A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, *

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950 2010 *"

Transcription

1 A New Dt Set of Eductionl Attinment in the World, * Robert J. Brro + Hrvrd University nd Jong-Wh Lee Kore University Revised: November 2011 * We re grteful to UNESCO Institute for Sttistics for providing dt nd UNDP Humn Development Office, Rostislv Kpelyushnikov, Ttjn Skrbecnl for helpfule comments. Ruth Frncisco, Hnol Lee, nd Seulki Shin hve provided vluble reserch ssistnce. Lee thnks the Kore Reserch Foundtion for finncil support. The dt set presented here is vilble online (http:/www.brrolee.com/). + Send correspondence: Robert J. Brro, Deprtment of Economics, Hrvrd University, Cmbridge MA Tel: , Fx: , E-mil:

2 Abstrct Our pnel dt set on eductionl ttinment hs been updted for 146 countries from 1950 to The dt re disggregted by sex nd by 5-yer ge intervls. We hve improved the ccurcy of estimtion by using informtion from consistent census dt, disggregted by ge group, long with new estimtes of mortlity rtes nd completion rtes by ge nd eduction level. We compre the estimtes with our previous ones (Brro nd Lee, 2001) nd lterntive mesures (Cohen nd Soto, 2007). Our estimtes of eductionl ttinment provide resonble proxy for the stock of humn cpitl for brod group of countries nd should be useful for vriety of empiricl work., Keywords: Eduction, Humn Cpitl JEL No.: I20, J24, O15

3 1. Introduction Mny observers hve emphsized the crucil importnce of humn cpitl, prticulrly s ttined through eduction, to economic progress (Lucs, 1988 nd Mnkiw, Romer nd Weil, 1992). An bundnce of well-educted people goes long with high level of lbor productivity. It lso implies lrger numbers of more skilled workers nd greter bility to bsorb dvnced technology from developed countries. The level nd distribution of eductionl ttinment lso hve impct on socil outcomes, such s child mortlity, fertility, eduction of children, nd income distribution (see for exmple Brro nd Lee, 1994; de Gregorio nd Lee, 2002; Breierov nd Duflo, 2004; Cutler et l., 2006). There hve been number of ttempts to mesure eductionl ttinment cross countries to quntify the reltionship between it nd economic nd socil outcome vribles. Erlier empiricl studies used school enrollment rtios or litercy rtes (Romer, 1990, Brro, 1991, nd Mnkiw, Romer nd Weil, 1992). But lthough widely vilble, these dt do not dequtely mesure the ggregte stock of humn cpitl vilble contemporneously s n input to production. Our erlier studies (1993, 1996, nd 2001) filled this dt gp by constructing mesures of eductionl ttinment for brod group of countries. The figures were constructed t 5-yer intervls from 1960 to The dt showed the distribution of eductionl ttinment of the dult popultion over ge 15 nd over ge 25 by sex t seven levels of schooling. We lso constructed mesures of verge yers of schooling t ll levels primry, secondry, nd tertiry for ech country nd for regions in the world. In this pper, we updte nd expnd the dt set on eductionl ttinment. We extend our previous estimtes from 1950 to 2010, nd provide more, improved dt disggregted by sex nd ge. The dt re broken down into 5-yer ge intervls, nd the coverge hs now expnded to 146 countries by dding 41, including 11 former Soviet republics. The ccurcy of estimtion hs lso improved by incorporting recently vilble census/survey observtions. The new dt set improves on the erlier by using more informtion nd better methodology. 1

4 We construct new estimtes by using informtion from survey/census dt, disggregted by ge group. Previously, we dopted perpetul inventory method, using the census/survey observtions on the eductionl ttinment of the dult popultion group over ge 15 or over ge 25 s benchmrk stocks nd new school entrnts s flows tht dded to the stocks with n pproprite time lg. The flow estimtes were estimted using informtion on schoolenrollment rtios nd popultion structure over time. But this method is subject to bis due to inccurcy in estimted enrollment rtios nd in benchmrk censuses. In the current estimtion, we reduce mesurement error by using observtions in 5-yer ge intervls for the previous or subsequent 5-yer periods. We lso construct new estimtes of () survivl/mortlity rtes by ge nd by eduction; nd (b) completion rtios by eductionl ttinment nd by ge group. These mesures help improve the ccurcy of the bckwrdnd forwrd-estimtion procedure. The dt set improvements ddress most of the concerns rised by critics, including Cohen nd Soto (2006) nd De L Fuente nd Doménech (2006). They noted tht the previous dt set of Brro nd Lee (1993, 2001) shows implusible time-series profiles of eductionl ttinment for some countries. The new procedures hve resolved these problems. In the next section, we summrize the dt nd the methodology for constructing the estimtes of eductionl ttinment nd discuss the modifictions tht hve been mde in the present updte. In section 3, we highlight the min fetures of the new dt set. In section 4, we compre the estimtes with our previous ones (Brro nd Lee, 2001) nd lterntive mesures by Cohen nd Soto (2007). Section 5 presents our conclusions. 2. Dt nd Estimtion Methodology A. The Census dt The benchmrk figures on school ttinment (621 census/survey observtions) re collected from census/survey informtion, s compiled by UNESCO, Eurostt, ntionl sttistic gencies, nd other sources. 1 The census/survey figures report the distribution of eductionl 1 There re dditionl dt vilble from OECD sources for group of OECD countries since We hve decided not to use these dditionl observtions becuse they re not necessrily comptible with the dt from the other sources, in prticulr UNESCO dt for non-oecd countries. As discussed in Brro nd Lee (2001), 2

5 ttinment in the popultion over ge 15 by sex nd by 5-yer ge group, for most cses, in six ctegories: no forml eduction (lu), incomplete primry (lpi), complete primry (lpc), lower secondry (lsi), upper secondry (lsc), nd tertiry (lh). Tble 1 presents the distribution of countries by the number of vilble census/survey observtions since For totl popultion ged 15 nd over, 191 countries hve t lest 1 observtion, nd 112 countries hve 3 or more observtions. Tble 2 shows the distribution of countries by census/survey yer since 1950 (where the underlying figures re pplied to the nerest 5-yer vlue). For totl popultion over ge 15, for exmple, 67 observtions re vilble for 1960, 89 for 1970, 93 for 1980, 84 for 1990, nd 79 for These dt points re used s benchmrk figures on eductionl ttinment. When census provides only numbers for combintion of severl ctegories, such s no forml eduction, incomplete primry, nd complete primry, we use decomposition methods to seprte into ctegories. In mny OECD nd non-oecd countries, vilble census dt do not report dt ccording to these four brod ctegories. 3 Some census dt do not report lu or the proportion of those who hve no forml eduction, nd do report lp, ls, nd lh mong the educted members of the popultion only. To void overestimtion of verge yers of schooling, for census yers with missing lu, we use the illitercy rte, primry enrollment rtio, or lu from other census yers to estimte lu. We then djust lp, ls, nd lh to reflect both the educted nd uneducted members in the totl popultion. In some instnces, dt on lu is not missing but overlpped with other ctegory(ies) or subctegory(ies). Some census dt report the proportion of those who hve reched primry level together with those who hve no forml eduction (lu+lp). A number of countries lso report the combined proportion of those who hve reched secondry schooling or less (lu+lp+ls). Also, some census dt report the combintion of those who hve reched primry or secondry levels (lp+ls). To decompose these overlpping census observtions we most OECD dt come from lbor-force surveys bsed on smples of households or individuls, in contrst to the ntionl censuses in the UNESCO dtbse nd in mny cses, OECD nd UNESCO use different eductionl clssifiction schemes. 2 These census/survey observtions include the countries/territories for which we could not construct the complete estimtes of eductionl ttinment becuse of other missing informtion. Appendix Tble shows the census/survey informtion for the 146 countries for which we hve constructed complete estimtes. 3 Country Notes vilble online t: explin the censuses for which decomposition method ws pplied. 3

6 use enrollment dt. Specificlly, for census yers where lu is combined with other ctegory(ies) or subctegory(ies), we use djusted primry nd/or secondry enrollment rtio by ge group from erlier or lter yers nd the ge distribution profile to decompose the overlpping observtions. 4 B. Estimtion of missing observtions t the four brod levels We clculte from 1950 to 2010 t the five yer intervls the eductionl ttinment of the popultion by 5-yer ge groups. First, we clculte the distribution of eductionl ttinment t four brod ctegories no forml eduction (lu), primry (lp), secondry (ls) nd tertiry eduction (lh). Primry includes both incomplete primry (lpi) nd complete primry (lpc), nd secondry (ls) includes lower secondry (lsi) nd upper secondry (lsc). Tertiry eduction (lh) lso includes both junior-level (lhi) nd higher-level tertiry (lhc). We fill in most of missing observtions by forwrd nd bckwrd extrpoltion of the census/survey observtions on ttinment. The estimtion procedure extrpoltes the census/survey observtions on ttinment by ge group to fill in missing observtions with n pproprite time lg. Let s denote h j, t s the proportion of persons in ge group, for whom j is the highest level of schooling ttined- j=0 for no school, 1 for primry, 2 for secondry, nd 3 for higher t time t. There re 13 5-yer ge groups rnging from =1 (15 19 yers old) to =13 (75 yers nd over). The forwrd extrpoltion method ssumes tht the distribution of eductionl ttinment of ge group t time t is the sme s tht of the ge group tht ws five yers younger t time t-5: h (1) t 1 h where ge group denotes, =3: ge group, =10: ge group. This setting 4 The djusted enrollment rtio is the gross enrollment rtio minus the proportion of repeters. The ge distribution profile is the reltive popultion distribution by ge group within n eductionl ttinment t specific time period. If the gross enrolment rtio is not vilble, the net enrolment rtio is used s proxy for the djusted enrollment rtio. 4

7 pplies to persons who hve completed their schooling by time t-5. As explined below, we djust this formul by considering different mortlity rtes by eduction level for the old popultion ged 65 nd over. For younger groups under ge 25, we dopt different method, considering tht prt of popultion is still in school during the trnsition period from t to t+5. The bckwrd extrpoltion is expressed s: h j h 1, t where ge group denotes, =2: ge group, =9: ge group. (1) Thus, person s eductionl ttinment remins unchnged between ge 25 nd 59. An ssumption here is tht, in the sme 5-yer ge group, the survivl rte is the sme regrdless of person s eductionl ttinment. When we look t informtion from vilble censuses strtified by eductionl ttinment nd popultion structure by ge group in the previous or subsequent 5-yer periods, we find this ssumption holds well for the popultion ged 64 nd under, but not for older ge groups. In typicl country, the mortlity rte is higher for older people who re less-educted. The ssumption of uniform mortlity cn then cuse downwrd bis in the estimtion of the totl eductionl stock. If we consider the differences in survivl rte by eduction levels, the forwrd extrpoltion method is expressed by hj t h 1, (2) where j is the ge-specific survivl rte over the five yers for the popultion in ge group, for whom j is the highest level of schooling. For the popultion ged 60 nd bove ( =11, 12, nd 13), we llow for the different mortlity rtes for the old popultion ged 60 nd bove by eduction levels. By utilizing informtion from vilble censuses by ge group in the previous nd/or next 5- yer periods, we hve estimted the survivl rtes for the old popultion in the ge group, 60 64, 65 69, nd ( =10,11, nd 12) by eduction levels. The estimtion results show tht the more educted people hve lower mortlity rtes. Appendix Notes 1 describes more detils on the estimtion of survivl rtes. 5

8 An importnt issue is how to combine forwrd nd bckwrd-flow estimtes when both re vilble for missing cell. We hve crried out simultion exercise in which we regressed the observed ctul census vlues of the vrious levels of eductionl ttinment on the estimtes generted from forwrd- nd bckwrd-flow estimtes (bsed on both five- or tenyer led nd lgged vlues from ctul censuses). We use the regression results to construct weighted-verge of forwrd nd bckwrd-flow estimtes (see Appendix Notes 1 for more detils on how to combine forwrd-flow nd bckwrd-flow estimtes). Note tht the forwrd nd bckwrd-flow estimtes cnnot be pplicble for the two youngest cohorts between ges 15 nd 24 becuse prt of the popultion is in school during dtes t nd t+5. For these ge groups ( =1: ge group nd =2: 20 24), we construct the estimtes by using the estimtes of the sme ge group in t 5 (or t+5) nd the chnge in (gespecific) enrollment for the corresponding ge groups over time (see Appendix Note 1 for more detils). C. Estimtion of sub-ctegories of eductionl ttinment We hve estimted school ttinment t four brod levels of schooling: no school, some primry, some secondry, nd some higher. We brek down the three levels of schooling into incomplete nd complete eduction by using estimtes of completion rtios. First, we describe our procedure for estimting missing observtions for the subctegories for the primry schooling ctegory. We filled in the missing cells using informtion from the vilble census/survey dt. The completion rte t the primry level is expressed s rtio of people who completed primry schooling but did not enter secondry schooling to people who entered primry school. For the remining missing cells, we filled them in by forwrd nd bckwrd extrpoltion of the census/survey observtions on completion rtios with n pproprite time lg. This procedure pplies to the ge group =3 (25 29) nd bove. 5 If both forwrd nd bckwrd estimtes re vilble, we combine them by using the results of regression of the observed ctul census vlues of the vrious levels of completion rtio on 5 For the countries in which only the completion rtio for totl popultion is vilble, we brek down it into ge groups bsed on the typicl ge profile of completion rtios constructed using the vilble dt of the countries in the sme region. 6

9 the estimtes generted from forwrd- nd bckwrd-flow estimtes (bsed on both 5-yer or ten-yer led nd lgged vlues from ctul censuses). On the other hnd, we ssume tht the completion rtios for ged nd re determined by ge specific profile of completion rtios in ech country (see Appendix Notes 2). We pplied similr methods to estimte missing observtions for the subctegories for secondry nd tertiry schooling. Secondry-school enrollees ged re treted s incompletely educted t the secondry level, nd higher-school enrollees ged re treted s incompletely educted t the higher level. Appendix Notes 2 explins more detils on how to combine forwrd-flow nd bckwrd-flow estimtes of completion rtios. D. Averge Yers of Schooling The number of yers of schooling for the popultion ged 15 nd bove, s t, is constructed s s t A 1 l t s t (3) g where l : the popultion shre of group g in popultion 15 nd bove nd s t : the number of t yers of schooling of ge group ( =1: ge group, =2: ge group,, =13: 75 nd bove). The number of yers of schooling of ge group in time t is s t j h t Dur t (4) where h j the frction of group hving ttined the eductionl level j = pri, sec, ter, nd Dur indictes the corresponding durtion in yers. The durtion dt is constructed by tking ccount of chnges in the durtion system over time in country. We suppose tht chnges in the durtion of schooling t the primry level pplied to new entrnts in primry school (tht is, ges 5 9) t the time of chnge. We use the sme sources nd methodology to construct pnel dt set on eductionl ttinment of femles by ge group. The dt on the distribution of eductionl ttinment mong the popultion, combined with the informtion for ech country on the durtion of 7

10 school t ech level, generte the number of yers of schooling chieved by the verge person t vrious levels nd t ll levels of schooling combined. 3. The Complete Dt Set on Eductionl Attinment, Tbles 3 nd 4 summrize the progress in eductionl ttinment of the popultion ged 15 yers nd bove by region nd by income clssifiction from 1950 to 2010 for the 146 countries tht hve complete informtion. 6 The tble considers two brod groups 24 dvnced countries nd 122 developing countries. The developing group is further broken down into six regions: Middle Est/North Afric (18 countries), Sub-Shrn Afric (33), Ltin Americ/Cribben (25), Est Asi/Pcific (19), South Asi (7), nd Europe nd Centrl Asi (20). Regionl verges re computed by weighting ech country's observtion by its shre in totl popultion of the region. Some of the importnt developments tht represent the progress of developing countries in chieving higher eductionl ttinment re summrized s: In 2010, the world popultion ged 15 nd bove is estimted to hve n verge of 7.9 yers of schooling, incresing stedily from 3.1 yers in 1950 nd 5.3 yers in The overll popultion over ge 15 in high-income economies is estimted to hve 11.3 yers of schooling, compred to 7.2 yers in developing countries. Both Sub-Shrn Africn nd South Asin countries hve the lowest t 5.3 yers on verge. Since 1950, the verge yers of schooling mong the totl popultion ged 15 yers nd bove in developing countries incresed significntly from 2.0 yers to 7.2 yers. In South Asi nd Middle Est/North Afric regions, verge yers of schooling hve more thn 6 The dditionl countries/territories tht hve complete estimtes in the new dt set include Albni, Belize, Burundi, Brunei Drusslm, Cmbodi, Congo, Cote d Ivoire, Egypt, Gmbi, Gbon, Lo People's Democrtic Republic, Luxembourg, Liby, Morocco, Mco Specil Administrtive Region, Mldives, Mlt, Muritni, Mongoli, Nmibi, People's Republic of Chin, Qtr, Reunion, Rwnd, Sudi Arbi, Tong, United Arb Emirtes, Viet Nm, Yemen. The dt set include Croti, Czech Republic, Serbi, Slovki, nd Sloveni s independent countries, replcing the former Yugoslvi nd Czechoslovki. The former USSR is replced by the Russin Republic, Armeni, Azerbijn, Estoni, Kzkhstn, Kyrgyzstn, Ltvi, Lithuni, Republic of Moldov, Tjikistn, nd Ukrine. 8

11 doubled since the 1980s. In South Asi, for instnce, verge yers of schooling mong the totl popultion ged 15 nd over rose from 2.4 yers in 1980 to 5.3 yers in While higher secondry nd tertiry completion nd enrollment rtios ccount for most of the improvements in yers of schooling in dvnced countries, most of the improvements in developing countries re ccounted for by higher primry nd secondry completion nd enrollment rtios (see Figure 1). Averge yers of eduction mong the popultion ged yers in developing countries rose from 3.1 yers in 1950 to 6.83 yers in 1990 nd to more thn 8.90 yers in recent yers (see Figure 1b). The improvements in completion nd enrollment rtios t ll levels mong the younger cohorts in every genertion continully contribute to rising verge yers of schooling s they mture over time. The biggest improvement in verge yers of schooling mong the younger cohorts ws recorded between 1970 nd 1990 in dvnced countries. Figure 2 shows tht developing countries hve successfully reduced illitercy rtes, especilly mong the younger cohorts. Specificlly, the proportion of the uneducted in the totl popultion over ge 15 in developing countries hs declined significntly over the pst six decdes since 1950, from 61.1% in 1950 to 17.4% in Among yer olds, this proportion hs declined from 45.2% in 1950 to 5.9% in Tble 4 summrizes the eductionl ttinment mong mles nd femles by region since It shows tht significnt progress hs been mde by developing countries in terms of reducing gender inequlity in eduction mong the overll popultion over ge 15. The rtio of femle to mle verge yers of schooling incresed from round 62.5% in 1950 to 81.2% in 1990 nd 85.9% by Despite these mjor developments, mny chllenges in mking eduction more inclusive remin. Notwithstnding significnt improvements, the current level nd distribution of eductionl ttinment in developing countries is comprble only to tht of dvnced countries in the lte 1960s (see Figure 1). 9

12 The gp between developing nd dvnced countries in verge yers of schooling mong the overll popultion over ge 15 remins high (4.1 yers in 2010) s it hs nrrowed by only less thn 1 yer in the pst 40 yers. One fctor tht contributed to the slow reduction in this gp is the continued increse in the proportion of the popultion in dvnced countries reching higher levels of eduction. Also, the nrrowing of the gp in verge yers of schooling mong younger cohorts between developing nd developed countries is less thn enough to compenste for the huge gp mong the older cohorts (see Figure 1b). For exmple, while the gp between the verge yers of schooling mong yer olds in developing economies nd dvnced countries hs nrrowed since 1970 by round 1.44 yers in 2010 (3.73 yers in 1970 to 2.29 yers in 2010), this gp hs even widened by round 1.25 yer (from 4.49 yers in 1970 to 5.76 yers) mong those ged 65 yers nd bove (see Figure 1). The chllenge of mking eduction more gender inclusive lso remins in mny developing regions, such s South Asi, Middle Est, nd sub-shrn Afric. The rtio of yers of schooling mong femles to mles remins below 70% in South Asi. The prospects of nrrowing the eductionl ttinment gp between developing nd developed countries gretly rely on the cpbility of developing countries to (1) significntly increse enrollment rtios mong new entrnts (below 15 yers old); nd (2) ctch up with the high rte of survivl from primry to secondry level nd from secondry to tertiry level (15 24 yers old) in developing countries. 4. Comprison with Alterntive Estimtes This section compres our estimtes of eductionl ttinment with other estimtes. First, we wnt to check our new estimtes with our previous estimtes in Brro nd Lee (2001). Tble 5 shows the mens nd stndrd devition of levels nd 10-yer differences of the overlpping observtions between the new Brro-Lee dt set nd Brro nd Lee (2001) estimtes over The two estimtes re highly correlted in both levels nd 10-yer differences, with correltion coefficients over

13 Figure 3 shows tht, on verge, the new Brro-Lee estimtes for verge yers of schooling for dvnced countries re higher thn the previous Brro-Lee estimtes. For developing countries, estimtes of verge yers of schooling until 1990 re slightly lower thn the previous estimtes. Figure 3 lso shows tht the new estimtes disply smoother incresing trend in verge yers of schooling, both for developing nd dvnced countries, thn the previous estimtes. Country level estimtes re lso much smoother over time. Figure 4 compres the new Brro- Lee estimtes with Brro-Lee (2001) estimtes for selected countries. The new estimtes provide smother time profiles of eductionl ttinment in Norwy, the United Sttes, Peru, nd Venezuel. We lso compre the new estimtes with the estimtes by Cohen nd Soto (2007). Cohen- Soto constructed dt set for verge yers of schooling for 95 countries t 10-yer intervls for They dopt dt nd methodology similr to ours. They use forwrd-flow nd bckwrd-flow methods to fill-in missing observtions by extrpolting the census/survey observtions on eductionl ttinment by 5-yer ge group. But there re lso significnt differences. First, Cohen nd Soto use OECD sources for OECD countries nd UNESCO sources for non-oecd countries. 7 As discussed in Brro nd Lee (2001), there exist significnt differences between the OECD dt nd UNESCO censuses. Most OECD dt come from lbor-force surveys bsed on smples of households or individuls, in contrst to the ntionl censuses in the UNESCO dtbse. There re lso significnt differences in the clssifiction of eduction systems between the OECD nd the UNESCO sources. As result, Cohen nd Soto s procedure tends to over-estimte eductionl ttinment for OECD countries (see Figure 5). Second, relying on only OECD sources, which re vilble since the 1990s, underutilizes vilble informtion. For exmple, Cohen nd Soto s estimtion for the United Sttes relies on only two OECD surveys in 1991 nd The dt re then used to estimte missing observtions in the erlier yers by the bckwrd-flow method, wheres for the ge groups for which the bckwrd estimtes re not pplicble, the estimtes re constructed minly by 7 For only few OECD countries including Finlnd, Portugl nd Turkey, Cohen nd Soto combine both OECD nd UNESCO sources. 11

14 lgged enrollment rtes. In contrst, our estimtion for the United Sttes relies on seven UNESCO censuses nd one ntionl census from 1950 to 2005, so tht the census informtion on eductionl ttinment by ge group is used to fill in missing observtions by both forwrd-flow nd bckwrd-flow estimtes. Third, for non-oecd countries, we use substntilly more UNESCO censuses thn Cohen nd Soto. Cohen nd Soto's estimtion uses only 70 UNESCO censuses for 75 developing countries in their smple, compred to 407 for 122 developing countries in our smple. In fct, Cohen-Soto s estimtes for 27 countries (including most sub-shrn Africn countries) rely entirely on enrollment dt. We believe our estimtes bsed on more censuses must contribute to more ccurte estimtion of missing observtions by forwrd-flow nd bckwrd-flow method by ge-group. Finlly, Cohen-Soto do not consider the difference in mortlity rtes by eductionl levels nor the chnge in durtions over time. Tble 5 shows mens nd stndrd devitions of verge schooling yers in levels nd 10- yer differences for the smple of the overlpping observtions between the new Brro-Lee dt set nd Cohen-Soto (2007). The new Brro-Lee estimtes for verge yers of schooling in 1960 re, on verge, lower thn those in Cohen nd Soto (2007). However, the new Brro-Lee estimtes for 2010 re higher on verge. It lso shows tht the new Brro-Lee dt set displys less dispersion thn Cohen-Soto (2007). Lower dispersion is observed cross estimtes for developing countries nd dvnced countries cross time, except for dvnced countries in Figure 5 show tht the estimtes for dvnced countries in the new Brro-Lee dt set re on verge lower thn in Cohen-Soto (2007) for the overll period, Tble 5 shows tht estimte for dvnced countries re less correlted thn those for developing countries. For developing countries, the new Brro-Lee estimtes re on verge very close to Cohen- Soto (2007) estimtes in erlier yers but higher for We estimte relibility rtios for the new Brro-Lee estimtes vis-à-vis Cohen-Soto (2007) in levels nd first 10-yer differences. As used by Krueger nd Lindhl (2001) in checking qulity of schooling dt, the relibility rtio guges the frction of the vribility of 12

15 (unobserved) true vrible in the totl vribility of the vrible mesured with error. Suppose S 1 nd S 2 represent two observed noisy mesures of the (unobserved) true vrible S. Tht is, S 1 = S + e 1 nd S 2 = S + e 2, where e 1 nd e 1 re the mesurement error of S 1 nd S 2. If e 1 nd e 2 re uncorrelted, the relibility rtio of S 1 is defined s R 1 = cov(s 1, S 2 ) /vr(s 1 ) nd hs probbility limit equl to vr(s)/vr(s 1 ). Similrly, the relibility rtio of S 2, R 2 = cov(s 1, S 2 ) /vr(s 2 ) hs probbility limit equl to vr(s)/vr(s 2 ). Cohen-Soto (2007) showed tht their estimtes perform better s compred with Brro nd Lee (2001). It turns out, however, the relibility rtio for the new Brro-Lee estimtes is greter thn tht of Cohen Soto (2007), both in levels nd 10-yer differences in yers of schooling for persons 15 yers nd older. Specificlly, while the new Brro-Lee dt set hs relibility rtios of 1.00 for both levels nd differences, the relibility rtios of Cohen-Soto (2007) re 0.89 for levels nd 0.87 for differences. This mens tht greter proportion of the vribility in observed levels nd chnges in the new Brro-Lee dt set represents true levels nd chnges thn in the Cohen-Soto (2007) dt set. In other words, the new Brro-Lee dt set conveys more signl thn the Cohen-Soto (2007) dt, both in levels nd chnges. 8 Our estimtes of eductionl ttinment provide resonble proxy for the stock of schooling cpitl for brod group of countries. However, the school ttinment does not tke ccount of the skills nd experience gined fter forml eduction. The mesure does not directly mesure the skills obtined t schools nd, specificlly, does not tke ccount for differences in the qulity of schooling cross countries. Figure 6 compres our concept of eductionl ttinment with Hnushek nd Woessmnn s (2009) mesure of humn cpitl qulity, which ws constructed by stndrdizing nd combining vilble interntionl mth nd science test results, covering for 50 countries. 9 Eductionl ttinment nd humn cpitl qulity mesures re highly correlted but humn cpitl qulity is quite diverse for countries with similr levels of eductionl ttinment. 5. Concluding Remrks 8 We hve lso computed relibility rtios of De L Fuente nd Domenech (2006) for the smple of OECD countries. The relibility rtios of the estimtes by De L Fuente nd Domenech re similr to those of our current dt set. The results cn be obtined from the uthors upon request. 9 See Hnushek nd Woessmnn (2009) for more detils bout their methodology for estimting humn cpitl qulity. 13

16 Our new dt set on eductionl ttinment pplies to 146 countries t five-yer intervls from 1950 to The estimtes re disggregted by sex nd by 5-yer ge intervls. These estimtes improve on our previous, widely used dt set by utilizing more informtion nd better estimtion methodology. This improved dt set on eductionl ttinment should be helpful for vriety of empiricl work. 10 Our estimtes of eductionl ttinment provide resonble proxy for the stock of humn cpitl for brod group of countries. The dt set hs been useful for studying the linkges cross countries between eduction nd importnt economic nd socil vribles, such s economic growth, export competitiveness, fertility, income inequlity, democrcy, institutions, nd politicl freedom. We expect tht this new dt set will help to improve the relibility of these types of nlyses. 10 Our erlier estimtes of eductionl ttinment hve been used in mny studies. Up to July 2011, our ppers on eductionl ttinment dt published in 1993, 1996, nd 2001 hve been cited in journls over 790 times, ccording to the Socil Science Cittions Index. The totl number of cittions by ll journl rticles, books, nd working ppers mounts to over 5,900, ccording to Google Scholr. 14

17 References Brro, R.J Economic Growth in Cross Section of Countries, The Qurterly Journl of Economics, 106(2): Brro, R.J. nd J.W. Lee Interntionl Comprisons of Eductionl Attinment, Journl of Monetry Economics, 32, Brro, R.J. nd J.W. Lee Interntionl Mesures of Schooling Yers nd Schooling Qulity, Americn Economic Review, 86, Brro, R. nd J.W. Lee. 1994, Sources of Economic Growth, Crnegie Conference Series on Public Policy, 40: 1. Brro, R. nd J.W. Lee Interntionl Dt on Eductionl Attinment: Updtes nd Implictions, Oxford Economic Ppers 53(3). Breierov, L. nd E. Duflo The Impct of Eduction on Fertility nd Child Mortlity: Do Fthers Relly Mtter Less thn Mothers? NBER Working Pper No Cohen, D. nd M. Soto Growth nd Humn Cpitl: Good Dt, Good Results, Journl of Economic Growth, 12: Cutler, D., A. Deton, A. Llers-Muney The Determinnts of Mortlity, The Journl of Economic Perspectives, 20(3): De Gregorio J. nd J.W. Lee Eduction nd Income Inequlity: New Evidence from cross-country dt, Review of Income nd Welth, 48(3): De L Fuente, A. nd R. Doménech Humn Cpitl in Growth Regressions: How Much Difference Does Dt Qulity Mke?, Journl of the Europen Economic Assocition, 4(1): Hnushek E.A. nd L. Woessmnn Do Better Schools Led to More Growth? Cognitive Skills, Economic Outcomes, nd Custion, NBER Working Pper No Krueger, A.B. nd M. Lindhl Eduction for Growth: Why nd For Whom?, Journl of Economic Literture, 39 (December): Lucs R.E "On the Mechnics of Economic Development," Journl of Monetry Economics, July, Mnkiw, G., D. Romer, nd D. Weil "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," Qurterly Journl of Economics, 107. Romer, Pul "Endogenous Technologicl Chnge," Journl of Politicl Economy, October, S71-S102. UNESCO. vrious yers. Sttisticl Yerbook. Pris. 15

18 Tble 1. Brekdown of Number of Countries by Number of Census-Survey Observtions Number of Number of countries observtions All Advnced Developing ( ) MF F MF F MF F Totl Note: The dt refer to census-survey observtions for eductionl ttinment for the totl (MF) nd femle (F) popultions in ech ge ctegory. Tble 2. Brekdown of Number of Countries by Number of Census-survey Yer Census-survey yer (to the nerest 5-yer vlue) Number of countries All Advnced Developing MF F MF F MF F Totl Note: The dt refer to census-survey observtions for eductionl ttinment for the totl (MF) nd femle (F) popultions in ech ge ctegory. 16

19 Tble 3. by Region Trends of Eductionl Attinment of the Totl Popultion Aged 15 nd Over Region Popultion Highest level ttined Averge (no. of Aged 15 No Primry Secondry Tertiry yers of countries) nd over Schooling Totl Completed Totl Completed Totl Completed schooling nd Yer (Million) (% of popultion ged 15 nd over World (146) Advnced (24) Developing (122) By Region Middle Est nd North Afric (18) Sub-Shrn Afric (33) Ltin Americ nd the Crriben (25)

20 Region Popultion Highest level ttined Averge (no. of Aged 15 No Primry Secondry Tertiry yers of countries) nd over Schooling Totl Completed Totl Completed Totl Completed schooling nd Yer (Million) (% of popultion ged 15 nd over Est Asi nd the Pcific (19) South Asi (7) Europe nd Centrl Asi (20)

Economics Letters 65 (1999) 9 15. macroeconomists. a b, Ruth A. Judson, Ann L. Owen. Received 11 December 1998; accepted 12 May 1999

Economics Letters 65 (1999) 9 15. macroeconomists. a b, Ruth A. Judson, Ann L. Owen. Received 11 December 1998; accepted 12 May 1999 Economics Letters 65 (1999) 9 15 Estimting dynmic pnel dt models: guide for q mcroeconomists b, * Ruth A. Judson, Ann L. Owen Federl Reserve Bord of Governors, 0th & C Sts., N.W. Wshington, D.C. 0551,

More information

National greenhouse gas inventory data for the period 1990 2010

National greenhouse gas inventory data for the period 1990 2010 United Ntions FCCC/SBI/2012/31 Distr.: Generl 16 November 2012 Originl: English Subsidiry Body for Implementtion Thirty-seventh session Doh, 26 November to 1 December 2012 Item 3(b) of the provisionl gend

More information

Treatment Spring Late Summer Fall 0.10 5.56 3.85 0.61 6.97 3.01 1.91 3.01 2.13 2.99 5.33 2.50 1.06 3.53 6.10 Mean = 1.33 Mean = 4.88 Mean = 3.

Treatment Spring Late Summer Fall 0.10 5.56 3.85 0.61 6.97 3.01 1.91 3.01 2.13 2.99 5.33 2.50 1.06 3.53 6.10 Mean = 1.33 Mean = 4.88 Mean = 3. The nlysis of vrince (ANOVA) Although the t-test is one of the most commonly used sttisticl hypothesis tests, it hs limittions. The mjor limittion is tht the t-test cn be used to compre the mens of only

More information

Asian Development Bank Institute. ADBI Working Paper Series

Asian Development Bank Institute. ADBI Working Paper Series ADBI Working Pper Series Rel Estte Vlution, Current Account, nd Credit Growth Ptterns Before nd After the 2008 2009 Crisis Joshu Aizenmn nd Yothin Jinjrk No. 429 July 2013 Asin Development Bnk Institute

More information

DlNBVRGH + Sickness Absence Monitoring Report. Executive of the Council. Purpose of report

DlNBVRGH + Sickness Absence Monitoring Report. Executive of the Council. Purpose of report DlNBVRGH + + THE CITY OF EDINBURGH COUNCIL Sickness Absence Monitoring Report Executive of the Council 8fh My 4 I.I...3 Purpose of report This report quntifies the mount of working time lost s result of

More information

Small Businesses Decisions to Offer Health Insurance to Employees

Small Businesses Decisions to Offer Health Insurance to Employees Smll Businesses Decisions to Offer Helth Insurnce to Employees Ctherine McLughlin nd Adm Swinurn, June 2014 Employer-sponsored helth insurnce (ESI) is the dominnt source of coverge for nonelderly dults

More information

Helicopter Theme and Variations

Helicopter Theme and Variations Helicopter Theme nd Vritions Or, Some Experimentl Designs Employing Pper Helicopters Some possible explntory vribles re: Who drops the helicopter The length of the rotor bldes The height from which the

More information

TECHNICAL REPORT Lloyd M. Dunn, PhD & Douglas M. Dunn, PhD Overview Revisions in the New Edition

TECHNICAL REPORT Lloyd M. Dunn, PhD & Douglas M. Dunn, PhD Overview Revisions in the New Edition TECHNICAL REPORT Lloyd M. Dunn, PhD & Dougls M. Dunn, PhD Overview... 1 Revisions in the New Edition... 1 Content Coverge... 2 Scores Reported... 2 Stndrdiztion of PPVT 4... 2 Evidence Bsed on Relibility...

More information

STATUS OF LAND-BASED WIND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN GERMANY

STATUS OF LAND-BASED WIND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN GERMANY Yer STATUS OF LAND-BASED WIND ENERGY Deutsche WindGurd GmbH - Oldenburger Strße 65-26316 Vrel - Germny +49 (4451)/9515 - info@windgurd.de - www.windgurd.com Annul Added Cpcity [MW] Cumultive Cpcity [MW]

More information

Research Notes. RatSWD. Research Note No. 11. Population Aging and Trends in the Provision of Continued Education

Research Notes. RatSWD. Research Note No. 11. Population Aging and Trends in the Provision of Continued Education RtSWD Reserch Notes Reserch Note No. 11 Previously relesed s RtSWD Working Pper No. 15 Popultion Aging nd Trends in the Provision of Continued Eduction Regin T. Riphhn, Prvti Trübswetter 2007 Reserch Notes

More information

Homework #4: Answers. 1. Draw the array of world outputs that free trade allows by making use of each country s transformation schedule.

Homework #4: Answers. 1. Draw the array of world outputs that free trade allows by making use of each country s transformation schedule. Text questions, Chpter 5, problems 1-5: Homework #4: Answers 1. Drw the rry of world outputs tht free trde llows by mking use of ech country s trnsformtion schedule.. Drw it. This digrm is constructed

More information

COMPARISON OF SOME METHODS TO FIT A MULTIPLICATIVE TARIFF STRUCTURE TO OBSERVED RISK DATA BY B. AJNE. Skandza, Stockholm ABSTRACT

COMPARISON OF SOME METHODS TO FIT A MULTIPLICATIVE TARIFF STRUCTURE TO OBSERVED RISK DATA BY B. AJNE. Skandza, Stockholm ABSTRACT COMPARISON OF SOME METHODS TO FIT A MULTIPLICATIVE TARIFF STRUCTURE TO OBSERVED RISK DATA BY B. AJNE Skndz, Stockholm ABSTRACT Three methods for fitting multiplictive models to observed, cross-clssified

More information

Econ 4721 Money and Banking Problem Set 2 Answer Key

Econ 4721 Money and Banking Problem Set 2 Answer Key Econ 472 Money nd Bnking Problem Set 2 Answer Key Problem (35 points) Consider n overlpping genertions model in which consumers live for two periods. The number of people born in ech genertion grows in

More information

Why is the NSW prison population falling?

Why is the NSW prison population falling? NSW Bureu of Crime Sttistics nd Reserch Bureu Brief Issue pper no. 80 September 2012 Why is the NSW prison popultion flling? Jcqueline Fitzgerld & Simon Corben 1 Aim: After stedily incresing for more thn

More information

Utilization of Smoking Cessation Benefits in Medicaid Managed Care, 2009-2013

Utilization of Smoking Cessation Benefits in Medicaid Managed Care, 2009-2013 Utiliztion of Smoking Cesstion Benefits in Medicid Mnged Cre, 2009-2013 Office of Qulity nd Ptient Sfety New York Stte Deprtment of Helth Jnury 2015 Introduction According to the New York Stte Tocco Control

More information

GAO IRS AUDIT RATES. Rate for Individual Taxpayers Has Declined But Effect on Compliance Is Unknown

GAO IRS AUDIT RATES. Rate for Individual Taxpayers Has Declined But Effect on Compliance Is Unknown GAO United Sttes Generl Accounting Office Report to the Chirmn, Subcommittee on Oversight, Committee on Wys nd Mens, House of Representtives April 2001 IRS AUDIT RATES Rte for Individul Txpyers Hs Declined

More information

Participation and investment decisions in a retirement plan: the influence of colleagues choices

Participation and investment decisions in a retirement plan: the influence of colleagues choices Journl of Public Economics 85 (2002) 121 148 www.elsevier.com/ locte/ econbse Prticiption nd investment decisions in retirement pln: the influence of collegues choices Esther Duflo,b, *, Emmnuel Sez MIT,

More information

2006 IPCC Software for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Application and use for India

2006 IPCC Software for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Application and use for India 2006 IPCC Softwre for Ntionl Greenhouse Gs Inventories: Appliction nd use for Indi Presenttion for NGGIP Side Event Bonn, June 8, 2013 Prof. Amit Grg (mitgrg@iimhd.ernet.in), INDIA GHG Inventory Softwre

More information

Lump-Sum Distributions at Job Change, p. 2

Lump-Sum Distributions at Job Change, p. 2 Jnury 2009 Vol. 30, No. 1 Lump-Sum Distributions t Job Chnge, p. 2 E X E C U T I V E S U M M A R Y Lump-Sum Distributions t Job Chnge GROWING NUMBER OF WORKERS FACED WITH ASSET DECISIONS AT JOB CHANGE:

More information

2015 EDITION. AVMA Report on Veterinary Compensation

2015 EDITION. AVMA Report on Veterinary Compensation 2015 EDITION AVMA Report on Veterinry Compenstion AVMA Report on Veterinry Compenstion 2015 EDITION Copyright 2015 by the All rights reserved. ISBN-13: 978-1-882691-31-9 AVMA Report on Veterinry Compenstion

More information

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and This rticle ppered in journl published by Elsevier. The ttched copy is furnished to the uthor for internl non-commercil reserch nd eduction use, including for instruction t the uthors institution nd shring

More information

Unit 29: Inference for Two-Way Tables

Unit 29: Inference for Two-Way Tables Unit 29: Inference for Two-Wy Tbles Prerequisites Unit 13, Two-Wy Tbles is prerequisite for this unit. In ddition, students need some bckground in significnce tests, which ws introduced in Unit 25. Additionl

More information

Small Business Networking

Small Business Networking Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd processes. Introducing technology

More information

Polynomial Functions. Polynomial functions in one variable can be written in expanded form as ( )

Polynomial Functions. Polynomial functions in one variable can be written in expanded form as ( ) Polynomil Functions Polynomil functions in one vrible cn be written in expnded form s n n 1 n 2 2 f x = x + x + x + + x + x+ n n 1 n 2 2 1 0 Exmples of polynomils in expnded form re nd 3 8 7 4 = 5 4 +

More information

Graphs on Logarithmic and Semilogarithmic Paper

Graphs on Logarithmic and Semilogarithmic Paper 0CH_PHClter_TMSETE_ 3//00 :3 PM Pge Grphs on Logrithmic nd Semilogrithmic Pper OBJECTIVES When ou hve completed this chpter, ou should be ble to: Mke grphs on logrithmic nd semilogrithmic pper. Grph empiricl

More information

Small Business Networking

Small Business Networking Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd business. Introducing technology

More information

SPONSOR A CHILD Please sponsor a child like Reuben or Byiringiro

SPONSOR A CHILD Please sponsor a child like Reuben or Byiringiro AFRICA SPONSOR A CHILD Plese sponsor child like Reuben or Byiringiro REGIONAL How it works... Strt your sponsorship tody Receive your specific child s photo, fmily info, nd country Introduce yourself nd

More information

Trade liberalization and per capita income convergence: a difference-in-differences analysis

Trade liberalization and per capita income convergence: a difference-in-differences analysis Journl of Interntionl Economics 55 (2001) 203 228 www.elsevier.nl/ locte/ econbse Trde liberliztion nd per cpit income convergence: difference-in-differences nlysis Mtthew J. Slughter* Drtmouth College

More information

persons withdrawing from addiction is given by summarizing over individuals with different ages and numbers of years of addiction remaining:

persons withdrawing from addiction is given by summarizing over individuals with different ages and numbers of years of addiction remaining: COST- BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF NARCOTIC ADDICTION TREATMENT PROGRAMS with Specil Reference to Age Irving Leveson,l New York City Plnning Commission Introduction Efforts to del with consequences of poverty,

More information

Math 135 Circles and Completing the Square Examples

Math 135 Circles and Completing the Square Examples Mth 135 Circles nd Completing the Squre Exmples A perfect squre is number such tht = b 2 for some rel number b. Some exmples of perfect squres re 4 = 2 2, 16 = 4 2, 169 = 13 2. We wish to hve method for

More information

Estimating Exchange Rate Exposures:

Estimating Exchange Rate Exposures: Estimting Exchnge Rte Exposures: Issues in Model Structure * Gordon M. Bodnr ** Pul H. Nitze School of Advnced Interntionl Studies, The Johns Hopkins University 1740 Msschusetts Avenue NW Wshington, DC

More information

Industry and Country Effects in International Stock Returns

Industry and Country Effects in International Stock Returns Industry nd Country ffects in Interntionl Stock Returns Implictions for sset lloction. Steven L. Heston nd K. Geert Rouwenhorst STVN L. HSTON is ssistnt professor of finnce t the John M. Olin School of

More information

Contextualizing NSSE Effect Sizes: Empirical Analysis and Interpretation of Benchmark Comparisons

Contextualizing NSSE Effect Sizes: Empirical Analysis and Interpretation of Benchmark Comparisons Contextulizing NSSE Effect Sizes: Empiricl Anlysis nd Interprettion of Benchmrk Comprisons NSSE stff re frequently sked to help interpret effect sizes. Is.3 smll effect size? Is.5 relly lrge effect size?

More information

Small Business Networking

Small Business Networking Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd business. Introducing technology

More information

ORBITAL MANEUVERS USING LOW-THRUST

ORBITAL MANEUVERS USING LOW-THRUST Proceedings of the 8th WSEAS Interntionl Conference on SIGNAL PROCESSING, ROBOICS nd AUOMAION ORBIAL MANEUVERS USING LOW-HRUS VIVIAN MARINS GOMES, ANONIO F. B. A. PRADO, HÉLIO KOII KUGA Ntionl Institute

More information

UNDERGRADUATE PREPARATION AND DISSERTATION METHODOLOGIES OF ACCOUNTING PHDS OVER THE PAST 40 YEARS

UNDERGRADUATE PREPARATION AND DISSERTATION METHODOLOGIES OF ACCOUNTING PHDS OVER THE PAST 40 YEARS Globl Perspectives on Accounting Eduction Volume 7, 2010, 19-29 UNDERGRADUATE PREPARATION AND DISSERTATION METHODOLOGIES OF ACCOUNTING PHDS OVER THE PAST 40 YEARS Mrvin Bouillon College of Business Centrl

More information

Assessing the Burden of Disease and Injury in Los Angeles County Using Disability-Adjusted Life Years

Assessing the Burden of Disease and Injury in Los Angeles County Using Disability-Adjusted Life Years Reserch Articles Assessing the Burden of Disese nd Injury in Los Angeles County Using Disbility-Adjusted Life Yers Gerld F. Kominski, PhD,b Pul A. Simon, MD, MPH c,d Alex Ho, MD, MPH c Jeffrey Luck, PhD,

More information

Small Business Networking

Small Business Networking Why Network is n Essentil Productivity Tool for Any Smll Business TechAdvisory.org SME Reports sponsored by Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse their productivity. Computer

More information

Poverty: the official numbers

Poverty: the official numbers 13 Chpter II Poverty: the officil numbers Monitoring nd reporting on the levels, ptterns nd trends of poverty hve become stndrd prt of nti-poverty progrmme design nd ssessment. With the stedy interntionliztion

More information

C-crcs Cognitive - Counselling Research & Conference Services (eissn: 2301-2358)

C-crcs Cognitive - Counselling Research & Conference Services (eissn: 2301-2358) C-crcs Cognitive - Counselling Reserch & Conference Services (eissn: 2301-2358) Volume I Effects of Music Composition Intervention on Elementry School Children b M. Hogenes, B. Vn Oers, R. F. W. Diekstr,

More information

Health insurance exchanges What to expect in 2014

Health insurance exchanges What to expect in 2014 Helth insurnce exchnges Wht to expect in 2014 33096CAEENABC 02/13 The bsics of exchnges As prt of the Affordble Cre Act (ACA or helth cre reform lw), strting in 2014 ALL Americns must hve minimum mount

More information

ClearPeaks Customer Care Guide. Business as Usual (BaU) Services Peace of mind for your BI Investment

ClearPeaks Customer Care Guide. Business as Usual (BaU) Services Peace of mind for your BI Investment ClerPeks Customer Cre Guide Business s Usul (BU) Services Pece of mind for your BI Investment ClerPeks Customer Cre Business s Usul Services Tble of Contents 1. Overview...3 Benefits of Choosing ClerPeks

More information

Occasional Paper series

Occasional Paper series Occsionl Pper series No 134 / JUNE 2012 REVISITING THE EFFECTIVE EXCHANGE RATES OF THE EURO by Mrtin Schmitz, Mrten De Clercq, Michel Fidor, Berndette Luro nd Cristin Pinheiro OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES

More information

SPECIAL PRODUCTS AND FACTORIZATION

SPECIAL PRODUCTS AND FACTORIZATION MODULE - Specil Products nd Fctoriztion 4 SPECIAL PRODUCTS AND FACTORIZATION In n erlier lesson you hve lernt multipliction of lgebric epressions, prticulrly polynomils. In the study of lgebr, we come

More information

Quality Evaluation of Entrepreneur Education on Graduate Students Based on AHP-fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Approach ZhongXiaojun 1, WangYunfeng 2

Quality Evaluation of Entrepreneur Education on Graduate Students Based on AHP-fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Approach ZhongXiaojun 1, WangYunfeng 2 Interntionl Journl of Engineering Reserch & Science (IJOER) ISSN [2395-6992] [Vol-2, Issue-1, Jnury- 2016] Qulity Evlution of Entrepreneur Eduction on Grdute Students Bsed on AHP-fuzzy Comprehensive Evlution

More information

Foreign portfolio investors before and during a crisis

Foreign portfolio investors before and during a crisis Journl of Interntionl Economics 56 (2002) 77 96 www.elsevier.com/ locte/ econbse Foreign portfolio investors before nd during crisis b,c,d, * Woochn Kim, Shng-Jin Wei School of Public Policy nd Mngement,

More information

FDIC Study of Bank Overdraft Programs

FDIC Study of Bank Overdraft Programs FDIC Study of Bnk Overdrft Progrms Federl Deposit Insurnce Corportion November 2008 Executive Summry In 2006, the Federl Deposit Insurnce Corportion (FDIC) initited two-prt study to gther empiricl dt on

More information

Small Business Networking

Small Business Networking Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd processes. Introducing technology

More information

GLOBAL TRUST IN ADVERTISING

GLOBAL TRUST IN ADVERTISING GLOBAL TRUST IN ADVERTISING WINNING STRATEGIES FOR AN EVOLVING MEDIA L ANDSCAPE SEPTEMBER 2015 Copyright 2015 The Nielsen Compny 1 START WITH REACH, END WITH REACTION AROUND THE WORLD Brnded websites re

More information

Preliminary Overview of the Economies. of Latin America and the Caribbean

Preliminary Overview of the Economies. of Latin America and the Caribbean 2007 Preliminry Overview of the Economies of Ltin Americ nd the Cribben The Preliminry Overview of the Economies of Ltin Americ nd the Cribben is n nnul publiction prepred by the Economic Development Division

More information

Chapter 8 - Practice Problems 1

Chapter 8 - Practice Problems 1 Chpter 8 - Prctice Problems 1 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one lterntive tht best completes the sttement or nswers the question. A hypothesis test is to be performed. Determine the null nd lterntive hypotheses.

More information

Small Business Networking

Small Business Networking Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd processes. Introducing technology

More information

Health insurance marketplace What to expect in 2014

Health insurance marketplace What to expect in 2014 Helth insurnce mrketplce Wht to expect in 2014 33096VAEENBVA 06/13 The bsics of the mrketplce As prt of the Affordble Cre Act (ACA or helth cre reform lw), strting in 2014 ALL Americns must hve minimum

More information

Interest Rates and Price Level Changes, 1952~69*

Interest Rates and Price Level Changes, 1952~69* Interest Rtes nd Price Level Chnges, 1952~69* by WILLIAM P YOHE nd DENIS S KARNOSKY Our economy hs been experiencing n ccelerting infltion during the pst five yers At the sme time, mrket interest rtes

More information

A new algorithm for generating Pythagorean triples

A new algorithm for generating Pythagorean triples A new lgorithm for generting Pythgoren triples RH Dye 1 nd RWD Nicklls 2 The Mthemticl Gzette (1998); 82 (Mrch, No. 493), p. 86 91 (JSTOR rchive) http://www.nicklls.org/dick/ppers/mths/pythgtriples1998.pdf

More information

Experiment 6: Friction

Experiment 6: Friction Experiment 6: Friction In previous lbs we studied Newton s lws in n idel setting, tht is, one where friction nd ir resistnce were ignored. However, from our everydy experience with motion, we know tht

More information

An Undergraduate Curriculum Evaluation with the Analytic Hierarchy Process

An Undergraduate Curriculum Evaluation with the Analytic Hierarchy Process An Undergrdute Curriculum Evlution with the Anlytic Hierrchy Process Les Frir Jessic O. Mtson Jck E. Mtson Deprtment of Industril Engineering P.O. Box 870288 University of Albm Tuscloos, AL. 35487 Abstrct

More information

Active & Retiree Plan: Trustees of the Milwaukee Roofers Health Fund Coverage Period: 06/01/2015-05/31/2016 Summary of Benefits and Coverage:

Active & Retiree Plan: Trustees of the Milwaukee Roofers Health Fund Coverage Period: 06/01/2015-05/31/2016 Summary of Benefits and Coverage: Summry of Benefits nd Coverge: Wht this Pln Covers & Wht it Costs Coverge for: Single & Fmily Pln Type: NPOS This is only summry. If you wnt more detil bout your coverge nd costs, you cn get the complete

More information

Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company University of Southern California Custom Premier PPO 800/20%/20%

Anthem Blue Cross Life and Health Insurance Company University of Southern California Custom Premier PPO 800/20%/20% Anthem Blue Cross Life nd Helth Insurnce Compny University of Southern Cliforni Custom Premier 800/20%/20% Summry of Benefits nd Coverge: Wht this Pln Covers & Wht it Costs Coverge Period: 01/01/2015-12/31/2015

More information

Global Health Matters

Global Health Matters Globl Helth Mtters This rticle by Boldo et l. demonstrtes tht in Europe, exposure to environmentl tobcco smoke (ETS) cused n estimted 24% to 32% of sudden infnt deth syndrome (SIDS) cses nd incresed the

More information

Probability m odels on horse-race outcomes

Probability m odels on horse-race outcomes Jour nl of Applied Sttistics, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1998, 221± 229 Probbility m odels on horse-rce outcomes M UKHTAR M. ALI, Deprtment of Economics, University of Kentucy, USA SUMMARY A number of models hve

More information

Preliminary Overview of the Economies of Latin America and the Caribbean

Preliminary Overview of the Economies of Latin America and the Caribbean 2014 Preliminry Overview of the Economies of Ltin Americ nd the Cribben Alici Bárcen Executive Secretry Antonio Prdo Deputy Executive Secretry Dniel Titelmn Chief, Economic Development Division Ricrdo

More information

I calculate the unemployment rate as (In Labor Force Employed)/In Labor Force

I calculate the unemployment rate as (In Labor Force Employed)/In Labor Force Introduction to the Prctice of Sttistics Fifth Edition Moore, McCbe Section 4.5 Homework Answers to 98, 99, 100,102, 103,105, 107, 109,110, 111, 112, 113 Working. In the lnguge of government sttistics,

More information

Lecture 3 Gaussian Probability Distribution

Lecture 3 Gaussian Probability Distribution Lecture 3 Gussin Probbility Distribution Introduction l Gussin probbility distribution is perhps the most used distribution in ll of science. u lso clled bell shped curve or norml distribution l Unlike

More information

Enterprise Risk Management Software Buyer s Guide

Enterprise Risk Management Software Buyer s Guide Enterprise Risk Mngement Softwre Buyer s Guide 1. Wht is Enterprise Risk Mngement? 2. Gols of n ERM Progrm 3. Why Implement ERM 4. Steps to Implementing Successful ERM Progrm 5. Key Performnce Indictors

More information

Humana Critical Illness/Cancer

Humana Critical Illness/Cancer Humn Criticl Illness/Cncer Criticl illness/cncer voluntry coverges py benefits however you wnt With our criticl illness nd cncer plns, you'll receive benefit fter serious illness or condition such s hert

More information

1 Numerical Solution to Quadratic Equations

1 Numerical Solution to Quadratic Equations cs42: introduction to numericl nlysis 09/4/0 Lecture 2: Introduction Prt II nd Solving Equtions Instructor: Professor Amos Ron Scribes: Yunpeng Li, Mrk Cowlishw Numericl Solution to Qudrtic Equtions Recll

More information

All pay auctions with certain and uncertain prizes a comment

All pay auctions with certain and uncertain prizes a comment CENTER FOR RESEARC IN ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT CREAM Publiction No. 1-2015 All py uctions with certin nd uncertin prizes comment Christin Riis All py uctions with certin nd uncertin prizes comment Christin

More information

Health Information Systems: evaluation and performance of a Help Desk

Health Information Systems: evaluation and performance of a Help Desk 536 Digitl Helthcre Empowering Europens R. Cornet et l. (Eds.) 2015 Europen Federtion for Medicl Informtics (EFMI). This rticle is published online with Open Access by IOS Press nd distributed under the

More information

Threshold Population Levels for Rural Retail Businesses in North Dakota, 2000

Threshold Population Levels for Rural Retail Businesses in North Dakota, 2000 Agribusiness & Applied Economics Miscellneous Report No. 191 July 2002 Threshold Popultion Levels for Rurl Retil Businesses in North Dkot, 2000 Rndl C. Coon nd F. Lrry Leistritz Deprtment of Agribusiness

More information

MAX. As an increasingly larger share of Medicaid enrollees MEDICAID POLICY BRIEF

MAX. As an increasingly larger share of Medicaid enrollees MEDICAID POLICY BRIEF MAX CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES MEDICAID POLICY BRIEF Brief 14 December 2012 The Avilbility nd Usbility of Behviorl Helth Orgniztion Encounter Dt in MAX 2009 Jessic Nysenbum, Ellen Bouchery,

More information

Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Based Induction Motor with V/F Control

Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Based Induction Motor with V/F Control Interntionl Journl of Science nd Reserch (IJSR) Spce Vector Pulse Width Modultion Bsed Induction Motor with V/F Control Vikrmrjn Jmbulingm Electricl nd Electronics Engineering, VIT University, Indi Abstrct:

More information

2011 Statistics on Social Work Education in the United States

2011 Statistics on Social Work Education in the United States 2011 Sttistics on Socil Work Eduction in the United Sttes Council on Socil Work Eduction 2011 Annul Sttistics on Socil Work Eduction in the United Sttes Council on Socil Work Eduction The Annul Survey

More information

Factoring Polynomials

Factoring Polynomials Fctoring Polynomils Some definitions (not necessrily ll for secondry school mthemtics): A polynomil is the sum of one or more terms, in which ech term consists of product of constnt nd one or more vribles

More information

THE INTELLIGENT VEHICLE RECOVERY AND FLEET MANAGEMENT SOLUTION

THE INTELLIGENT VEHICLE RECOVERY AND FLEET MANAGEMENT SOLUTION KENYA THE INTELLIGENT VEHICLE RECOVERY AND FLEET MANAGEMENT SOLUTION INTRODUCTION Hving estblished itself in no less thn eleven Sub-Shrn countries nd with more thn 230 000 vehicles lredy on its system

More information

I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1 I I. Regional Economic Multipliers. A Consumer s Guide to. Cletus C. Coughlin and Thomas B. Mandelbaum

I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1 I I. Regional Economic Multipliers. A Consumer s Guide to. Cletus C. Coughlin and Thomas B. Mandelbaum 1 19 1 1 Cletus C. Coughlin nd Thoms B. Mndelbum Cletus C. Coughlin is reserch officer nd Thoms B. Mndelbum is n economist t the Federl Reserve Bnk of St Louis. Thoms A. Pollmnn provided reserch ssistnce.

More information

Reasoning to Solve Equations and Inequalities

Reasoning to Solve Equations and Inequalities Lesson4 Resoning to Solve Equtions nd Inequlities In erlier work in this unit, you modeled situtions with severl vriles nd equtions. For exmple, suppose you were given usiness plns for concert showing

More information

AntiSpyware Enterprise Module 8.5

AntiSpyware Enterprise Module 8.5 AntiSpywre Enterprise Module 8.5 Product Guide Aout the AntiSpywre Enterprise Module The McAfee AntiSpywre Enterprise Module 8.5 is n dd-on to the VirusScn Enterprise 8.5i product tht extends its ility

More information

Use Geometry Expressions to create a more complex locus of points. Find evidence for equivalence using Geometry Expressions.

Use Geometry Expressions to create a more complex locus of points. Find evidence for equivalence using Geometry Expressions. Lerning Objectives Loci nd Conics Lesson 3: The Ellipse Level: Preclculus Time required: 120 minutes In this lesson, students will generlize their knowledge of the circle to the ellipse. The prmetric nd

More information

TITLE THE PRINCIPLES OF COIN-TAP METHOD OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING

TITLE THE PRINCIPLES OF COIN-TAP METHOD OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING TITLE THE PRINCIPLES OF COIN-TAP METHOD OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING Sung Joon Kim*, Dong-Chul Che Kore Aerospce Reserch Institute, 45 Eoeun-Dong, Youseong-Gu, Dejeon, 35-333, Kore Phone : 82-42-86-231 FAX

More information

VoIP for the Small Business

VoIP for the Small Business VoIP for the Smll Business Reducing your telecommunictions costs Reserch firm IDC 1 hs estimted tht VoIP system cn reduce telephony-relted expenses by 30%. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) hs become

More information

Recognition Scheme Forensic Science Content Within Educational Programmes

Recognition Scheme Forensic Science Content Within Educational Programmes Recognition Scheme Forensic Science Content Within Eductionl Progrmmes one Introduction The Chrtered Society of Forensic Sciences (CSoFS) hs been ccrediting the forensic content of full degree courses

More information

GAO HIGHER EDUCATION. Improved Tax Information Could Help Families Pay for College. Report to the Committee on Finance, U.S.

GAO HIGHER EDUCATION. Improved Tax Information Could Help Families Pay for College. Report to the Committee on Finance, U.S. GAO United Sttes Government Accountbility Office Report to the Committee on Finnce, U.S. Sente My 2012 HIGHER EDUCATION Improved Tx Informtion Could Help Fmilies Py for College GAO-12-560 My 2012 HIGHER

More information

VoIP for the Small Business

VoIP for the Small Business VoIP for the Smll Business Reducing your telecommunictions costs Reserch firm IDC 1 hs estimted tht VoIP system cn reduce telephony-relted expenses by 30%. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) hs become

More information

Policy Brief. Receipt of Public Benefits and Private Support among Low-income Households with Children after the Great Recession.

Policy Brief. Receipt of Public Benefits and Private Support among Low-income Households with Children after the Great Recession. Policy Brief #31, April 2012 The Ntionl Poverty Center s Policy Brief series summrizes key cdemic reserch findings, highlighting implictions for policy. The NPC encourges the dissemintion of this publiction

More information

PROF. BOYAN KOSTADINOV NEW YORK CITY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY, CUNY

PROF. BOYAN KOSTADINOV NEW YORK CITY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY, CUNY MAT 0630 INTERNET RESOURCES, REVIEW OF CONCEPTS AND COMMON MISTAKES PROF. BOYAN KOSTADINOV NEW YORK CITY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY, CUNY Contents 1. ACT Compss Prctice Tests 1 2. Common Mistkes 2 3. Distributive

More information

How Universities Evaluate Faculty Performance: A Survey of Department Heads

How Universities Evaluate Faculty Performance: A Survey of Department Heads How Universities Evlute Fculty Performnce: A Survey of Deprtment Heds John A. Centr GRE Bord Reserch Report GREB No. br July This report presents the findings of reserch project funded by nd crried out

More information

Basic Analysis of Autarky and Free Trade Models

Basic Analysis of Autarky and Free Trade Models Bsic Anlysis of Autrky nd Free Trde Models AUTARKY Autrky condition in prticulr commodity mrket refers to sitution in which country does not engge in ny trde in tht commodity with other countries. Consequently

More information

VoIP for the Small Business

VoIP for the Small Business Reducing your telecommunictions costs Reserch firm IDC 1 hs estimted tht VoIP system cn reduce telephony-relted expenses by 30%. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) hs become vible solution for even the

More information

Example 27.1 Draw a Venn diagram to show the relationship between counting numbers, whole numbers, integers, and rational numbers.

Example 27.1 Draw a Venn diagram to show the relationship between counting numbers, whole numbers, integers, and rational numbers. 2 Rtionl Numbers Integers such s 5 were importnt when solving the eqution x+5 = 0. In similr wy, frctions re importnt for solving equtions like 2x = 1. Wht bout equtions like 2x + 1 = 0? Equtions of this

More information

Small Business Cloud Services

Small Business Cloud Services Smll Business Cloud Services Summry. We re thick in the midst of historic se-chnge in computing. Like the emergence of personl computers, grphicl user interfces, nd mobile devices, the cloud is lredy profoundly

More information

JaERM Software-as-a-Solution Package

JaERM Software-as-a-Solution Package JERM Softwre-s--Solution Pckge Enterprise Risk Mngement ( ERM ) Public listed compnies nd orgnistions providing finncil services re required by Monetry Authority of Singpore ( MAS ) nd/or Singpore Stock

More information

VoIP for the Small Business

VoIP for the Small Business Reducing your telecommunictions costs Reserch firm IDC 1 hs estimted tht VoIP system cn reduce telephony-relted expenses by 30%. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) hs become vible solution for even the

More information

STATEMENT OF ALICE M. RIVLIN, DIRECTOR CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE. Before the

STATEMENT OF ALICE M. RIVLIN, DIRECTOR CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE. Before the STATEMENT OF ALICE M. RIVLIN, DIRECTOR CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE Before the SUBCOMMITTEE ON ECONOMIC STABILIZATION COMMITTEE ON BANKING, HOUSING, AND URBAN AFFAIRS UNITED STATES SENATE MARCH 13, 1980

More information

National Diabetes Audit. Report 1: Care Processes and Treatment Targets

National Diabetes Audit. Report 1: Care Processes and Treatment Targets Ntionl Dibetes Audit 2011 2012 Report 1: Cre Processes nd Tretment Trgets The Ntionl Dibetes Audit is commissioned by The Helthcre Qulity Improvement Prtnership (HQIP) promotes qulity in helthcre. HQIP

More information

Estimates of Human Capital in Canada: The Lifetime Income Approach

Estimates of Human Capital in Canada: The Lifetime Income Approach Ctlogue no. 11F0027M No. 062 ISSN 1703-0404 ISBN 978-1-100-14997-4 Reserch Pper Economic Anlysis (EA) Reserch Pper Series Estimtes of Humn Cpitl in Cnd: The Lifetime Income Approch by Wulong Gu nd Ambrose

More information

Pay over time with low monthly payments. Types of Promotional Options that may be available: *, ** See Page 10 for details

Pay over time with low monthly payments. Types of Promotional Options that may be available: *, ** See Page 10 for details With CreCredit... Strt cre immeditely Py over time with low monthly pyments For yourself nd your fmily Types of Promotionl Options tht my be vilble: Not ll enrolled helthcre prctices offer ll specil finncing

More information

VoIP for the Small Business

VoIP for the Small Business Reducing your telecommunictions costs Reserch firm IDC 1 hs estimted tht VoIP system cn reduce telephony-relted expenses by 30%. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) hs become vible solution for even the

More information

VoIP for the Small Business

VoIP for the Small Business VoIP for the Smll Business Reducing your telecommunictions costs Reserch firm IDC 1 hs estimted tht VoIP system cn reduce telephony-relted expenses by 30%. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) hs become

More information

Low-Wage Workers and Health Insurance Coverage: Can Policymakers Target Them through Their Employers?

Low-Wage Workers and Health Insurance Coverage: Can Policymakers Target Them through Their Employers? Stephen H. Long M. Susn Mrquis Low-Wge Workers nd Helth Insurnce Coverge: Cn Policymkers Trget Them through Their Employers? Mny policy inititives to increse helth insurnce coverge would subsidize employers

More information