Chem 401 Lab Exercise #5 Nomenclature Worksheet for Alkanes and Cycloalkanes

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chem 401 Lab Exercise #5 Nomenclature Worksheet for Alkanes and Cycloalkanes"

Transcription

1 hem 401 Lab Exercise #5 Nomenclature Worksheet for Alkanes and ycloalkanes Structure and Nomenclature of Alkanes Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons; that is, they contain only and which are bonded solely with σ bonds. As the valence of is 4 and the valence of is 1, will have 4 bonds and may only have 1. Because following this rule ( will get 8 electrons or 4 bonds; will get 2 electrons or 1 bond), we don t bother counting valence electrons. Alkanes have the general formula n 2n+2. The simplest alkanes are continuous chain alkanes. They are also called straight chain alkanes, although the chain is not really straight, it zig-zags! In continuous chain alkanes, the atoms are connected together in a line, and the atoms fill around. ere are the structural formulas for the 3 simplest continuous chain alkanes: Line Structure or Kekulé Structure ondensed Structure 4 or or Skeletal Structure N/A Note that there is more than one way to draw or write the structure. The Kekulé structure would be like the Lewis structure. The condensed structure doesn t show all the bonds: the line bonds between and are omitted; and even the line bonds between atoms may be dropped. Instead, due to the predictability of and bonds, the - and - bonds are understood. Notice that in the condensed structure, the atoms immediately follow the to which they are attached. In the skeletal structure, the atoms are omitted altogether, and the atoms are implied wherever a line ends or at the intersection of 2 lines. The reader can easily determine how many atoms are attached to each as the total number of bonds must equal Draw the Kekulé, condensed, and skeletal structure for the continuous chain alkane with the formula What is the molecular formula for the following skeletal structure? In naming straight chain alkanes, we combine a parent root with the suffix -ane. The parent root and names for the most common alkanes are below. You should memorize these parent root and names. The parent root for 5 and above come from the Greek or Latin names for numbers, while the parent root for 1 to 4 are common names.

2 Table: Parent Names of ontinuous (Straight) hain Alkanes # of atoms Parent Root Name ondensed Structure 1 meth- methane 4 2 eth- ethane 3 prop- propane 4 but- butane 5 pent- pentane 6 hex- hexane 7 hept- heptane 8 oct- octane 9 non- nonane 10 dec- decane 11 undec- undecane 12 dodec- dodecane 20 ico- icosane ( ) Write the Kekulé structure for decane. 4. Name the following alkanes: a. b. ycloalkanes yclic alkanes are hydrocarbon chains where two end atoms join to form a ring. Because of this extra - bond, two atoms are lost in simple cycloalkanes. So the general formula is n 2n. To name simple cycloalkanes, we add the prefix cyclo to the parent name for the corresponding continuous chain alkane. So cyclopropane is: 5. Draw the structure for cyclohexane.

3 Alkyl Groups and Branched Alkanes There are many alkanes which do not have a simple straight chain structure. Instead, they are what we call branched alkanes. In branched alkanes, 1 or more atoms are substituted with alkyl groups or alkyl substituents. Branched alkanes are named after the parent name for the longest continuous chain alkane present in the molecule. For example, consider the following structure: 6. Draw a line through the longest continuous chain of atoms. 7. ow many atoms are in the longest continuous chain (main chain)? 8. What is the parent name for the main chain? 9. ow many branches or alkyl groups are there on the main chain? ow do you name a more complex branched alkane when it has alkyl (or cycloalkyl) groups? The alkyl group substituents are named by taking the parent root and and adding the suffix -yl. All chemists recognize that the -yl ending means that this is an alkyl substituent. See the following Table to see the trend. nce the alkyl groups are identified, they are added as prefixes to the parent alkane name. You will learn how in the following section. Table: A Few ommon Alkyl Groups # of Parent Root Alkyl Group ondensed Structure atoms Name 1 meth- methyl - 2 eth- ethyl - 3 prop- propyl - 4 but- butyl 5 pent- - 6 hex- 4 cyclobut- cyclobutyl 6 cyclohex- cyclohexyl 10. Fill in the blanks in the above table.

4 11. In the above structure (used in 6-10), what are the names of the 2 alkyl groups? and. Use the following structure for Q ow many atoms are in the longest continuous chain (main chain)? 13. What is the parent name for the main chain? 14. ow many branches or alkyl groups are there on the main chain? 15. The names for the alkyl groups are. Rules for Naming Branched Alkanes (and yclalkanes) 1. Find the longest continuous chain. This is the main or parent chain. If there is a ring with more atoms than the longest continuous chain, it is considered the parent chain. If the ring contains fewer than the longest continuous chain, then the ring is treated as a cycloalkyl group. If 2 or more chains of equal length may be identified, the parent chain should be the chain containing more branches. Examples: Longest continuous chain is 11 : so parent chain name is undecane. Note that the longest continuous chain is not necessarily in a straight line! Longest chain is 7 or heptane; there are 2 substituents; a branched ethyl group at position 3 and a methyl group at position 4. 3 yclooctane is parent name; methyl and propyl group are substituents pentane is parent name as it has more atoms than cyclobutane; cyclobutyl group is substituent Longest chain is 7 or heptane; there are 3 substituents; an ethyl group at position 3 and methyl groups at position 2 and 4. This would be the correct way to number this chain.

5 2. Number the atoms in the parent chain so that the branches or alkyl groups have the lowest numbers possible. When there are multiple alkyl groups, check to make sure that you have assigned the lowest possible numbers For this numbering system, the numbers for the substituents are 2, 3, and 4. This would be the correct way to number this chain For this numbering system, the numbers for the substituents are 4, 5, and 6. These are not the lowest numbers possible. 3. Number and name the substituents. Both the number and the name will be used in naming the compound. If there are more than 1 of the same substituent, a prefix such as di, tri, tetra, etc. is used before the name of the group. The numbers for the repeated groups would be separated by commas There are methyl groups at position 2 and 4, and there is an ethyl group at position 3. The prefix and name for the ethyl group will be 3-ethyl; while the prefix and name for the two methyl groups will be 2,4-dimethyl 4. Attach the number and name of the substituents to the name of the parent chain. Write the full compound name as a single name: use hyphens to separate numbers from substituents (i.e. 3-ethyl-2-methyl), and numbers are separated by commas (i.e. 2, 4-dimethyl). If there are multiple substituents, the substituent names are placed in alphabetical order, regardless of their numbered position (so ethyl comes before methyl). For alphabetizing, only the substituent name is considered, do not consider the multiplying prefixes di, tri, tetra, etc. These only tell you how many of this substituent there are, they are not the parent name of the group. (so 5-ethyl-2,2-dimethyl would be correct as ethyl comes before methyl; 2,2-dimethyl-5-ethyl would be incorrect) The prefixes and names will be 3-ethyl and 2,4-dimethyl. In this case, the di does not count towards alphabetizing as it is not part of the group name (group name is methyl, there are just 2 of them); so ethyl comes before methyl. The complete name is: 3-ethyl-2,4-dimethylheptane

6 Use the following structure for Q ow many atoms are in the longest continuous chain (main chain)? 17. What is the parent name for the main chain? 18. The name of the substituent is and its numbered position (give lowest possible number) is. 19. The number of the substituent is separated by a from its name, while there is no separation between the substituent name and the name of the parent chain. 20. The name for this compound is. 21. Draw a structure for the following compounds: a. 3-methylpentane b. 1-propylcyclopentane c. 4,5-diethyl-2-methyldodecane Name the following compounds

7 Isomers: Structural (onstitutional) Isomers and cis, trans Stereoisomers Two or more different compounds which have the same molecular formula are called isomers. Structural (also called constitutional) isomers are compounds in which the atoms are bonded in a different order. ere are the two structural isomers possible for the molecular formula Name the above isomers. 26. Draw and name all possible isomers of Draw and name all possible isomers of 5 10.

8 Another type of isomer are stereoisomers. Stereoisomers have the same molecular formula, and the atoms are connected in the same order (same bond connectivity), BUT have different orientations in space. So the atoms are arranged differently in space. There are several types of stereoisomers, but the simplest type is called cis-trans stereoisomers (also called geometric isomers). This type of stereoisomer occurs when there is a source of rigidity in the molecule. ycloalkanes and alkenes both exhibit cis-trans isomers. In cycloalkanes, the closed ring structure restricts rotation about the - bond, so the 2 substituents on each ring may point up or down. When we draw rings, we can show this up vs. down by drawing the connecting lines so that it is clear that one group is pointing up while the other group is pointing down. In order for cycloalkanes to show cis-trans isomerism, at least 2 ring atoms must have 2 different groups attached. Some examples follow. Two groups are cis Two groups are trans Dashed arrow goes into paper Solid arrow comes out of paper Two groups are cis as both point in same direction. Name is cis-1,2-dimethylcyclopentane. Notice cis is in italicized in name. Two groups are trans as one points up and the other points down. Name is trans-1,2-dimethylcyclopentane. No cis-trans isomerism as only 1 has 2 different groups. 28. Name the following compound (remember that when equal numbering systems are possible, give the lower numbers in alphabetical order.

9 29. Draw the correct structure for cis-1-methyl-4-propylcyclohexane. Alkenes contain at least 1 double bond. The π bond in the double bond restricts - rotation, so the two substituents on each of the double bond carbons are fixed in relation to each other. Substituents may be on the same side of the double bond (cis) or they may be on opposites sides of the double bond (trans). In order for alkenes to show cistrans isomerism, each atom involved in the double bond must have 2 different groups attached to it ( included) different groups on each double bond. The methyl groups are on the same side of the double bond, so they are cis. Name is cis-2-butene. Note that the longest chain is a but- chain with a double bond in the number 2 position. Therefore, this gives the 2-butene portion of the name. So going from an alkane to an alkene changes the suffix from -ane to -ene. ere the methyl groups are on opposite sides of the double bond, so they are trans. Name is trans-2-butene. 3 3 The first double bond has 2 methyl groups, so no isomerism possible. Name is 2-methyl-2-pentene. 30. Draw and label the cis and trans isomers of 3-hexene. (The double bond STARTS at the 3rd.) Alkyl alides alogens are a common alkane substituent. It is quite easy to name alkyl halides as you treat the halide group(s) exactly as you would treat an alkyl group. For example, in the following structure you treat the chloro group at position 2 the same as any alkyl group. So the name is 2-chloro-3-methylhexane. l 31. Draw the structure for 2-chloro-2,3-dimethylbutane. 32. Name the following compound. Br

10 ther Functional Groups Although there are many functional groups, there are several which are most important for you to know at this point. They are: alcohols, ethers, carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, amides, alkenes, and alkynes. Family Name Group Name Group Structure General Formula Name Ending alkane alkyl - R 3 *-R 3 * -ane alkene double bond; alkenyl = R 2 *=R 2 * -ene alkyne triple bond; alkynyl R* R* -yne alcohol hydroxyl - R -ol ether alkoxyl -R RR ether carboxylic acid carboxy - 2 R* 2 -oic acid ester alkoxycarbonyl - 2 R R* 2 R -oate ketone oxo -(=)R R(=)R -one aldehyde oxo -(=) R*(=) -al amide amido -(=)N 2 R*(=)N 2 -amide * ere the R s may be atoms or alkyl groups. If no asterisk, then the R must be an alkyl group and can t be. So when you go from an alkane to an alkene, the -ane ending becomes -ene. So the name ending basically tells you what the most important functional group is. (Many compounds contain more than 1 functional group, so the naming is more complicated. For now, you will only be expected to be able to name simple compounds.) For example, here are the structures and names for some simple compounds: propane propene propyne Do you see how the name changes as you go from a single to a double to a triple bond? Also, do you see that the alkyne drawn above correctly shows its linear geometry around the triple bond s? Remember, these triple bond atoms are sp hybridized, giving a linear geometry.

11 1-propanol 2-propanol ethyl methyl ether dimethyl ether In the above 4 structures, the first 2 are alcohols while the other 2 are ethers. An - group is the alcohol group, so the name becomes -ol. Also note, that for alcohols with a hydrocarbon chain of 3 or longer, the position of the - group must be specified. The ethers are more complex (don t worry about naming them now), but do you see the -- linkage? This is the hallmark of an ether group. propanal 2-propanone or just propanone Aldehydes get an -al ending and are very simple to recognize. They have the = group at the end of the alkyl chain so there is always an attached to the = carbon (this carbon is called the carbonyl carbon). In the above structure for propanal, the end is not shown, but if you count the bonds on the end, you should realize that there is 1 attached to it. Ketones are also simple to recognize with the R 2 = group. Now neither R group can be an as that would make it an aldehyde. So the difference between ketones and aldehydes is that aldehydes have the carbonyl on the end of a chain, while ketones have the carbonyl inside the chain. For ketones, this means that for chains of 5 or more carbons, the position of the = must be specified. For chains of 3 or 4, it may be specified as above, but it is not strictly necessary. propanoic acid N 2 propanamide methyl propanoate The carboxylic acids have a R(=) ending [the parenthesis here means that the = is attached to the right before this (=). The - group is also attached to the same, the carbonyl ]. So the carbonyl is on the end like an aldehyde, but the of an aldehyde becomes an - group. So an acid is on the end of a chain. Amides and esters are derived from carboxylic acids and can get more complicated to name (so don t worry now). Just be able to recognize the group. For simple amides, the - group of a carboxylic acid becomes an -N 2 group (these s can also be alkyl groups). For esters, the - group of a carboxylic acid becomes an -R group like - or -. This is basically an ether ending. This ether ending gets named first (for simple esters).

12 Draw the following compounds: 33. Ethanol 34. Ethanoic acid (acetic acid) 35. Butanal pentanone pentanone hexanol hexanol 40. Pentanal

Nomenclature International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)

Nomenclature International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Nomenclature International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) I. Alkanes A. Alkanes: Simple-Chain Alkanes consist of only hydrogen and carbon molecules and are known to be the simplest type of

More information

Alkanes. Hydrocarbons. Structural Isomers. Butane Isomers. Contain only carbon and hydrogen

Alkanes. Hydrocarbons. Structural Isomers. Butane Isomers. Contain only carbon and hydrogen ydrocarbons Alkanes ontain only carbon and hydrogen ydrocarbons Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes Aromatics General formula n 2n+2 Each carbon is sp 3 hybridized Bond angles are 109.5 o Methane Ethane Propane Butane

More information

IUPAC System of Nomenclature

IUPAC System of Nomenclature IUPAC System of Nomenclature The IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) is composed of chemists representing the national chemical societies of several countries. ne committee of the

More information

AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic and Biological Molecules

AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic and Biological Molecules AP Chemistry Chapter - Organic and Biological Molecules.1 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons A. Straight-chain Hydrocarbons 1. Straight-chain alkanes have the formula C n H n+. Carbons are sp hybridized The

More information

Hydrocarbons Part 1: Structural Formulas

Hydrocarbons Part 1: Structural Formulas ydrocarbons Part 1: Structural Formulas Structural Formulas for Organic Molecules ondensed Skeletal-line Lewis (Expanded) 1 Neutral Bonding Patterns for Organic ompounds 2 Skeletal Line Structures arbon

More information

Number of carbon atoms. 3 propane 8 octane. 4 butane 9 nonane. 5 pentane 10 decane

Number of carbon atoms. 3 propane 8 octane. 4 butane 9 nonane. 5 pentane 10 decane Name: Date: Pd: Accelerated Chemistry - Naming Hydrocarbons Alkane Nomenclature 1. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, with each C bonded to as many atoms as possible (4 other atoms, C or H). For example,

More information

Alkanes. Chapter 1.1

Alkanes. Chapter 1.1 Alkanes Chapter 1.1 Organic Chemistry The study of carbon-containing compounds and their properties What s so special about carbon? Carbon has 4 bonding electrons. Thus, it can form 4 strong covalent bonds

More information

Monday, September 10th

Monday, September 10th Monday, September 10th Review Chapter 11 iclicker Quiz #1 Chapter 12 Chapter 13(maybe) Group assignment Keep checking the class webpage at www.bhsu.edu/danasunskis. Go to the course tab then CHEM107 Lecture

More information

Chemistry 1110 Organic Chemistry IUPAC Nomenclature

Chemistry 1110 Organic Chemistry IUPAC Nomenclature hemistry 1110 rganic hemistry IUPA Nomenclature 1 f the approximately 32 million unique chemical compounds presently known, over 95% of them can be classified as organic; i.e., containing carbon. The IUPA

More information

Naming organic Chemistry A2

Naming organic Chemistry A2 Naming organic hemistry A2 N Goalby hemrevise.org DIFFERENT FRMULAE General represents any member of a homologous series n 2n+2 for an alkane; n 2n for an alkene Molecular shows the exact number of atoms

More information

Nomenclature of organic compounds

Nomenclature of organic compounds P.1 Nomenclature of organic compounds A. Alkanes (C n H 2n+2 ) i. The following table give the names of some root names different number of carbon atoms of hydrocarbon. CH 4 methane C 6 H 14 hexane C 2

More information

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Organic Chemistry. 10.1 Organic Compounds. Organic vs. Inorganic.

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Organic Chemistry. 10.1 Organic Compounds. Organic vs. Inorganic. Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes 10.1 Organic Compounds Organic Chemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms. has one or more C atoms. has many H atoms. may also

More information

Lab Workshop 1: Nomenclature of alkane and cycloalkanes

Lab Workshop 1: Nomenclature of alkane and cycloalkanes Lab Workshop 1: Nomenclature of alkane and cycloalkanes Each student work group choose a Leader (reads activity out loud, poses questions to group), Facilitator (makes sure everyone is participating equally,

More information

Naming Hydrocarbons Tutorial (nomenclature)

Naming Hydrocarbons Tutorial (nomenclature) Naming ydrocarbons Tutorial (nomenclature) Drawing structures: it s all good 2-butene This is called the skeletal structure 3 This is called the condensed structure 3 = Using brackets can also shorten

More information

CORE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

CORE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY MODULE 4 CORE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY CHEMISTRY NOTES I have designed and compiled these beautiful notes to provide a detailed but concise summary of this module. I have spent a lot of time perfecting the content

More information

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Eleventh Edition

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Eleventh Edition 1 hapter 10 Introduction to Organic hemistry: Alkanes Organic hemistry and Organic ompounds 2 An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms has one or more atoms has many atoms may also contain

More information

Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes

Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes Organic Chemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms. has one or more C atoms. has many H atoms. may also contain O, S, N, and

More information

IUPAC naming and formulae

IUPAC naming and formulae IUPAC naming and formulae What is IUPAC naming? In order to give compounds a name, certain rules must be followed. When naming organic compounds, the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry)

More information

STRAIGHT CHAIN ALKANES

STRAIGHT CHAIN ALKANES ydrocarbons are compounds containing only and Also known as saturated hydrocarbons all - bonds are an be found in straight chain form, but also have rings and branches STRAIGT AIN ALKANES ave the general

More information

3/9/2012. First Ten Alkanes. Simple Organic Chemistry Basic Structure and Nomenclature. (Nomenclature) Rules for Naming Alkanes.

3/9/2012. First Ten Alkanes. Simple Organic Chemistry Basic Structure and Nomenclature. (Nomenclature) Rules for Naming Alkanes. C Simple Organic Chemistry Basic Structure and Nomenclature First Ten Alkanes Formula Name Formula Name CH4 Methane C6H14 Hexane C2H5 Ethane C7H16 Heptane C3H8 Propane C8H18 Octane C4H10 Butane C9H20 Nonane

More information

20.1 Organic Chemistry

20.1 Organic Chemistry 20.1 rganic hemistry An Introduction to nomenclatures, structures and reactions Dr. Fred mega Garces hemistry 201 Miramar ollege 1 rganic hemistry utline rganic hem and the arbon atom Atoms in rganic ompounds;

More information

Nomenclature. IUPAC nomenclature for organic chemistry

Nomenclature. IUPAC nomenclature for organic chemistry Nomenclature IUPAC nomenclature for organic chemistry What is IUPAC nomenclature? A systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied

More information

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes hapter 10 Introduction to Organic hemistry: Alkanes 1 Organic hemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms has one or more atoms has many atoms may also contain O, S, N, and halogens

More information

NOMENCLATURE VI BASICS

NOMENCLATURE VI BASICS NMENLATURE VI This exercise covers the basics of organic nomenclature. It is primarily based upon the IUPA system (the names under IUPA rules are called systematic names). In a few cases there are special

More information

Naming Organic Compounds: Alkanes

Naming Organic Compounds: Alkanes Naming Organic Compounds: Alkanes Chemical nomenclature assigns compounds a unique name that allows them to be easily identified and structurally understood. The International Union of Pure and Applied

More information

UNIT (7) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: HYDROCARBONS

UNIT (7) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: HYDROCARBONS UNIT (7) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: YDROCARBONS Organic chemistry is the study carbon containing compounds. 7.1 Bonding in Organic Compounds Organic compounds are made up of only a few elements and the bonding

More information

Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes. Alkanes

Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes. Alkanes Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes Alkanes Single bonds between carbon atoms General formula: C n H (2n+2) The maximum amount of hydrogen atoms are bonded so alkanes are referred to as saturated 1 IUPAC name Molecular

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. CHM 210 Chemistry Homework #6 Alkanes (Ch. 10) Due: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Compounds that have the same molecular formula

More information

1/19/2008. 3-ethylpentane

1/19/2008. 3-ethylpentane Nomenclature: Organic Chemistry ydrocarbon chains where all the bonds between carbons are SINGLE bonds Name uses the ending ane Examples: Methane ane,, Propane, Butane ane, Octane, 2-methylpent methylpentane

More information

Topic 7 National 4 & 5 Chemistry Summary Notes. Hydrocarbons

Topic 7 National 4 & 5 Chemistry Summary Notes. Hydrocarbons Topic 7 National 4 & 5 Chemistry Summary Notes Hydrocarbons A vast number of different hydrocarbons exist and so chemists have grouped them into sub-sets to make them easier to study. In this topic we

More information

NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 2010, 2003, 1980, by David A. Katz. All rights reserved.

NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 2010, 2003, 1980, by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. NMENCLATURE F RGANIC CMPUNDS 2010, 2003, 1980, by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. rganic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. Carbon has the ability to bond with itself to form long chains

More information

Organic Chemistry. Organic Chemistry Table. Alkane Single bond - Propane. Alkene Double bond = Propene. Alkyne Triple bond Propyne

Organic Chemistry. Organic Chemistry Table. Alkane Single bond - Propane. Alkene Double bond = Propene. Alkyne Triple bond Propyne Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry Table Homologous Series Functional Group Structure of Group Name Example Alkane Single bond - Propane Alkene Double bond = Propene Alkyne Triple bond Propyne Chloroalkane

More information

Chapter 4 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes. Structure, Nomenclature and Conformations

Chapter 4 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes. Structure, Nomenclature and Conformations hapter 4 Alkanes and ycloalkanes Structure, Nomenclature and onformations hapter 4 arbon Bonding ydrocarbons The Simplest lass of Organic ompounds A. ontain only arbon and ydrogen B. arbon can bond in

More information

Chapter 4. Alkanes, Isomers, and an Introduction to Nomenclature

Chapter 4. Alkanes, Isomers, and an Introduction to Nomenclature 1 hapter 4. Alkanes, Isomers, and an Introduction to Nomenclature The ability to bond with itself leads to an almost limitless number of organic molecules (molecules that contain carbon). Millions of different

More information

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde Unit Vocabulary: Addition rxn Esterification Polymer Alcohol Ether Polymerization Aldehyde Fermentation Primary Alkane Functional group Saponification Alkene Halide (halocarbon) Saturated hydrocarbon Alkyne

More information

2. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 3

2. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 3 2. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 3 Families of Organic Compounds Organic compounds can be grouped into families by their common

More information

Chapter 11 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Alkenes and Alkynes

Chapter 11 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Alkenes and Alkynes 1 Chapter 11 Unsaturated ydrocarbons Alkenes and Alkynes Saturated ydrocarbons 2 Saturated hydrocarbons have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms attached to each carbon atom are alkanes and cycloalkanes

More information

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry general characteristics of organic molecules introduction to hydrocarbons alkanes unsaturated hydrocarbons functional groups: alcohols and ethers compounds

More information

3. THE LANGUAGE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: How we draw organic compounds and how we name them.

3. THE LANGUAGE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: How we draw organic compounds and how we name them. rganic hemistry (EM311) Fall 2005 Dr. obert F. Dias 3. TE LANGUAGE F GANI EMISTY: ow we draw organic compounds and how we name them. In order for us to have meaningful conversations about organic chemistry,

More information

Chapter 11 Organic Compounds: Alkanes

Chapter 11 Organic Compounds: Alkanes Spencer L. Seager Michael R. Slabaugh www.cengage.com/chemistry/seager Chapter 11 Organic Compounds: Alkanes Jennifer P. Harris ORGANIC COMPOUNDS In 1828, Friedrich Wöhler first synthesized an organic

More information

2.8 IUPAC Nomenclature of Unbranched Alkanes

2.8 IUPAC Nomenclature of Unbranched Alkanes 2.8 IUPA Nomenclature of Unbranched Alkanes Table 2.4 IUPA Names of Unbranched Alkanes Retained: methane ethane propane butane 4 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 Table 2.4 IUPA Names of Unbranched Alkanes Note: n-prefix

More information

Alkenes and Alkynes. Chapter 1.2

Alkenes and Alkynes. Chapter 1.2 Alkenes and Alkynes Chapter 1.2 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Alkenes and alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons An alkene is a hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon-carbon double bond An alkyne is a

More information

Chapter 2 Organic Chem: Alkanes & Cycloalkanes

Chapter 2 Organic Chem: Alkanes & Cycloalkanes Chapter 2 Organic Chem: Alkanes & Cycloalkanes Objectives: 1. Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, alkanes and cycloalkanes. 2. Draw, identify, determine and name isomers: a. Stereoisomers

More information

Organic Chemistry. Saturated Hydrocarbons: The Alkanes. methane H C H CH 4. ethane H C C H CH 3 CH 3

Organic Chemistry. Saturated Hydrocarbons: The Alkanes. methane H C H CH 4. ethane H C C H CH 3 CH 3 rganic hemistry The classification of chemical compounds in to the general areas of organic and inorganic derives from the use of the "mineral, vegetable and animal" designation by the early workers in

More information

Naming Rules for Organic Compounds

Naming Rules for Organic Compounds Naming Rules for rganic ompounds The names of organic molecules are divided into three parts; 1. the root name, indicative of the number of carbon atoms in the longest continuous chain, which includes

More information

Hydrocarbons. Organic structures that contain only carbon and hydrogen

Hydrocarbons. Organic structures that contain only carbon and hydrogen ydrocarbons Organic structures that contain only carbon and hydrogen Saturated a compound is termed saturated if it has the maximum hybridization (sp 3 ) at each carbon Therefore: no double or triple bonds

More information

Short Summary of IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds

Short Summary of IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds Short Summary of IUPA Nomenclature of rganic ompounds Introduction The purpose of the IUPA system of nomenclature is to establish an international standard of naming compounds to facilitate communication.

More information

Chapter 23 Organic Chemistry

Chapter 23 Organic Chemistry hapter 3 rganic hemistry 3.1-3.3, 3.5, 3.8-3.10 ydrocarbons, Alkanes: ecognizing rganic Structures ydrocarbons: Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes: ecognizing Isomers and Basic Naming of ydrocarbons Identifying

More information

Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts

Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts A. Organic Chemistry-The study of containing compounds. 1. They occur extensively in nature because all living things are made of containing compounds.

More information

Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry

Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry Introduction Organic chemistry is the study of carbon based compounds. The structural and genetic materials of living organisms are organic compounds. Many of the substances

More information

Ch 12. Alkanes Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Simple Hydrocarbons

Ch 12. Alkanes Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Simple Hydrocarbons Ch 12. Alkanes Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Simple Hydrocarbons Diagram of Methane. Member of Alkane family of hydrocarbons. Alkanes have only single bonds. When carbon is bonded to four atoms, the

More information

Organic Nomenclature for the NSW HSC RACI NSW Chemical Education Group date: Jan 2007 edited: Jan 2013

Organic Nomenclature for the NSW HSC RACI NSW Chemical Education Group date: Jan 2007 edited: Jan 2013 Organic Nomenclature for the NSW HSC RACI NSW Chemical Education Group date: Jan 2007 edited: Jan 2013 This RACI nomenclature document is being reissued due to growing concerns that teachers of chemistry

More information

Basic IUPAC Nomenclature I Straight Chain Alkanes

Basic IUPAC Nomenclature I Straight Chain Alkanes University of alifornia, Davis hemistry 8 Series Basic IUPA Nomenclature I Straight hain Alkanes Straight chain alkanes have only carbon and hydrogen atoms. Formula is x (x+) All the carbons in alkanes

More information

ORGANIC AND BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES

ORGANIC AND BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES APTER TWENTY-TW RGANI AND BILGIAL MLEULES For Review 1. A hydrocarbon is a compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen. A saturated hydrocarbon has only carbon-carbon single bonds in the molecule. An

More information

Functional Groups and Chemical Families

Functional Groups and Chemical Families Functional Groups and Chemical Families Although there are a wide variety of organic compounds, most of them are composed of the elements from the upper right hand portion of the periodic chart: C, H,

More information

Chapter 11 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes

Chapter 11 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes Chapter 11 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes 11.1 Organic Compounds Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1 Organic Compounds An organic compound Is a compound

More information

SCH4U: Summary of the Rules for Naming Organic Compounds

SCH4U: Summary of the Rules for Naming Organic Compounds SCH4U: Summary of the Rules for Naming Organic Compounds A) Rules for Naming Saturated Hydrocarbons 1) Identify the longest unbranched carbon backbone in the molecule (parent chain). (Do not confuse bends

More information

Chem 101: General Chemistry Lecture 10 - Organic Compounds: Alkanes

Chem 101: General Chemistry Lecture 10 - Organic Compounds: Alkanes hem 101: General hemistry Lecture 10 - Organic ompounds: Alkanes I. arbon: The element of organic molecules A. Organic compounds are compounds that contain the element carbon 1. There are a few exceptions

More information

Chapter 3: Structure and Nomenclature of Organic Compounds Focus on Alkanes

Chapter 3: Structure and Nomenclature of Organic Compounds Focus on Alkanes hapter 3: Structure and Nomenclature of rganic ompounds Focus on Alkanes rganic molecules are composed of one or more functional groups attached to one or more hydrocarbon groups (alkyl or groups) I. Functional

More information

CHAPTER 3 1. ALKANES A. General Information

CHAPTER 3 1. ALKANES A. General Information CHAPTER 3 1. ALKANES A. General Information Hydrocarbons (contain only C,H) Saturated (all single bonds) alkanes, cycloalkanes Unsaturated (cont. double, triple bonds) alkenes, alkynes, aromatic Need to

More information

Study Guide Chapters 19-20 Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes

Study Guide Chapters 19-20 Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes Study Guide Chapters 19-20 Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes 1) Carbon-Carbon Bonding in Alkanes (C-C), Alkenes (C=C) and Alkynes (C C). Understand the hybridization of atomic orbitals (ground state promotion

More information

SECTION 6 NOMENCLATURE AND STRUCTURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

SECTION 6 NOMENCLATURE AND STRUCTURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 6-1 SECTIN 6 NMENCLATURE AND STRUCTURE F RGANIC CMPUNDS Many organic compounds have common names which have arisen historically, or have been given to them when the compound has been isolated from a natural

More information

Last Time: Neutralization Equations

Last Time: Neutralization Equations Announcements & Agenda (0/8/07) You should be reading Ch 10! and Ch 11! Open review today @ pm! Quiz on Friday! Today Introduction to Organic Chemistry (10.1) Alkanes (10.), Properties of Alkanes (10.4)

More information

Basic definitions for organic chemistry

Basic definitions for organic chemistry rganic Chemistry - Introduction F 1 Basic definitions for organic chemistry Scope rganic chemistry is a vast subject so is split it into small sections for study. This is done by studying compounds which

More information

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THREE DIMENSIONS

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THREE DIMENSIONS (adapted from Blackburn et al., Laboratory Manual to Accompany World of hemistry, 2 nd ed., (1996) Saunders ollege Publishing: Fort Worth) Purpose: To become familiar with organic molecules in three dimensions

More information

Chapter 4 Introduction to Organic Compounds

Chapter 4 Introduction to Organic Compounds Chapter 4 Introduction to Organic Compounds Outline 4.1 Alkanes: The Simplest Organic Compounds 4.2 Representing Structures of Organic Compounds 4.3 Families of Compounds Functional Groups 4.4 Nomenclature

More information

Chapter 24 Organic Chemistry

Chapter 24 Organic Chemistry Chapter 24 Organic Chemistry Student: 1. The general formula for alkenes is A. C n H 2n+2 B. C 2n H 2n C. C n H n+2 D. C n H 2n E. C n H 2n-2 2. The general formula of an alkane is A. C n H 2n B. C n H

More information

Nomenclature of Organic Molecules Dr. Carl Hoeger

Nomenclature of Organic Molecules Dr. Carl Hoeger Nomenclature of rganic Molecules Dr. Carl oeger Introduction Nomenclature, as you might expect, is an simple yet important topic in chemistry. Without a standardized system of nomenclature scientists would

More information

Structural Isomers Just how many structures can you make from a simple formula?

Structural Isomers Just how many structures can you make from a simple formula? Structural Isomers Just how many structures can you make from a simple formula?. methane: 4 condensed formula 2D formula 3D formula 4 methane 2. ethane: 2 6 nce the two carbons are connected, there are

More information

Chapter 4 Lecture Notes

Chapter 4 Lecture Notes Chapter 4 Lecture Notes Chapter 4 Educational Goals 1. Given the formula of a molecule, the student will be able to draw the line-bond (Lewis) structure. 2. Understand and construct condensed structural

More information

55. Name the cyclic hydrocarbon. What Is Required? You must write the name for the cyclic hydrocarbon.

55. Name the cyclic hydrocarbon. What Is Required? You must write the name for the cyclic hydrocarbon. Naming and Drawing Cyclic Hydrocarbons (Student textbook page 34) 55. Name the cyclic hydrocarbon. You must write the name for the cyclic hydrocarbon. You are given the structural diagram. Find the root.

More information

Last Time: Alkanes (C n H 2n+2 ) Last Time: Organic Compounds. Last Time: Intermolecular Forces- BP Increases w/ Increasing Size

Last Time: Alkanes (C n H 2n+2 ) Last Time: Organic Compounds. Last Time: Intermolecular Forces- BP Increases w/ Increasing Size Announcements & Agenda (0/02/07) Welcome Visitors! Please make yourselves comfortable; we will start with a quiz Mid-term grades are only based on lecture I will give you detailed grade sheets on Monday

More information

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4)

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? 7. How many carbon atoms are contained in an ethyl group? 1 3 2 4 2. In the alkane series, each molecule

More information

Chapter 18: Organic Chemistry

Chapter 18: Organic Chemistry h 18 Page 1 hapter 18: rganic hemistry rganic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that focuses on compounds that contain carbon (Exceptions:, 2, 3 2-, and N - ) Even though organic compounds only contain

More information

Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons (only carbon and hydrogen, and with the maximum number of hydrogens - so no pi bonds, only sigma/single bonds)

Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons (only carbon and hydrogen, and with the maximum number of hydrogens - so no pi bonds, only sigma/single bonds) California State Polytechnic University, Pomona Dr. Laurie S. Starkey, Organic Chemistry, CM 314 Wade Chapter 3: Alkanes Chapter Outline 1) Nomenclature (3-3) 2) Molecular Formula (3-1, 3-2) and Degrees/Sites

More information

Unit 3 - Organic Chemistry

Unit 3 - Organic Chemistry Grade 12 ollege Prep. hemistry Unit 3 Organic hemistry S4 Unit 3 - Organic hemistry Organic compounds: compounds that contain carbon, except O (g), O 2(g), and ionic compounds with carbon. ydrocarbons:

More information

QUIZ 2. Avg / 25 Stnd. Dev. 5. Wed. Feb pm A-N A-120 O-Z A-203. Sign up for early exam. Not on the list - can t take it

QUIZ 2. Avg / 25 Stnd. Dev. 5. Wed. Feb pm A-N A-120 O-Z A-203. Sign up for early exam. Not on the list - can t take it QUIZ Avg..7 / Stnd. Dev. Exam. Wed. Feb. 9. 7-9 pm A-N A-0 O-Z A-0 Sign up for early exam. Not on the list - can t take it IUPAC Rules of Nomenclature There are a vast number of alkanes, certainly several

More information

Alkane Structures (B&P 3.1, 3.2, 3.4)

Alkane Structures (B&P 3.1, 3.2, 3.4) Elements of rganic Chemistry CM 201, Dr. Laurie S. Starkey, Cal Poly Pomona Chapter 3: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 3-1 Alkane Structures (B&P 3.1, 3.2, 3.4) Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons (only carbon

More information

1.2. Hydrocarbons. Alkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes. 12 MHR Unit 1 Organic Chemistry

1.2. Hydrocarbons. Alkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes. 12 MHR Unit 1 Organic Chemistry 1. Hydrocarbons In this section, you will Section Preview/ Specific Expectations distinguish among the following classes of organic compounds: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic compounds draw and

More information

Block 042: Organic Chemistry Naming Alcohols

Block 042: Organic Chemistry Naming Alcohols Sophomore Chemistry Block 042: Organic Chemistry Naming Alcohols Page 1 Block 042: Organic Chemistry Naming Alcohols What do you think of when you think of alcohol? NAME: Cliff and Norm from Cheers The

More information

Unit VII Compound Formula Writing and Nomenclature Review Sheet. Chapter 6: Basic Naming & Formula Writing

Unit VII Compound Formula Writing and Nomenclature Review Sheet. Chapter 6: Basic Naming & Formula Writing Unit VII Compound Formula Writing and Nomenclature Review Sheet Chapter 6: Basic Naming & Formula Writing 1. Distinguish among: a. Atoms b. Molecules: combinations of covalently bonded nonmetals c. Formula

More information

LECTURE 1. ALKANES (PARAFFINS), ALKENES (OLEFINS), ALKYNES (ACETYLENES): GENERAL

LECTURE 1. ALKANES (PARAFFINS), ALKENES (OLEFINS), ALKYNES (ACETYLENES): GENERAL LECTURE 1. ALKANES (PARAFFINS), ALKENES (OLEFINS), ALKYNES (ACETYLENES): GENERAL Basic Nomenclature a saturated hydrocarbon is denoted by the suffix ANE an unsaturated hydrocarbon with one double bond

More information

H 3 C CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3. Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 1: Organic Compounds 1.1-1

H 3 C CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3. Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 1: Organic Compounds 1.1-1 Section 1.1: Alkanes Mini Investigation: Arranging Carbon Atoms, page 10 A. Three different molecules of C 5 H 12 are possible. B. Five arrangements are possible for C 6 H 14, as predicted: H 3 C CH 2

More information

Chapter Thirteen. Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds

Chapter Thirteen. Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds Chapter Thirteen Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds Saturated: A molecule whose carbon atoms bond to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated: A molecule that contains a carbon carbon multiple

More information

An Introduction to Organic Chemistry

An Introduction to Organic Chemistry An Introduction to Organic Chemistry 81 Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon with the exception of simple compounds e.g. carbonates (CO 3 2- ), carbon dioxide

More information

Chemistry B11 Chapters Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and Benzene

Chemistry B11 Chapters Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and Benzene Chemistry B11 Chapters 10-13 Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and Benzene Organic compounds: organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon and only a few other elements-chiefly, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur,

More information

Question (3): What are the different types of covalent bonds found in carbons compounds? Briefly explain with examples.

Question (3): What are the different types of covalent bonds found in carbons compounds? Briefly explain with examples. CLASS: X NCERT (CBSE) Chemistry: For Class 10 Page : 1 Question (1): What is organic chemistry? Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds of living matter i.e., plants and animals (CO 2, carbonates,

More information

Organic Chemistry Questions

Organic Chemistry Questions Organic Chemistry Questions 1 Molecules of 1-propanol and 2-propanol have different (1) percentage compositions (2) molecular masses (3) molecular formulas (4) structural formulas 2 Which compound is an

More information

One of the most fundamental tenants of chemistry is that chemical behavior, i.e

One of the most fundamental tenants of chemistry is that chemical behavior, i.e Organic Nomenclature Naming organic compounds is an important skill to acquire for anyone who is interested in being informed in today s society. Many of the hot political issues of the day center around

More information

INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC NOMENCLATURE

INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC NOMENCLATURE INTRDUCTIN T RGANIC NMENCLATURE ALKANES, HYDRCARBNS, and FUNCTINAL GRUPS. All organic compounds are made up of at least carbon and hydrogen. The most basic type of organic compound is one made up exclusively

More information

Chapter 12 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Chapter 12 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons hapter 12 Unsaturated ydrocarbons 12.1 Alkenes and Alkynes opyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin ummings Unsaturated ydrocarbons Unsaturated hydrocarbons ave fewer hydrogen atoms

More information

Question Bank Organic Chemistry-I

Question Bank Organic Chemistry-I Question Bank Organic Chemistry-I 1. (a) What do you understand by the following terms : (i) Organic chemistry (ii) Organic compounds (iii) Catenation? [3] (b) Why are there very large number of organic

More information

Molecular Models Experiment #1

Molecular Models Experiment #1 Molecular Models Experiment #1 Objective: To become familiar with the 3-dimensional structure of organic molecules, especially the tetrahedral structure of alkyl carbon atoms and the planar structure of

More information

Alkanes = saturated hydrocarbons. Chapter 4 Alkanes: Nomenclature, Conformational Analysis, and an Introduction to Synthesis.

Alkanes = saturated hydrocarbons. Chapter 4 Alkanes: Nomenclature, Conformational Analysis, and an Introduction to Synthesis. Alkanes = saturated hydrocarbons hapter 4 Alkanes: Nomenclature, onformational Analysis, and an Introduction to Synthesis Simplest alkane = methane 4 We can build additional alkanes by adding - 2 units

More information

CHEM 203 Exam 1. KEY Name Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

CHEM 203 Exam 1. KEY Name Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. CHEM 203 Exam 1 KEY Name Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. _D C 1. Which of the following elements is a large percentage of both

More information

Campus Academic Resource Program Naming Alkanes. Naming Alkanes

Campus Academic Resource Program Naming Alkanes. Naming Alkanes This handout will: Define alkanes Show and explain how to name various alkanes Introduction: Alkanes are molecules that consist of only carbon and hydrogen atoms, all connected by single bonds. Names of

More information

ALKENES, ALKYNES and AROMATIC COMPOUNDS Chapter 13

ALKENES, ALKYNES and AROMATIC COMPOUNDS Chapter 13 ALKENES, ALKYNES and AROMATIC COMPOUNDS Chapter 13 13.1 Introduction An ALKENE is a hydrocarbon with a double C bond that looks like C=C An ALKYNE is a hydrocarbon with a triple C bond that looks like

More information

ORGANIC NOMENCLATURE

ORGANIC NOMENCLATURE hemistry 121 Winter 2001 ourse otes Principles of hemistry II Introduction RGAI MELATURE onfusion can arise in organic chemistry because of the variety of names that have been applied to compounds; common

More information

Organic Chemistry. Hydrocarbons. Introduction to Organic Molecules. The simplest organic molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms

Organic Chemistry. Hydrocarbons. Introduction to Organic Molecules. The simplest organic molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms Introduction to Organic Molecules Organic Chemistry: (1828) Friedrich Wohler first synthesized an organic compound from an inorganic source leading to the birth of Organic Chemistry. Organic chemistry

More information

Alkanes from Carbon and Hydrogen

Alkanes from Carbon and Hydrogen hapter : Alkanes Alkanes from arbon and ydrogen Alkanes are carbon compounds that contain only single bonds. The simplest alkanes are hydrocarbons compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. ydrocarbons

More information