Health and Disease, by Joseph A. Bellanti, MD. Chapter 17: Mechanisms of Immunologic Injury Prepared by Meagan

More information

Lecture 11 Immune System & its Diseases II. Dr. Yasmine Lashine MD, PhD

Lecture 11 Immune System & its Diseases II. Dr. Yasmine Lashine MD, PhD Lecture 11 Immune System & its Diseases II Dr. Yasmine Lashine MD, PhD 1 ILOs Distinguish between innate and adaptive immunity. Recall the cells involved in the immune response and define their roles.

More information

VPM 152. INFLAMMATION: Chemical Mediators

VPM 152. INFLAMMATION: Chemical Mediators General Pathology VPM 152 INFLAMMATION: Chemical Mediators CHEMICAL MEDIATORS OF INFLAMMATION Definition: any messenger that acts on blood vessels, inflammatory cells or other cells to contribute to an

More information

Lymph Transport and Immunity

Lymph Transport and Immunity Lymph Transport and Immunity Outline The Lymphatic System Lymph Vessels Lymphoid Organs Nonspecific Defenses Barriers Inflammatory Response Specific Defenses Antibodies T Cells Induced Immunity Active

More information

CHAPTER 14 CELL SURFACE MARKERS OF T-CELLS, B-CELLS AND MACROPHAGES

CHAPTER 14 CELL SURFACE MARKERS OF T-CELLS, B-CELLS AND MACROPHAGES CHAPTER 14 CELL SURFACE MARKERS OF T-CELLS, B-CELLS AND MACROPHAGES An understanding of the distinct families of molecules present on different cells of the immune system provides the tools for distinguishing

More information

AUTOIMMUNITY AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES

AUTOIMMUNITY AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES 64 AUTOIMMUNITY AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES 64.1 INTRODUCTION Normally the function of immune system in our body is to recognize foreign elements and to destroy these before they could harm us either by humoral

More information

Lymph capillaries, Lymphatic collecting vessels, Valves, Lymph Duct, Lymph node, Vein

Lymph capillaries, Lymphatic collecting vessels, Valves, Lymph Duct, Lymph node, Vein WLHS/A&P/Oppelt Name Lymphatic System Practice 1. Figure 12-1 provides an overview of the lymphatic vessels. First color code the following structures. Color code in Figure 12-1 Heart Veins Lymphatic vessels/lymph

More information

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs Lymphatic system functions Transports escaped fluids back

More information

specific B cells Humoral immunity lymphocytes antibodies B cells bone marrow Cell-mediated immunity: T cells antibodies proteins

specific B cells Humoral immunity lymphocytes antibodies B cells bone marrow Cell-mediated immunity: T cells antibodies proteins Adaptive Immunity Chapter 17: Adaptive (specific) Immunity Bio 139 Dr. Amy Rogers Host defenses that are specific to a particular infectious agent Can be innate or genetic for humans as a group: most microbes

More information

Pathogens and the immune system

Pathogens and the immune system Review of lecture 7 Pathogens and the immune system Veronica Leautaud, Ph.D. vl2@ rice.edu BRC 511 / 530-lab Lecture 8 BIOE 301-Bioengineering and World Health Science Science is the human activity of

More information

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Introduction Immune system the body s defenses against pathogens that produce disease 2 types of immunity Nonspecific immune mechanisms (Innate immunity) Provide

More information

Chapter 43: The Immune System

Chapter 43: The Immune System Name Period Our students consider this chapter to be a particularly challenging and important one. Expect to work your way slowly through the first three concepts. Take particular care with Concepts 43.2

More information

Innate immunity: Definition and Importance. Updated: July 2015

Innate immunity: Definition and Importance. Updated: July 2015 Innate immunity: Definition and Importance Updated: July 2015 1 Contents INNATE IMMUNITY... 3 DEFINITION AND IMPORTANCE... 3 Overview of innate immunity in animals... 3 The innate immune system acts early

More information

Types of Hypersensitivity

Types of Hypersensitivity Types of Hypersensitivity Type of Reaction Type I (anaphylactic) Type II (cytotoxic) Type III (immune complex) Type IV (delayed cellmediated) Time After Exposure for Clinical Symptoms

More information

CH 21 THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

CH 21 THE IMMUNE SYSTEM CH 21 THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Several lines of defense exist for the human body to help ensure maintenance of homeostasis. Some are general in action and others are extremely specific. Overall, we say that two

More information

Name (print) Name (signature) Period. (Total 30 points)

Name (print) Name (signature) Period. (Total 30 points) AP Biology Worksheet Chapter 43 The Immune System Lambdin April 4, 2011 Due Date: Thurs. April 7, 2011 You may use the following: Text Notes Power point Internet One other person in class "On my honor,

More information

Biochemistry of the immune system. Jana Novotna

Biochemistry of the immune system. Jana Novotna Biochemistry of the immune system Jana Novotna Immunity = protection The immune system integrated body system of organs, tissues, cells, and products that interact with many different pathogens. Specificity

More information

Lec 12 (Ch16_18) Immune Disorders. Allergies. 4 Hypersensitivity Types. Topics - Allergies - Autoimmunity - Immunodeficiency

Lec 12 (Ch16_18) Immune Disorders. Allergies. 4 Hypersensitivity Types. Topics - Allergies - Autoimmunity - Immunodeficiency Lec 12 (Ch16_18) Immune Disorders Topics - Allergies - Autoimmunity - Immunodeficiency 1 Allergies Allergens (antigens) cause an exaggerated immune response or hypersensitivity 4 types: Type I Type II

More information

ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Thymus glandular organ near the heart where T cells learn their jobs

ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Thymus glandular organ near the heart where T cells learn their jobs THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 1 ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 2 We all get sick sometimes...but then we get better. What happens when we get sick? Why do we get better? The immune system is localized in several parts

More information

Chapter 16 Disorders in Immunity

Chapter 16 Disorders in Immunity Chapter 16 Disorders in Immunity Immunopathology The study of disease states associated with underactivity and overactivity of the immune response Allergy (hypersensitivity) an exaggerated, misdirected

More information

Inflammation and Healing. Review of Normal Defenses. Review of Normal Capillary Exchange. BIO 375 Pathophysiology

Inflammation and Healing. Review of Normal Defenses. Review of Normal Capillary Exchange. BIO 375 Pathophysiology Inflammation and Healing BIO 375 Pathophysiology Review of Normal Defenses Review of Normal Capillary Exchange 1 Inflammation Inflammation is a biochemical and cellular process that occurs in vascularized

More information

Hypersensitivity Reactions (Types I, II, III, IV) April 15, 2009

Hypersensitivity Reactions (Types I, II, III, IV) April 15, 2009 Hypersensitivity Reactions (Types I, II, III, IV) April 15, 2009 Inflammatory response - local, eliminates antigen without extensively damaging the host s tissue. Hypersensitivity - immune & inflammatory

More information

Immunology 101. Basic Immune Response 09/08/2015. Basic function of immune system is to detect and eliminate any substance recognized as foreign

Immunology 101. Basic Immune Response 09/08/2015. Basic function of immune system is to detect and eliminate any substance recognized as foreign Eric E. Schmidt, O.D. Omni Eye Specialists Wilmington, NC schmidtyvision@msn.com Immunology 101 Basic function of immune system is to detect and eliminate any substance recognized as foreign Antigens (allergens)

More information

AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)

AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 The defenses of the human body to the entry and establishment of a pathogen (disease-causing organism) can be divided into nonspecific responses and

More information

Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic

Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic Bio 100 Guide 22 Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic determinants are the specific regions on

More information

Immunology and immunotherapy in allergic disease

Immunology and immunotherapy in allergic disease Immunology and immunotherapy in allergic disease Jing Shen, MD Faculty Advisor: Matthew Ryan, MD The University of Texas Medical Branch Department of Otolaryngology Grand Rounds Presentation February 2005

More information

Basics of Immunology

Basics of Immunology Basics of Immunology 2 Basics of Immunology What is the immune system? Biological mechanism for identifying and destroying pathogens within a larger organism. Pathogens: agents that cause disease Bacteria,

More information

Aetiology and Pathology of Periodontal Disease. Dr. Wendy Turner

Aetiology and Pathology of Periodontal Disease. Dr. Wendy Turner Aetiology and Pathology of Periodontal Disease Dr. Wendy Turner Lecture Outline Periodontal structures and the inflammatory response Periodontal disease progression stages Pathogenesis and the host response

More information

Human Immunity. How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders

Human Immunity. How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders Human Immunity How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders What is Immunity? The word immunity comes from the Latin immunus meaning free of burden. Thus; it is a body s general ability

More information

The Lymphatic System and Immunity

The Lymphatic System and Immunity 14 The Lymphatic System and Immunity FOCUS: The lymphatic system includes lymph, lymphocytes, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils, the spleen and the thymus gland. The lymphatic system helps maintain

More information

Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity

Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity I M M U N I T Y Innate (inborn) Immunity does not distinguish one pathogen from another Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity Our first line of defense includes physical and chemical barriers

More information

The Immune System: A Tutorial

The Immune System: A Tutorial The Immune System: A Tutorial Modeling and Simulation of Biological Systems 21-366B Shlomo Ta asan Images taken from http://rex.nci.nih.gov/behindthenews/uis/uisframe.htm http://copewithcytokines.de/ The

More information

COMPLEMENT PATHWAYS OF COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION:

COMPLEMENT PATHWAYS OF COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION: COMPLEMENT The term "complement" was coined by Paul Ehrlich to describe the activity in serum, which could "complement" the ability of specific antibody to cause lysis of bacteria. Complement historically

More information

IMMUNOPATHOGENESIS OF. Immunology Division School of Pathology NHLS & University of the Witwatersrand 082 807 2628

IMMUNOPATHOGENESIS OF. Immunology Division School of Pathology NHLS & University of the Witwatersrand 082 807 2628 IMMUNOPATHOGENESIS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS Prof AA Wadee Immunology Division School of Pathology NHLS & University of the Witwatersrand 082 807 2628 Objectives Distinguish i between type III and type IV

More information

Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21)

Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21) Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21) Name: Date: 1) The is the largest lymphoid organ. 1) A. lymph node B. spleen C. thymus D. tonsil 2) Tonsils promote memory of pathogens by. 2) A. secreting antibodies

More information

What is the lymphatic system and what are its functions? Detail the path followed by fluid entering lymphatic capillaries. What forces cause the

What is the lymphatic system and what are its functions? Detail the path followed by fluid entering lymphatic capillaries. What forces cause the 2. 2. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1 12. 13. 14. 15. What is the lymphatic system and what are its functions? Detail the path followed by fluid entering lymphatic capillaries. What forces cause the fluid

More information

Reactivity. Reactivity and Resistance Allergy and hypersensitivity Immunodeficiency states. Species (primary, genetically coded) Group (populational)

Reactivity. Reactivity and Resistance Allergy and hypersensitivity Immunodeficiency states. Species (primary, genetically coded) Group (populational) Reactivity and Resistance Allergy and hypersensitivity Immunodeficiency states Blagoi Marinov, MD, PhD Pathophysiology Department Medical University of Plovdiv Reactivity Species (primary, genetically

More information

Lymphocyte Recirculation

Lymphocyte Recirculation Chapter 5 Lymphocyte Migration and Inflammation Lymphocyte Recirculation Naïve lymphocytes enter lymph nodes from the blood circulation Lymphocytes return to blood via the thoracic duct Antigens from infected

More information

Complete blood count. Definition. 1

Complete blood count. Definition.  1 Complete blood count Definition A complete blood count (CBC) test measures the following: The number of red blood cells (RBCs) The number of white blood cells (WBCs) The total amount of hemoglobin in the

More information

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells.

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells. Virus and Immune System Review Directions: Write your answers on a separate piece of paper. 1. Why does a cut in the skin threaten the body s nonspecific defenses against disease? a. If a cut bleeds, disease-fighting

More information

The Adaptive Immune Response. B-cells

The Adaptive Immune Response. B-cells The Adaptive Immune Response B-cells FUNCTIONS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: Recognize, destroy and clear a diversity of pathogens. Initiate tissue and wound healing processes. Recognize and clear damaged self

More information

Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses of the Host

Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses of the Host 16 Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses of the Host SLOs Differentiate between innate and adaptive immunity. Define toll-like receptors. Differentiate physical from chemical factors, and list examples

More information

BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS

BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS Knowledge of human blood types is necessary for successful transfusions. Recognition that blood types have relatively simple inheritance patterns led to their use in paternity

More information

The Body s Defenses CHAPTER 24

The Body s Defenses CHAPTER 24 CHAPTER 24 The Body s Defenses PowerPoint Lectures for Essential Biology, Third Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece, and Eric Simon Essential Biology with Physiology, Second Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece,

More information

Chapter 22: Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: Lymphatic System and Immunity I. Lymphatic System A. Functions of the Lymphatic System - list and describe: 1. 2. 3. B. Lymphatic Vessels 1. What are lymphatic capillaries? 2. Lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries in

More information

The Most Common Autoimmune Disease: Rheumatoid Arthritis. Bonita S. Libman, M.D.

The Most Common Autoimmune Disease: Rheumatoid Arthritis. Bonita S. Libman, M.D. The Most Common Autoimmune Disease: Rheumatoid Arthritis Bonita S. Libman, M.D. Disclosures Two googled comics The Normal Immune System Network of cells and proteins that work together Goal: protect against

More information

CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6

CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6 CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6 SECTION 1 - Infectious Disease 1.Identify the causes of infectious disease. 2.Explain how infectious diseases are spread. Causes

More information

Gel and Coombs classification of hypersensitivities.

Gel and Coombs classification of hypersensitivities. Hypersensitivity Gel and Coombs classification of hypersensitivities. TYPE I Hypersensitivity Classic allergy Mediated by IgE attached to Mast cells. The symptoms resulting from allergic responses

More information

FOOD ALLERGY: WHEN ARE SKIN PRICK TESTS AND EPIPENS INDICATED? Dr Imogen Norton Consultant Paediatrician Northampton General Hospital

FOOD ALLERGY: WHEN ARE SKIN PRICK TESTS AND EPIPENS INDICATED? Dr Imogen Norton Consultant Paediatrician Northampton General Hospital FOOD ALLERGY: WHEN ARE SKIN PRICK TESTS AND EPIPENS INDICATED? Dr Imogen Norton Consultant Paediatrician Northampton General Hospital September 2012 OVERVIEW OF FOOD ALLERGY Definition Background Types

More information

AN INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNOLOGY. Paul Thomas Unit 1 Department of Immunology St. Jude Children s Research Hospital

AN INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNOLOGY. Paul Thomas Unit 1 Department of Immunology St. Jude Children s Research Hospital AN INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNOLOGY Paul Thomas Unit 1 Department of Immunology St. Jude Children s Research Hospital CATEGORIES OF PATHOGENS Viruses (~0.2 microns) Bacteria (1-2 microns) Parasites (Millimeters)

More information

Chapter 16: Innate Immunity

Chapter 16: Innate Immunity Chapter 16: Innate Immunity 1. Overview of Innate Immunity 2. Inflammation & Phagocytosis 3. Antimicrobial Substances 1. Overview of Innate Immunity The Body s Defenses The body has 2 types of defense

More information

Immunopathologic reactions Hypersenzitivity

Immunopathologic reactions Hypersenzitivity Immunopathologic reactions Hypersenzitivity Tissue damage due to immunopathology reactions Side effect ( necessary) of the defense reactions against dangerous pathogens Exaggerated reactions against harmless

More information

MAKE ANTIBODIES. Signs & Symptoms of Primary Immune Deficiency

MAKE ANTIBODIES. Signs & Symptoms of Primary Immune Deficiency Signs & Symptoms of Primary Immune Deficiency MAKE ANTIBODIES Dr Jovanka King Department of Allergy & Immunology Women s & Children s Hospital, Adelaide Overview Cook s tour of the immune system Signs

More information

Staph Protein A, Immune Complexes, Cryoglobulins, and the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis:

Staph Protein A, Immune Complexes, Cryoglobulins, and the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Staph Protein A, Immune Complexes, Cryoglobulins, and the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Immunomodulation, not Immunosuppression Written by Craig Wiesenhutter, M.D. January 2016 This paper has been

More information

Immune Haemolytic Anaemias. Dr. Abdullah Aljedai

Immune Haemolytic Anaemias. Dr. Abdullah Aljedai Immune Haemolytic Anaemias Dr. Abdullah Aljedai Haemolytic diseases are those conditions in which the red cells of the individual do not survive normally in vivo. Haemolysis lead to red cell destruction

More information

Autoimmunity. Autoimmunity. Genetic Contributions to Autoimmunity. Targets of Autoimmunity

Autoimmunity. Autoimmunity. Genetic Contributions to Autoimmunity. Targets of Autoimmunity Autoimmunity Factors predisposing an individual to autoimmune disease Mechanisms of initiation of autoimmunity Pathogenesis of particular autoimmune disease Animal models of autoimmune disease Treatment

More information

Recurrent Infections. BREATHE Conference Allergy & Asthma Specialists. Christine Malloy, MD May 13, 2011

Recurrent Infections. BREATHE Conference Allergy & Asthma Specialists. Christine Malloy, MD May 13, 2011 Recurrent Infections BREATHE Conference Allergy & Asthma Specialists Christine Malloy, MD May 13, 2011 Disclosure I have no commercial conflict of interest in any of the information I am providing. Chief

More information

Nonclinical Allergenicity of Biologics

Nonclinical Allergenicity of Biologics Nonclinical Allergenicity of Biologics KENNETH L. HASTINGS, Dr.P.H., D.A.B.T., FELLOW A.T.S. HASTINGS TOXICOLOGY CONSULTING LLC MOUNT AIRY, MD 21771 kennethhastingus@gmail.com What is Drug Allergy? Drug

More information