Round and Round the Rock Cycle

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1 Round and Round the Rock Cycle Objectives The student will identify the processes that cause the three different types of rocks to form and identify rock samples from each type. Suggested Grade Level Fifth grade Subject Areas Science Language Arts Music Timeline Four 45-minute class sessions Background Teacher- The processes that rock materials endure during their formation will determine the type of rock that is produced. There are three types of rocks: sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. Each type of rock has its own unique properties which are determined by its formation. Sedimentary rocks make up about 75% of the rocks on Earth. They can form when sediments of different sizes are carried by water or wind and then deposited. In sedimentary rocks, students should observe two important properties, the law of horizontality and the law of superposition. The law of horizontality states that in general, sediments will fall out of suspension to form horizontal layers. The law of superposition states that in these layers, the oldest layer (that which formed first) will be below the younger layers (those which formed last). Another property noted in sedimentary rock layers is that more dense sediments will fall out of suspension before less dense sediments. Sedimentary rocks can help scientists understand the plants and animals that lived when the rocks were deposited. Sedimentary rocks in an area can also indicate places where resources like groundwater or petroleum products. Igneous rocks are those formed from magma in the mantle. These rocks can be classified in two ways: intrusive and extrusive. Intrusive rocks are those formed below the surface when magma flows into underground cracks and chambers. Intrusive rocks like granite can have large crystal structures if they cool slowly or smaller crystal structures when they cool more quickly. Extrusive rocks are those igneous rocks that are formed at or above the surface as a result of volcanic activity. like obsidian and basalt are formed from lava flows. called pumice are formed when ash is expelled into the air from a volcano. Identifying the locations where igneous

2 rocks form can help scientists learn about plate boundaries. Igneous rocks like granite are also used for building materials. Metamorphic rocks are those rocks that have been changed in form. change into metamorphic rocks when conditions in either heat or pressure change. Igneous and sedimentary rocks can be remade into metamorphic rocks. Metamorphic rocks can even be metamorphosed again to become a new type of metamorphic rock. Gneiss is the metamorphic rock formed from the igneous rock granite. When the sedimentary rock sandstone is changed, it becomes quartzite. Metamorphic rocks like slate and marble can be used as building materials. Marble is also used for sculptures. The rock cycle demonstrates the changes that rocks can go through to become other types of rocks. Igneous and metamorphic rocks can be weathered to form sediments which in turn form sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary and igneous rocks can be buried and changed by heat and/or pressure to become metamorphic rocks. Igneous and metamorphic rocks can be melted to form magma which might become an igneous rock. Materials Day 1 - for each small group: Soil, three different types (course sand, sandy soil, clay soil) Baby food jar with lid Teaspoon, Water and Minerals Day 2 Construction paper (white, pink, and black) Scissors Glue Granite sample with large crystals Granite sample with small crystals and Minerals Day 3 for each small group Four different colors of clay or Play-Doh and Minerals Day 4 Rock cycle diagrams (incomplete and complete see addendum) Two samples of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks Lesson Day 1 Sedimentary 1. Students will work in groups of 3-4 to create a model of sedimentary rock layers using the Rock in a Jar lab activity.

3 2. Each group will place 2 teaspoons of each of the sediments in a baby food jar. Once the sediments are in the jar, add water to the mixture until the jar is about two-thirds full. 3. Place the lid back on the jar and tighten completely. Take turns vigorously shaking the jar. 4. Place the jar on the table for observation. Students will make notes about what they observe in their science journal. 5. Discuss students observations with the class. Introduce the terms for laws of horizontality and superposition, the terms which give geologic names to the properties they observed. Discuss the sizes of the sediments in each layer of the jar. 6. Read and discuss pages and in and Minerals to find out more about why sedimentary rocks are important. 7. You may wish to turn this activity into a long term observation by removing the jar lids and allowing the water to evaporate. Once the water has evaporated, the layers appear more rock-like to the students. Students can continue to watch the layers for signs of drought. Day 2 - Igneous 1. Students will use scissors to cut small pieces from pink, white, and black construction paper. The pieces should have random shapes and will represent the mineral crystals of quartz (white), feldspar (pink), and mica (black) which makes up the igneous rock called granite. 2. Have students arrange and glue the small construction paper pieces onto a page of their science journal to construct a model of an igneous rock. The pieces should be glued randomly so that there is no real pattern to the crystals. 3. Have students share their models with the class. Compare the crystal sizes shown in each model. 4. Explain that most igneous rocks are formed under the Earth s surface (called intrusive) and that granite is one such example. You may wish to extend the discussion by explaining that rocks with larger crystals cooled slowly below the surface and those with smaller crystals cooled more rapidly closer to the surface. If possible show actual granite samples with large and small crystals. 5. Read and discuss pages 6-9 in and Minerals to find out more about igneous rocks. Day 3 - Metamorphic 1. Have students work in groups of four to make a model of a sedimentary rock with four layers. Each student will choose a color of clay or play-doh to make a pancake about 6-8 cm in diameter. Have students stack their clay pancakes to make a stack. Have students make observations about the properties of model rock in their science journal. 2. Each student then takes a turn applying pressure to the stack of clay. Students may choose to push from the top or the sides. Each student

4 then takes another turn, this time representing the heat involved in the metamorphosis of rocks. 3. Have students make observations of their rock after heat and pressure have been applied. How has the rock changed? 4. Read and discuss pages in and Minerals to find out more about metamorphic rocks and how they are used. Day 4 - Putting it all Together 1. Introduce a graphic representation of the rock cycle that shows just the labels for the three types of rocks. 2. Involve students in a discussion of processes that could change each type of rock into another type of rock. See addendum. 3. Add to the graphic as students discuss the connection between sedimentary and igneous, igneous and metamorphic, and sedimentary and metamorphic. Have students add the drawing to their science journal. 4. Give each small group of students two samples from each rock type. The following samples work well: granite and basalt for igneous, sandstone and conglomerate for sedimentary, and gneiss and slate for metamorphic. 5. Have students make observations of each sample and conduct a group discussion to identify each sample as igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary. Have students use the class notes to justify their hypotheses. Have students use complete sentences to describe why it is important to be able to identify the three types of rocks. Extension 1. Have students complete the lyrics to this song which is sung to the tune of The Wheels on the Bus. Students should use properties learned during their studies to write a verse for each type of rock. Sing the songs in class and share them with the music teacher who can help reinforce these science concepts during music class. Sample Lyrics: The rocks on the Earth go round and round Round and Round Round and Round The rocks on the Earth go round and round To make the Rock Cycle! Metamorphic rocks get heat and pressure Heat and Pressure Heat and Pressure Metamorphic rocks get heat and pressure And change to form new rocks! Igneous rocks... Sedimentary rocks...

5 Evaluation The student does identify the processes that cause the three different types of rocks to form and identify rock samples from each type. Students successfully make observations of each sample and conduct a group discussion to identify each sample as igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary. Have students use the class notes to justify their hypotheses. Have students use complete sentences to describe why it is important to be able to identify the three types of rocks. Resources Jay Temple, M.A., Space Foundation: Earth Systems Science class, July 10-14, 2006, Garden of the Gods Trading Post, Manitou Springs, Colorado. Morris, Neil, and Minerals, New York: Crabtree Publishing Company, ISBN /es0602page02.cfm Addendum See attached

6 The Rock Cycle Sedimentary Igneous Metamorphic

7 The Rock Cycle Sedimentary erosion heat and pressure erosion Igneous melting heat and pressure Metamorphic

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