Writing Prompts 1D: Venue

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1 Writing Prompts 1D: Venue Guidance on Student Use: Below are writing prompts related to content learned in this unit as well as recommended assessment probes. The assessment probes can be found in a series of books titled Uncovering Student Ideas. One copy of each of these books has been provided to each school s science department. The names of each book and the shorthand used to denote the books follow. Uncovering Students Ideas in Science: 25 Formative Assessment Probes, Volume 1 (Vol. 1) Uncovering Students Ideas in Science: 25 More Formative Assessment Probes, Volume 2 (Vol. 2) Uncovering Students Ideas in Science: Another 25 Formative Assessment Probes, Volume 3 (Vol. 3) Uncovering Students Ideas in Science: 25 New Formative Assessment Probes, Volume 4 (Vol. 4) Uncovering Students Ideas in Physical Science: 45 New Force and Motion Assessment Probes, Volume 1 (PS) Indicators with Related Writing Prompts and Assessment Probes The student will describe the types of electric charges and the forces that exist between them. the attractive/repulsive nature of the forces between charges Writing Prompt: Electrician s Clothing Assessment Probes: Does it Have to Touch? (PS, p. 75) The student will describe the sources and effects of electric and magnetic fields. Qualitative description of the force on a moving charge or on a current carrying wire in a magnetic field Simple D.C. series and parallel circuits Practical applications (safety, grounding, circuit breakers, fuses) Writing Prompt: Party Lights, Power Outage, Energy Use of Appliance Assessment Probes: Batteries, Bulbs and Wire (Vol. 3, p. 57), Magnet in Water (Vol. 4, p. 67) The student will qualitatively describe the applications of electromagnetic induction. Electromagnetic induction Generators Writing Prompt: Speaker as a Microphone Assessment Probes:

2 5.4.1 The student will compare qualitatively how waves are propagated and transmit energy. Physical v. electromagnetic Longitudinal v. transverse Writing Prompt: Launch Pad, Pilots Risk of Skin Cancer Assessment Probes: Apple in the Dark (Vol. 1, p. 31), Birthday Candles (Vol. 1, p. 37) The student will describe wave characteristics using both diagrams and calculations. Wavelength Frequency Velocity Amplitude Writing Prompt: Pilots Risk of Skin Cancer Assessment Probes: The student will qualitatively describe the physical behaviors of waves. Reflection Refraction Diffraction Interference Writing Prompt: Highway Noise Assessment Probes: Mirror on the Wall (Vol. 3, p. 51)

3 Speaker as a Microphone How are electrical circuits used to create sound? The student will qualitatively describe the applications of electromagnetic induction. A student noticed that whenever the main office called the classroom, the teacher responded directly back to the speaker on the ceiling. The student wondered where the microphone was. The teacher told the student that the speaker was the microphone. Explain how one piece of equipment could be used as a speaker or a microphone. In your reponse, be sure to include: an explanation of how a speaker generates sound. an explanation of how a speaker could convert a sound into an electrical signal, thus acting as a microphone. drawing to support your explanations.

4 Launch Pad How do materials reflect, absorb and diffuse sound? The student will compare qualitatively how waves are propagated and transmit energy. Decades ago, NASA found that the sound waves at the mobile launch pad of the space shuttle were strong enough to potentially damage the craft. Engineers designed a system that can douse the launch pad with 300,000 gallons of water in 41 seconds as a remedy. Explain how dousing the launch pad with water protects the shuttle from being damaged by sound waves. In your reponse, be sure to include: how sound waves could damage solid objects like a space craft. how water could reduce the effects of the sound waves. why damage from sound waves is an issue on the launch pad but not in the air.

5 Highway Noise What role does diffusion, diffraction, reflection, refraction, constructive interference and destructive interference play in acoustics? The student will qualitatively describe the physical behaviors of waves. As the world is increasing in population density, the sound from traffic a significant issue. The U.S. Department of Transportation recognizes that noise from highways is a large issue, particularly for those who live close to the highway. Engineers have come up with several solutions to the problem. One solution is noise barriers which can be dirt mounds between a highway and homes or high vertical walls. A second solution is planting vegetation such as trees. A third solution is having a large buffer zone or open space between the highway and homes. Vegetation Noise Barrier Buffer Zone Explain how vegetation, noise barriers and buffer zones reduce the noise from a highway that is heard at a nearby home. In your reponse, be sure to include: the accurate use of terms to explain how the acoustics of the traffic noise are impacted by each of the three methods. how the noise heard by someone in the home would be impacted by each of the three methods. how the noise heard by someone driving on the highway would be impacted by each of the three methods.

6 Power Outage What safety features are designed into electrical circuits? The student will describe the sources and effects of electric and magnetic fields. A student claims when they use their space heater and hairdryer at the same time, the power for the entire house goes out. A second student says that it is not possible for the use of those two items to affect the power to the entire house. Using your knowledge of circuitry and electricity, explain why it is unlikely that the power for the entire house would go out. In your reponse, be sure to include: what might have happened to the first students to cause some of the power in the house to go out. why it is beneficial for power to go off in some situations. how power could be restored. what could cause the power in the entire house to go out.

7 Energy Use of Appliance How can electrical demands of a device be calculated? The student will describe the sources and effects of electric and magnetic fields. Electrical outlets are designed to handle approximately 20 amperes of current. If more than 20 amperes pass through an outlet and there are not precautions such as circuit breakers, a fire can start. The amount of current passing through an outlet depends on two things: the voltage supply for that outlet and the watts of energy needed for the appliance in use. Amperes = Watts / Volts Most outlets in a home supply 120 volts. Some appliances require more than 120 volts to operate safely. Therefore, there are some outlets in houses that supply more than 120 volts. Identify what appliances can be plugged into a standard 120 volt outlet and which cannot. In your reponse, be sure to include: which appliances in the graph above could safely use a 120 volt outlet and which could not. a calculation providing evidence for one appliance that it could safely use a 120 volt outlet. a calculation providing evidence for one appliance that it count not safely use a 120 volt outlet.

8 Electrician s Clothing How do different materials effect how electrons travel? The student will describe the types of electric charges and the forces that exist between them. One piece of equipment in every electrician s toolbox is a thick pair of rubber gloves. These are not to protect their hand from getting dirty. They have a much more important role. They provide some protection from the possibility of electrical shock. There are also some materials that electricians should avoid wearing for safety reasons. Explain how different materials provide protection or increase the risk from an electrical shock. In your reponse, be sure to include: how rubber gloves can protect electricians. what materials electricians should avoid wearing. how those materials can increase the risk of an electrician getting hurt.

9 Party Lights The student will describe the sources and effects of electric and magnetic fields. A group of students were at a graduation party in one student s back yard. The star of the basketball team, who is very tall, arrived late. As he walked across the back yard his head bumped into one light in a strand of part light. All of a sudden all of the party lights went out. Explain why all of the lights in the strand went out when one light was bumped. In your reponse, be sure to include: if the lights in the strand were wired in series or parallel. a sketch of the wiring used in the strand of party lights. how the lights could fixed.

10 Pilots Risk of Skin Cancer The student will compare qualitatively how waves are propagated and transmit energy The student will describe wave characteristics using both diagrams and calculations. For years, exposure to ultra violet radiation from prolonged time in the sun has been the major identified cause of skin cancer. New research is showing that ultra violet is not the only type of radiation from the sun that can increase the risk of skin cancer. Rates of skin cancer among pilots are twice that of non pilots, but the glass used in planes blocks most the ultra violet radiation. Pilots are also exposed to x rays from the sun during flight. The x rays that pilots are exposed to in one day of work are equivalent to a chest x ray. Although getting an x ray for medical reasons is believed to be safe, researchers believe that the frequent exposer that pilots experience increases their risk for skin cancer. Use your knowledge of the electromagnetic spectrum to support the claim that pilots are at a greater risk of skin cancer from their exposure to x rays. In your reponse, be sure to include: how ultra violet radiation and x rays are different. why exposure to ulta violet radiation and x rays can cause can cause cancer but visible light and infra red can not. why pilots have a greater exposure to x rays than someone walking down the street. use of terms.

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