# DC Noise Immunity of CMOS Logic Gates

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1 DC Noise Immunity of CMOS Logic Gates Introduction The immunity of a CMOS logic gate to noise signals is a function of many variables, such as individual chip differences, fan-in and fan-out, stray inductance and capacitance, supply voltage, location of the noise, shape of the noise signal, and temperature. Moreover, the immunity of a system of gates usually differs from that of any individual gate; thus a generalized analysis of the noise immunity of a logic circuit becomes a very complex process when one takes all the above parameters into consideration. The complementary structure of the inverter results in a near-ideal input-output characteristic with switching point midway (45% 55%) between the 0 and 1 output logic levels. The result is a high noise immunity (defined as the maximum noise voltage which can appear on the input without switching an inverter from one state to another). Fairchild s CMOS circuits have a typical noise immunity of 0.45 V CC. This means that a spurious input which is 45% of the power supply voltage typically will not propagate through the circuit. However, the standard guaranteed value through the industry is 30%. This note describes the variation of the transfer region (or DC noise immunity) of a multiple-input gate in conjunction with the gate configuration a consideration important in the system design. Transfer Characteristics (a) AN AN (b) FIGURE 1. Minimum and Maximum Transfer Characteristics for (a) Inverting Logic Function and (b) Noninverting Logic Function Figure 1 illustrates minimum and maximum transfer characteristics useful for defining noise immunity for an inverter and a non-inverter. Some definitions are as follows: Application Note 377 July 1984 V IH min =the minimum input voltage high-level input for which the output logic level does not change state. Then: V NL =V ILmax = low level noise immunity V NH =V DD V IH = high level noise immunity V OHmin =minimum high level output voltage for rated V NL - [for inverting function as in Figure 1 (a)] Table 1 shows the UB and B series noise immunity and noise margin ratings determined by the Joint Electron Devices Engineering Council (JEDEC). B series ratings are slightly higher than the UB series because of the buffered nature of these gates. TABLE 1. UB and B Series DC Noise Immunity and Noise Margin (T A =25 C) Test Input Characteristics Conditions Voltage V O V DD (V) (V) (V) Input Low Voltage V IL max B types 0.5/ / / UB types 0.5/ / / Input High Voltage V IH min B types 0.5/ / / UB types 0.5/ / / Since the MOS transistors are voltage-controlled resistors, the transfer characteristics and consequently the DC noise immunity are determined by the parallel series combination of the transistor impedances in conjunction with the input voltages, the number of inputs, and the gate circuit configuration. This consideration becomes more important for a system designer who has harsh-noise-prone applications. The value of the standard transistor ON resistance may vary from 10 MΩ down to almost 30Ω (depending on the dimensions of the MOS-FET and applied voltages). For different input conditions, different combinations of the impedances of the N-channel transistors connected in parallel and the P-channel transistors connected in series will come into play DC Noise Immunity of CMOS Logic Gates AN Corporation AN

2 for a NOR gate. This is illustrated in Figure 2. For a NAND gate, similar considerations hold good and give rise to varying transfer characteristics as shown in Figure 3. Example of CD4001 Analysis The DC transfer characteristics of the CMOS inverter can be calculated from the simplified DC current-voltage characteristics of the N- and P-channel MOS devices. In the transfer region, where both transistors are in saturation, the following relationships can be used for an inverter. N-channel drain current will be: P-channel drain current will be: (1) AN A=B=0 where: (2) Taking the ratio of Equation (2) and Equation (1): AN A=1, B=0 A=0, B=1 A=B=1 AN AN FIGURE 2. Typical Transfer ON/OFF Resistances for Various Input Combinations for CD4001 (3) Studies made at Fairchild show good correlations between the process monitor pattern and actual device on a wafer for drive currents. Thus the ratio K p /K n can be calculated for the actual device if one knows drive currents for the test pattern, widths of N- and P-channel devices and threshold voltages from a given process. The transition voltage is calculated from basic current equations and from the fact that some current has to flow through P- and N-channel devices. Equating saturation currents and rearranging terms, one can obtain 1 : Transition Voltage=V IN * (4) 2

3 AN AN AN AN FIGURE 3. Allowed Voltage Transfer Curve Shifts which Result Due to Various Input Combinations of Multiple Input Gates 3

4 By selecting V TP =V TN and K p =K n, transition voltage can be designed to fall midway between 0V and V DD an ideal situation for obtaining excellent noise immunity. However, it is not always possible to obtain equal threshold voltages because of process variations. Also, W/L ratio for a P-channel device must be made 2 or 3 times larger than W/L ratio for an N-channel device to take into account mobility variations. The designer should consider these factors when designing for the best noise immunity characteristics. In Equation (4), the value of K p /K n substituted is obtained from Equation (3). With different gate configurations, effective W p and W n values change; also, K p /K n ratio changes and a shift in transfer characteristics results. For the 4-input NOR gate like CD4002, an empirical relation for the low noise margin V NL has been obtained, which is as follows: (5) where: N i =number of used inputs/gate N m =total number of inputs/gate The input voltage high noise margin V NH can be calculated by: (6) Similar equations can be derived for a NAND gate. From Equation (5) and Equation (6), one can see that the low noise margin V NL will decrease as a function of the number of controlled inputs, while it will increase for a NAND gate. The input HIGH noise margin will increase as a function of the number of controlled inputs for the NOR gate; for the NAND gate it will decrease. Figure 4 depicts V OUT =f(v IN ) for different configurations for NOR and NAND gates. The system designer can thus use these facts effectively in his design and obtain the best possible configuration for the desired noise immunity with Fairchild s logic family. AN AN FIGURE 4. Example of Transfer Voltage Variation for NOR and NAND Gates for Various Input Combinations 1. Carr, W.N., and Mize, J.P., MOS/LSI Design and Application, Texas Instruments Electronic Series,

5 5

6 AN-377 DC Noise Immunity of CMOS Logic Gates LIFE SUPPORT POLICY FAIRCHILD S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DE- VICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT OF FAIRCHILD SEMI- CONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and (c) whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. Corporation Americas Customer Response Center Tel: Europe Fax: +49 (0) Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) English Tel: +44 (0) Italy Tel: +39 (0) A critical component in any component of a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness. Hong Kong Ltd. 13th Floor, Straight Block, Ocean Centre, 5 Canton Rd. Tsimshatsui, Kowloon Hong Kong Tel: Fax: National Semiconductor Japan Ltd. Tel: Fax: Fairchild does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and Fairchild reserves the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications.

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LM380 Audio Power Amplifier General Description The LM380 is a power audio amplifier for consumer application In order to hold system cost to a minimum gain is internally fixed at 34 db A unique input

### LM108 LM208 LM308 Operational Amplifiers

LM108 LM208 LM308 Operational Amplifiers General Description The LM108 series are precision operational amplifiers having specifications a factor of ten better than FET amplifiers over a b55 C toa125 C

### DM74LS47 BCD to 7-Segment Decoder/Driver with Open-Collector Outputs

DM74LS47 BCD to 7-Segment Decoder/Driver with Open-Collector Outputs General Description The DM74LS47 accepts four lines of BCD (8421) input data, generates their complements internally and decodes the

### LM1596 LM1496 Balanced Modulator-Demodulator

LM1596 LM1496 Balanced Modulator-Demodulator General Description The LM1596 LM1496 are doubled balanced modulator-demodulators which produce an output voltage proportional to the product of an input (signal)

### DM74LS169A Synchronous 4-Bit Up/Down Binary Counter

Synchronous 4-Bit Up/Down Binary Counter General Description This synchronous presettable counter features an internal carry look-ahead for cascading in high-speed counting applications. Synchronous operation