UNIT (9) CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, ESTERS, AMINES, AND AMIDES

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "UNIT (9) CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, ESTERS, AMINES, AND AMIDES"

Transcription

1 UNIT (9) CARBXYLIC ACIDS, ESTERS, AMINES, AND AMIDES 9.1 Carboxylic Acids The functional group in carboxylic acids is called the carboxyl group. A carboxyl group is a carbonyl group (C = ) with a hydroxyl group (-H) attached to the carbonyl carbon atom. Representation of a carboxyl group C H or CH or C 2 H Carboxylic acid: R C H (R = H, or aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon) 9.2 Naming Carboxylic Acids The names of carboxylic acids end in -oic acid, indicating the presence of the carboxyl group, ie: propanoic acid, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid, etc. When naming carboxylic acids, the e is dropped from the alkane containing the carboxyl group and replaced with -oic acid. The chain is numbered from the carboxylic acid group which is always located on the first carbon. The location of the functional group is not included in the name. Examples: CH 3 - CH CH 3 - CH 2 - CH CH 3 - CH 2 - CH 2 - CH ethanoic acid propanoic acid butanoic acid CH 3 CH 3 - CH - CH 2 - CH methylbutanoic acid CH benzoic acid Some members of this class are widely known by their common names. Common names of acids you should know: HCH Formic acid CH 3 CH Acetic acid A solution of acetic acid and water is known as vinegar. 9-1

2 Worked Example 9-1 Give the IUPAC name for each of the following compounds: Br a) (CH 3 ) 3 C-CH b) CH 3 - CH - CH 2 - CH CH c) d) H N 2 Solution a) 2,2-dimethylpropanoic acid b) 3-bromobutanoic acid c) 4-nitrobenzoic acid d) 3,4-dimethylhexanoic acid Practice 9-1 Name each of the following acids: a) CH 3 CH 2 CF 2 CH 2 CH b) CH 3 - CH 2 - CH - CH H c) e) H H CH NH 2 CH 3 - CH - CH d) f) CH CH 3 H Answer a) 3,3-difluoropentanoic acid b) 2-hydroxybutanoic acid c) 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid d) 3-methylbenzoic acid e) 2-aminopropanoic acid f) 2-ethylhexanoic acid 9-2

3 9.3 Acidity of Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic acids are weak acids. When a carboxylic acid is placed in water, the following equilibrium is established. RCH H 2 RC - H 3 carboxylic acid carboxylate ion Carboxylate ions are named by dropping the ic ending from the name of the parent acid and replacing it with ate. CH H 2 H 3 3 CH CH 3 C - acetic acid acetate ion Neutralization of Carboxylic Acids (reaction of acids with bases) Carboxylic acids undergo neutralization reactions with strong bases as you have seen in unit 6.in a manner similar to that of inorganic acids. Neutralization of carboxylic acids produce a carboxylic acid salt and water. CH 3 CH NaH CH 3 C - Na H 2 acetic acid *sodium acetate carboxylic acid carboxylic acid salt *Note that carboxylic acid salts are named similarly to other ionic compounds (unit 4). The cation is named first, followed by the name of the anion. Worked Example 9-2 Complete the following reaction and name the carboxylic acid salt formed. CH KH Solution The protons of the acid are removed by the H - of the base to produce water. The cation of the base, in this case K, forms the salt of the carboxylic acid. CH C - K H KH 2 benzoic acid potassium benzoate 9-3

4 Practice 9-2 Complete the following reaction and name the carboxylic acid salt formed. Answer CH 3 - CH 2 - CH NaH CH 3 - CH 2 - CH NaH CH 3 - CH 2 - C - Na H 2 sodium propanoate 9.4 Esters Esters are derivative of carboxylic acids in which the H group on the carboxyl has been replaced with an R group. R - C - H carboxylic acid R- C - R ester Esterification (Preparation of Esters) The process of esterification involves the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst. Water is also a product in this reaction. The generalized reaction can be shown as: R-C-H carboxylic acid R'-H alcohol [H 2 S 4 ] R-C-R' ester H 2 When ethanol is added to acetic acid and a drop of sulfuric acid (symbolized as H ), the following equilibrium will result: CH 3 - C - H CH 3 -CH 2 -H [H ] CH 3 - C - - CH 2 -CH 3 H 2 9-4

5 Worked Example 9-3 What carboxylic acid and alcohol are required to produce the following ester? Solution CH 3 - CH 2 - C - - CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 Separate the molecule by drawing a line down through the oxygen in the carbon chain. Add an H on both sides of your line to create the carboxylic acid on the carbonyl side and the alcohol on the alkyl side. CH 3 - CH 2 - C - H H - CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 carboxylic acid alcohol (propanoic acid) (1-butanol) Worked Example 9-4 Complete the following esterification reaction: [H ] CH 3 -C-H CH 3 -H Solution Each ester has an acid part and an alcohol part. The acid part is the carboxylic acid minus the H group. The alcohol part is an alcohol molecule, minus the H atom of the H group. The H of the acid and the H of the alcohol form H 2 molecule. removal of H and H produces the ester CH 3 -C-H [H ] CH 3 -H CH 3 -C-CH 3 H 2 9-5

6 Practice 9-3 Complete the following esterification reaction: [H ] CH H 3 - CH 2 -H Answer removal of H and H produces the ester H CH 3 - CH 2 -H [H ] - CH 2 - CH 3 H Naming Esters Ester names consist of two words. Use the alkyl portion of the alcohol name first. The -ic acid ending of the name of the carboxylic acid is replaced with ate and follows the first name. Examples: CH 3 CH 2 CCH 3 Methyl propanoate CH 3 CCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Butyl acetate Worked Example 9-5 Name each of the following esters: a) CH 3 CH 2 CCH 2 CH 3 b) CCH 3 c) CH 3 CH 2 C d) C Solution a) ethyl propanoate b) methyl benzoate c) cyclopentyl propanoate d) cyclobutyl benzoate 9-6

7 Practice 9-4 Write the name for each of the following esters. a) CH 3 (CH 2 ) 5 CH 2 CCH 3 b) C CH CH 3 c) CH 2 CH 3 d) CH 3 CH 2 C CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Answer a) methyl octanate b) isopropyl benzoate c) ethyl butanoate e) propyl propanoate 9.6 The Hydrolysis of Esters Hydrolysis is a reaction in which an organic molecule reacting with water splits into two parts, each of which has fewer carbons than the original organic molecule. Esters hydrolysis is a very slow reaction. The reaction is considerably more rapid under either acidic or basic conditions. Ester hydrolysis under acidic condition (acid hydrolysis) is the reverse of acid-catalyzed ester formation. Ester hydrolysis under basic condition (base hydrolysis) produces the metal carboxylate salt instead of the carboxylic acid. I) Acid Hydrolysis of Esters Acid hydrolysis of esters requires the presence of a strong acid catalyst such as sulfuric acid. This reaction requires. The generalized hydrolysis can be shown as: H, R - C - - R' H 2 R - C - H R' - H Ester Acid Alcohol (This hydrolysis is the reverse of esterification.) 9-7

8 Worked Example 9-6 Complete the following reactions: CH 3 -C-CH 3 H 2 H -C-CH 2 CH 3 H 2 H Solution To write the hydrolysis product, under acidic condition, separate the compound at the ester bond, producing the parent carboxylic acid and alcohol. CH 3 -C-CH 3 H 2 -C-CH 2 CH 3 H 2 H H CH 3 -C-H -C-H CH 3 -H CH 3 CH 2 -H II) Base Hydrolysis of Esters Base hydrolysis of esters is called saponification and it is used to manufacture soaps from animal fats and vegetable oils. The generalized hydrolysis can be shown as: H 2 R - C - - R' NaH R - C - - Na R' - H Ester Carboxylate Alcohol salt Notice that this reaction is not an equilibrium reaction (see arrow). The formation of salt drives the equilibrium to the right, making the reaction irreversible. 9-8

9 Worked Example 9-7 Complete the following saponification (base hydrolysis) reactions: CH 3 - C - CH 2 CH 3 -C-CH 3 NaH NaH H 2 H 2 Solution The hydrolysis of ester, under the basic condition, produces the carboxylic acid salt and an alcohol CH 3 - C - CH 2 CH 3 NaH H 2 CH 3 - C - - Na CH 3 CH 2 - H ethyl acetate -C-CH 3 NaH H 2 sodium acetate -C- - Na CH 3 - H methyl benzoate sodium benzoate 9-9

10 Practice 9-5 Complete the following reactions: CH 3 CH 2 -C-CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 -C-CH 2 CH 3 H 2 NaH H H 2 Answer CH 3 CH 2 -C-CH 2 CH 3 H 2 H CH 3 CH 2 -C-H CH 3 CH 2 H CH 3 CH 2 -C-CH 2 CH 3 NaH H 2 CH 3 CH 2 -C- - Na CH 3 CH 2 H 9.7 Amines The three most common elements in organic compounds are carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Amines contain nitrogen and are commonly found in a wide variety of biomolecules and important pharmaceutical compounds. For this reason, nitrogen ranks fourth on the list of common elements found in organic compounds. Amines are considered organic derivatives of ammonia (NH 3 ) in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by an alkyl or aromatic group. Amines are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary, depending on the number of organic groups directly attached to the nitrogen atom. H H R R H - N - H R - N - H R - N - H R - N - R Ammonia primary secondary tertiary amine amine amine 9-10

11 9.8 Naming Amines Common names are often used to name simple amines. If two or three alkyl groups are present, they are listed alphabetically along with the suffix amine. The name is written as one word. Aromatic amines are usually named based on aniline. Examples: CH 3 CH 3 - NH 2 CH 3 CH 2 - NH 2 CH 3 CH 2 - NH - CH 3 CH3 - N - CH 3 methylamine ethylamine ethylmethylamine trimethylamine NH 2 aniline NH 2 Cl 3-chloroaniline Worked Example 9-8 Name each of the following: a) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 - NH 2 b) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 - NH-CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 c) Solution CH 3 CHCH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 - N - CH 3 d) N(CH 3 ) 2 a) pentylamine (This amine has one alkyl group (pentyl) attached to the nitrogen atom.) b) dibutylamine (This amine has two identical alkyl groups (butyl) attached to the nitrogen atom.) c) isopropylmethylpropylamine (This amine has three alkyl groups (isopropyl, methyl, and propyl) attached to the nitrogen atom.) d) cyclohexyldimethylamine (This amine has three alkyl groups (a cyclohexyl and two methyl group) attached to the nitrogen atom.) 9-11

12 Practice 9-6 Name each of the following: NH 2 a) NH 2 b) Br Br c) CH 3 (CH 2 ) 5 -NH-CH 2 CH 3 d) N Answer a) cyclopentylamine b) 3,4-dibromoaniline c) ethylhexylamine d) diethylmethylamine 9.9 Basicity of Amines Recall (unit 6) that ammonia is also a weak base and accepts H from water to produce ammonium ion (NH 4 ) and hydroxide ion (H - ): NH 3 H 2 NH 4 H - ammonia ammonium ion Because the amines are derivatives of ammonia, they react in a similar ways. General reaction R-NH 2 H 2 RNH 3 H - Specific reaction CH 3 - NH 2 H 2 CH 3 - NH 3 H - Methylamine methylammonium ion Just as amines accept H from water, they can accept H from acids and form salts. For example, when methylamine reacts with HCl, the acid-base reaction produces methylammonium chloride. CH 3 NH 2 HCl CH 3 NH 3 Cl - methylamine acid methylammonium chloride 9-12

13 9.10 Amides The functional group of an amide is a carbonyl group (C = ) linked to a nitrogen atom (N). Amides are classified as primary, secondary, and tertiary amides. R - C - N - H R - C - N - R' R - C - N - R' H H R'' primary secondary tertiary R, R, and R could be aliphatic or aromatic Naming Amides Naming Primary Amides The ending of the name of the carboxylic acid is changed from ic acid (common) or oic acid (IUPAC) to amide. Examples CH 3 CH 2 CNH 2 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CNH 2 NH 2 Propanamide butanamide hexanamide Naming Secondary and Tertiary Amides The names of groups attached to nitrogen are placed first, using an N-prefix for each group. CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 - CH 2 - C - N - H CH 3 - CH 2 - C - N - CH 3 N-methylpropanamide N,N-dimethylpropanamide CH 3 CH 3 - CH 2 - C - N - CH 2 -CH 3 N-ethyl-N-methylpropanamide 9-13

14 Worked Example 9-9 Name each of the following amides: C - NH 2 a) CH 3 - CH 2 - CH 2 - CH 2 - C -NH 2 b) c) CH 3 - C - NH 2 d) H - C - NH 2 Solution a) pentanamide b) benzamide c) acetamide (ethanamide) d) formamide (methanamide) Practice 9-7 Name each of the following amides: H a) CH 3 - C - N b) C - NH - CH 2 -CH 3 c) CH 3 - CH 2 - CH 3 - CH 2 - C - NH Answer a) N-cyclohexylacetamide b) N-ethylbenzamide c) N-isopropylpentanamide 9-14

15 9.12 Hydrolysis of Amides Amides are very stable in water. Hydrolysis requires the ing of the amide in the presence of strong acid or base. Acidic hydrolysis gives a carboxylic acid and an amine salt. In aqueous base, the products of hydrolysis are a carboxylic acid salt and ammonia or an amine. General Reactions: Acid Hydrolysis of Amides R - C - NH - R' H 2 HCl R - C - H R' - NH 3 Cl - Base Hydrolysis of Amides R - C - NH - R' NaH R - C - - Na R' - NH 2 Example of Acid Hydrolysis of Amide: CH 3 - C - NH 2 H 2 HCl CH 3 -C-H NH 4 Cl acetamide water hydrochloric acid acetic acid ammonium chloride Example of Base Hydrolysis of Amide: CH 3 - C - NH 2 acetamide NaH CH 3 - C - - Na sodium hydroxide sodium acetate NH 3 ammonia 9-15

16 Worked Example 9-10 Draw the structures of the products in each of the following hydrolysis reactions. C - NH 2 NaH Answer CH 3 - CH 2 - C - NH - CH 3 H 2 HCl C NH 2 C - Na NaH NH 3 CH 3 - CH 2 - C - NH - CH 3 H 2 HCl CH 3 - CH 2 - C - H CH 3 -NH 3 Cl

17 Practice 9-8 Draw the structures of the products in each of the following hydrolysis reactions. C - NH 2 H 2 HCl Answer CH 3 - CH 2 - C - NH - CH 3 NaH C NH 2 C H H 2 HCl NH 4 Cl - CH 3 - CH 2 - C - NH - CH 3 NaH CH 3 - CH 2 - C - - Na CH 3 -NH

18 Homework Problems 9.1 Give the name for each of the following: CH a. Cl Cl b. H c. CH 3 CH 3 - CH -CH 2 - CH d. ( CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 CCH 9.2 Draw the structural formula for each of the following compounds: a. sodium hexanoate b. potassium acetate c. zinc benzoate d. calcium propanoate 9.3 Complete the following reactions: a. CH 3 -C-H CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 H [H ] b. (CH 3 ) 3 CCH 2 CH 2 CH (CH 3 ) 2 CHH [H ] c. CH CH 3 CH 2 H [H ] d. CH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 CH H [H ] 9-18

19 9.4 Draw a structural formula for each of the following esters: a. cyclohexyl propanoate b. methyl formate c. ethyl benzoate d. isopropyl acetate e. butyl butanoate f. propyl pentanoate 9.5 Assign names to each of the following amines: a. NH 2 b. c. CH 3 - NH - CH 2 - CH 3 (CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 N d. NH - CH 3 e. f. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 - NH 2 N 9.6 Complete the following equations: a. CH 3 CH 2 NH 2 HCl NH 2 b. HCl c. CH 3 CH 2 NH-CH 3 HBr d. N(CH 3 ) 2 HBr 9.7 Draw the structures of 4 isomers of amides of formula C 5 H 11 N. 9-19

Chapter 13 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, Amines, and Amides. Carboxylic Acids. Names and Sources of Some Carboxylic Acids. IUPAC Names

Chapter 13 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, Amines, and Amides. Carboxylic Acids. Names and Sources of Some Carboxylic Acids. IUPAC Names Chapter 13 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, Amines, and Amides 13.1 Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic Acids A carboxylic acid contains a carboxyl group, which is a carbonyl group (C=) attached to a hydroxyl group (

More information

Ch17_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Ch17_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch17_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which molecule is a carboxylic acid? A) 1) B) C) D) E) CH3 CH2 CH2 NH2 2) Which molecule

More information

Introduction to Biodiesel Chemistry Terms and Background Information

Introduction to Biodiesel Chemistry Terms and Background Information Introduction to Biodiesel Chemistry Terms and Background Information Basic rganic Chemistry rganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with organic compounds. rganic compounds are compounds

More information

1. The functional group present in carboxylic acids is called a A) carbonyl group. B) carboxyl group. C) carboxylate group. D) carbohydroxyl group.

1. The functional group present in carboxylic acids is called a A) carbonyl group. B) carboxyl group. C) carboxylate group. D) carbohydroxyl group. Name: Date: 1. The functional group present in carboxylic acids is called a A) carbonyl group. B) carboxyl group. C) carboxylate group. D) carbohydroxyl group. 2. Which of the following statements concerning

More information

CHEM 121. Chapter 17. Name: Date:

CHEM 121. Chapter 17. Name: Date: CHEM 121. Chapter 17. Name: Date: 1. The elements present in a tertiary amine with two phenyl groups are A) carbon and nitrogen B) carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen C) carbon, nitrogen and oxygen D) carbon,

More information

Q.1 Draw structures for all amines of molecular formula C 4 H 11 N. Classify them as primary, secondary or tertiary amines.

Q.1 Draw structures for all amines of molecular formula C 4 H 11 N. Classify them as primary, secondary or tertiary amines. 1 AMIES Structure lassification ontain the 2 group. primary (1 ) amines secondary (2 ) amines tertiary (3 ) amines quarternary (4 ) ammonium salts. 1 2 3 4 Aliphatic Aromatic methylamine, ethylamine, dimethylamine

More information

Amides and Amines: Organic Nitrogen Compounds

Amides and Amines: Organic Nitrogen Compounds Chapter 25 Amides and Amines: Organic Nitrogen Compounds Nylon is one of the materials used to give these colorful sails their strength and durability. Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry,

More information

(Woods) Chem-131 Lec-15 09-4 Carboxyllic acid 1. Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Esters, Acid Anhydrides, Amides, and Acid Halides

(Woods) Chem-131 Lec-15 09-4 Carboxyllic acid 1. Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Esters, Acid Anhydrides, Amides, and Acid Halides (Woods) Chem-131 Lec-15 09-4 Carboxyllic acid 1 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Esters, Acid Anhydrides, Amides, and Acid Halides The oxidation state of carbon in a carboxylic acid is the highest of the organic

More information

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde Unit Vocabulary: Addition rxn Esterification Polymer Alcohol Ether Polymerization Aldehyde Fermentation Primary Alkane Functional group Saponification Alkene Halide (halocarbon) Saturated hydrocarbon Alkyne

More information

NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 2010, 2003, 1980, by David A. Katz. All rights reserved.

NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 2010, 2003, 1980, by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. NMENCLATURE F RGANIC CMPUNDS 2010, 2003, 1980, by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. rganic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. Carbon has the ability to bond with itself to form long chains

More information

Curso: FUNDAMENTOS DE QUIMICA ORGANICA Y BIOLOGICA FUNDAMENTALS OF ORGANIC AND BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY

Curso: FUNDAMENTOS DE QUIMICA ORGANICA Y BIOLOGICA FUNDAMENTALS OF ORGANIC AND BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY UNIVERSIDAD DEL TURABO ESCUELA DE CIENCIAS Y TECNOLOGIA DEPARTAMENTO DE FISICA & QUIMICA GURABO, PUERTO RICO Curso: FUNDAMENTOS DE QUIMICA ORGANICA Y BIOLOGICA FUNDAMENTALS OF ORGANIC AND BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY

More information

SECTION 6 NOMENCLATURE AND STRUCTURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

SECTION 6 NOMENCLATURE AND STRUCTURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 6-1 SECTIN 6 NMENCLATURE AND STRUCTURE F RGANIC CMPUNDS Many organic compounds have common names which have arisen historically, or have been given to them when the compound has been isolated from a natural

More information

CH 102 Practice Exam 2 PCC-Sylvania

CH 102 Practice Exam 2 PCC-Sylvania CH 102 Practice Exam 2 PCC-Sylvania True/False Indicate if the statement is true or false. 1.Tertiary alcohols are not easily oxidized. 2.Secondary alcohols can be oxidized to aldehydes. 3.Primary alcohols

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. CHM 210 Chemistry Homework #6 Alkanes (Ch. 10) Due: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Compounds that have the same molecular formula

More information

Unit 2 Review: Answers: Review for Organic Chemistry Unit Test

Unit 2 Review: Answers: Review for Organic Chemistry Unit Test Unit 2 Review: Answers: Review for Organic Chemistry Unit Test 2. Write the IUPAC names for the following organic molecules: a) acetone: propanone d) acetylene: ethyne b) acetic acid: ethanoic acid e)

More information

Organic Chemistry Questions

Organic Chemistry Questions Organic Chemistry Questions 1 Molecules of 1-propanol and 2-propanol have different (1) percentage compositions (2) molecular masses (3) molecular formulas (4) structural formulas 2 Which compound is an

More information

Nomenclature. IUPAC nomenclature for organic chemistry

Nomenclature. IUPAC nomenclature for organic chemistry Nomenclature IUPAC nomenclature for organic chemistry What is IUPAC nomenclature? A systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied

More information

2. Rank the following three compounds in decreasing order of basicity. O NHCCH 3 NH 2

2. Rank the following three compounds in decreasing order of basicity. O NHCCH 3 NH 2 1. To convert a nitrile to a primary amine you must: A) hydrolyze it with water. B) oxidize it with chromic acid. C) reduce it with hydrogen or lithium aluminum hydride. D) substitute it with an alkyl

More information

(b) (1S,2S)-2-methylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid. (b) CH 3 CH 2 CHCN CH 2 CH 3. (d) 2-ethylbutanenitrile

(b) (1S,2S)-2-methylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid. (b) CH 3 CH 2 CHCN CH 2 CH 3. (d) 2-ethylbutanenitrile hem 226 Problem Set #10 Fundamentals of rganic hemistry, 4 th edition, John McMurry. hapter 10 1. Give IUPA names for compounds - (e). (c) 3 3 2 3-methylbutanoic acid Br 3 2 2 4-bromopentanoic acid 3 2

More information

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Organic Chemistry. 10.1 Organic Compounds. Organic vs. Inorganic.

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Organic Chemistry. 10.1 Organic Compounds. Organic vs. Inorganic. Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes 10.1 Organic Compounds Organic Chemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms. has one or more C atoms. has many H atoms. may also

More information

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet Name: Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet The purpose of this worksheet is to get you to recap some of the fundamental concepts that you studied at GCSE and introduce some of the concepts that will be part

More information

Nomenclature of organic compounds

Nomenclature of organic compounds P.1 Nomenclature of organic compounds A. Alkanes (C n H 2n+2 ) i. The following table give the names of some root names different number of carbon atoms of hydrocarbon. CH 4 methane C 6 H 14 hexane C 2

More information

Chemistry Entrance Examination Topics

Chemistry Entrance Examination Topics Chemistry Entrance Examination Topics 1. General characteristics of the group 6 elements of the main subgroups on the basis of the position in the Periodic table and of atomic structure. Sulfuric acid,

More information

Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility

Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility Deductions based upon interpretation of simple solubility tests can be extremely useful in organic structure determination. Both solubility and

More information

Carboxylic Acids When a carbonyl carbon also bears a hydroxyl group, then these compounds are appreciably acidic, and are called carboxylic acids.

Carboxylic Acids When a carbonyl carbon also bears a hydroxyl group, then these compounds are appreciably acidic, and are called carboxylic acids. Carboxylic Acids When a carbonyl carbon also bears a hydroxyl group, then these compounds are appreciably acidic, and are called carboxylic acids. R Carboxylic acids are classified according to the substituent

More information

Chapter 24 Organic Chemistry

Chapter 24 Organic Chemistry Chapter 24 Organic Chemistry Student: 1. The general formula for alkenes is A. C n H 2n+2 B. C 2n H 2n C. C n H n+2 D. C n H 2n E. C n H 2n-2 2. The general formula of an alkane is A. C n H 2n B. C n H

More information

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Answer these 40 multiple choice questions and then check your answers, located at the end of this document. If you correctly answered less than 25 questions, you need to

More information

But in organic terms: Oxidation: loss of H 2 ; addition of O or O 2 ; addition of X 2 (halogens).

But in organic terms: Oxidation: loss of H 2 ; addition of O or O 2 ; addition of X 2 (halogens). Reactions of Alcohols Alcohols are versatile organic compounds since they undergo a wide variety of transformations the majority of which are either oxidation or reduction type reactions. Normally: Oxidation

More information

Regents Review Organic Worksheet Mr. Beauchamp

Regents Review Organic Worksheet Mr. Beauchamp Regents Review Mr. Beauchamp 1. Which general formula represents t he homologous serie s of hydrocarbons that includes the compound l-heptyne? 10. Which formula represents an unsatur ated hydrocarbon?

More information

Naming organic Chemistry A2

Naming organic Chemistry A2 Naming organic hemistry A2 N Goalby hemrevise.org DIFFERENT FRMULAE General represents any member of a homologous series n 2n+2 for an alkane; n 2n for an alkene Molecular shows the exact number of atoms

More information

Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 10 Organic reactions: pathways to new products

Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 10 Organic reactions: pathways to new products Q1. Write balanced equations to represent the formation of all possible of the reactions of chlorine with methane. A1. CH 4 (g) + Cl 2 (g) CH 3 Cl(g) + HCl(g) CH 3 Cl(g) + Cl 2 (g) CH 2 Cl 2 (g) + HCl(g)

More information

Introduction to Oil Chemistry and Transesterification. John Bush Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO

Introduction to Oil Chemistry and Transesterification. John Bush Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO Introduction to Oil Chemistry and Transesterification John Bush Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO john.a.bush@gmail.com Atoms and Elements Elements are the fundamental substances that compose matter

More information

CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07

CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07 CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07 aqueous acid/base reactions a. a little bit more about water Water is a polar substance. This means water is able to "solvate" ions rather well. Another

More information

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4)

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? 7. How many carbon atoms are contained in an ethyl group? 1 3 2 4 2. In the alkane series, each molecule

More information

UNIT (8) OXYGEN CONTAINING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

UNIT (8) OXYGEN CONTAINING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS UNIT (8) XYGEN CNTAINING RGANIC CMPUNDS 8.1 Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers An alcohol is an organic compound that contains the hydroxyl group (-) attached to an alkyl group. They are essentially alkanes

More information

Homework Chapter 21 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions mandatory problems are highlighted (up to page 16)

Homework Chapter 21 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions mandatory problems are highlighted (up to page 16) Homework Chapter 21 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions mandatory problems are highlighted (up to page 16) SHORT ANSWER IUPAC Naming Instructions: Provide proper IUPAC

More information

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES 6.1 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Definitions for acids and bases were proposed by the Swedish chemist Savante Arrhenius in 1884. Acids were defined as compounds that

More information

14-Jul-12 Chemsheets A

14-Jul-12 Chemsheets A www.chemsheets.co.uk 14-Jul-12 Chemsheets A2 009 1 BRONSTED-LOWRY ACIDS & BASES Bronsted-Lowry acid = proton donor (H + = proton) Bronsted-Lowry base = proton acceptor (H + = proton) Bronsted-Lowry acid-base

More information

EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models

EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models Introduction: The goal in this laboratory experience is for you to easily and quickly move between empirical formulas, molecular formulas, condensed

More information

HOMEWORK PROBLEMS: IR SPECTROSCOPY AND 13C NMR. The peak at 1720 indicates a C=O bond (carbonyl). One possibility is acetone:

HOMEWORK PROBLEMS: IR SPECTROSCOPY AND 13C NMR. The peak at 1720 indicates a C=O bond (carbonyl). One possibility is acetone: HMEWRK PRBLEMS: IR SPECTRSCPY AND 13C NMR 1. You find a bottle on the shelf only labeled C 3 H 6. You take an IR spectrum of the compound and find major peaks at 2950, 1720, and 1400 cm -1. Draw a molecule

More information

Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a carbon chain. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a benzene ring.

Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a carbon chain. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a benzene ring. Chapter : rganic Compounds with xygen Alcohols, Ethers Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( H) attached to a carbon chain. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( H) attached to a benzene ring.

More information

WEAK ACIDS AND BASES

WEAK ACIDS AND BASES WEAK ACIDS AND BASES [MH5; Chapter 13] Recall that a strong acid or base is one which completely ionizes in water... In contrast a weak acid or base is only partially ionized in aqueous solution... The

More information

Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes

Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes Organic Chemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms. has one or more C atoms. has many H atoms. may also contain O, S, N, and

More information

CHEM 203 Exam 1. KEY Name Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

CHEM 203 Exam 1. KEY Name Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. CHEM 203 Exam 1 KEY Name Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. _D C 1. Which of the following elements is a large percentage of both

More information

Lab Activity: Strong Acids & Strong Bases, Weak Acids & Weak Bases, and the Hydrolysis of Salts

Lab Activity: Strong Acids & Strong Bases, Weak Acids & Weak Bases, and the Hydrolysis of Salts Lab Activity: Strong Acids & Strong Bases, Weak Acids & Weak Bases, and the Hydrolysis of Salts Strong acids and strong bases completely ionize in water to make hydronium or hydroxide ions. Because the

More information

12. Alcohols and Phenols. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition

12. Alcohols and Phenols. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition 12. Alcohols and Phenols Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition Alcohols and Phenols Alcohols contain an OH group connected to a saturated C (sp 3 ) They are important solvents and synthesis

More information

Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7. Alcohols, Ethers and More

Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7. Alcohols, Ethers and More Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7 Alcohols, Ethers and More 1 What do you do when you are in Pain? What do you do when you are in a lot of pain? 2 Functional Groups A functional group is an atom, groups

More information

Assessment Schedule 2013 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of the properties of organic compounds (91391)

Assessment Schedule 2013 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of the properties of organic compounds (91391) NCEA Level 3 Chemistry (91391) 2013 page 1 of 8 Assessment Schedule 2013 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of the properties of organic compounds (91391) Evidence Statement Q Evidence Achievement Achievement

More information

CHEM 12 Acids and Bases 3/22/2016

CHEM 12 Acids and Bases 3/22/2016 Acids and Bases Name: Expected background knowledge from acids and bases introductory reading: Definitions (Arrhenius, BL) of an acid and base Definitions of conjugate acid and base pairs Properties of

More information

Chapter 15 Acids and Bases reading guide.

Chapter 15 Acids and Bases reading guide. Chapter 15 Acids and Bases reading guide. Be active while reading the text. Take notes, think about what you ve read, and ask yourself questions while reading. Use this document as a guide for making your

More information

Chemistry 110. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 14 Alcohols, Ethers and Thiols

Chemistry 110. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 14 Alcohols, Ethers and Thiols Chemistry 110 Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, rganic and Biochemistry Chapter 14 Alcohols, Ethers and Thiols Alcohols have a ydroxyl Group, -, bonded to tetrahedral

More information

Chapter 17. The best buffer choice for ph 7 is NaH 2 PO 4 /Na 2 HPO 4. 19)

Chapter 17. The best buffer choice for ph 7 is NaH 2 PO 4 /Na 2 HPO 4. 19) Chapter 17 2) a) HCl and CH 3 COOH are both acids. A buffer must have an acid/base conjugate pair. b) NaH 2 PO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 are an acid/base conjugate pair. They will make an excellent buffer. c) H

More information

IUPAC System of Nomenclature

IUPAC System of Nomenclature IUPAC System of Nomenclature The IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) is composed of chemists representing the national chemical societies of several countries. ne committee of the

More information

BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES

BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES ACIDS & BASES BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES Brønsted acids are proton donors. Brønsted bases are proton acceptors. Amphoteric species can act as either an acid or a base, depending on the

More information

Goals. 1. How are chemical reactions written?

Goals. 1. How are chemical reactions written? Goals 1. How are chemical reactions written? Given the identities of reactants and products, be able to write a balanced chemical equation or net ionic equation. 2. How are chemical reactions of ionic

More information

Inorganic Nomenclature

Inorganic Nomenclature Inorganic Nomenclature Chem 1-A Lab Lecture Spring 010 Chemical Formulas: the acronyms of chemistry Composed of element symbols, subscripts and sometimes parentheses Subscripts tell the number of atoms

More information

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA For ionic compounds, the chemical formula must be worked out. You will no longer have the list of ions in the exam (like at GCSE). Instead you must learn some and work out others.

More information

Acids and Bases: Definitions. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE

Acids and Bases: Definitions. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE Professor Angelo R. Rossi Department of Chemistry Spring Semester Acids and Bases: Definitions Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Acids are substances which increase

More information

Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 1 According to Brønsted and Lowry, an acid-base reaction is defined in terms of a proton transfer. By this definition, the reaction of Cl in water is: Cl(aq) + Cl (aq) +

More information

AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic and Biological Molecules

AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic and Biological Molecules AP Chemistry Chapter - Organic and Biological Molecules.1 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons A. Straight-chain Hydrocarbons 1. Straight-chain alkanes have the formula C n H n+. Carbons are sp hybridized The

More information

Molecular Models in Biology

Molecular Models in Biology Molecular Models in Biology Objectives: After this lab a student will be able to: 1) Understand the properties of atoms that give rise to bonds. 2) Understand how and why atoms form ions. 3) Model covalent,

More information

CfE Higher Chemistry Unit Two Nature s Chemistry Homework Booklet

CfE Higher Chemistry Unit Two Nature s Chemistry Homework Booklet Name: Reg: CfE Higher Chemistry Unit Two Nature s Chemistry Homework Booklet Topic Mark Page ) Esters, Fats and Oils 2 Teacher Comments: / 2) Proteins Teacher Comments: /7 6 3) Oxidation of Food Teacher

More information

Amines H 3 C H. CH 2 CH 3 ethylmethylamine. Nomenclature. 1 o : RNH 2, 2 o : RR'NH, 3 o : RR'R"N, 4 o (salt) RR'R"R'"N + R = alkyl or aryl

Amines H 3 C H. CH 2 CH 3 ethylmethylamine. Nomenclature. 1 o : RNH 2, 2 o : RR'NH, 3 o : RR'RN, 4 o (salt) RR'RR'N + R = alkyl or aryl Amines omenclature 1 o :, 2 o : 'H, 3 o : '", 4 o (salt) '"'" + = alkyl or aryl ommon names For simple amines name groups attached to alphabetically; use suffix -amine. H 3 H H 2 ethylmethylamine In complicated

More information

Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases

Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases Chapter 17 Acids and Bases How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties Base Physical properties Tastes sour Tastes bitter Feels slippery or slimy Chemical properties Chemical properties

More information

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Ch 14 Page 1 Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Properties of Acids Sour taste React with some metals Turns blue litmus paper red React with bases Some Common Acids HCl, hydrochloric acid H 2 SO 4, sulfuric acid

More information

p3 Recognizing Acid/Base Properties when p11 Recognizing Basic versus Nonbasic

p3 Recognizing Acid/Base Properties when p11 Recognizing Basic versus Nonbasic General Chemistry II Jasperse Acid-Base Chemistry. Extra Practice Problems 1 General Types/Groups of problems: Conceptual Questions. Acids, Bases, and p1 K b and pk b, Base Strength, and using K b or p7-10

More information

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES 31 CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to develop skills in writing and balancing chemical equations. The relevance of this exercise is illustrated by a series

More information

Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts

Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts A. Organic Chemistry-The study of containing compounds. 1. They occur extensively in nature because all living things are made of containing compounds.

More information

Name Lab #3: Solubility of Organic Compounds Objectives: Introduction: soluble insoluble partially soluble miscible immiscible

Name  Lab #3: Solubility of Organic Compounds Objectives: Introduction: soluble insoluble partially soluble miscible immiscible Lab #3: Solubility of rganic Compounds bjectives: - Understanding the relative solubility of organic compounds in various solvents. - Exploration of the effect of polar groups on a nonpolar hydrocarbon

More information

Molarity of Ions in Solution

Molarity of Ions in Solution APPENDIX A Molarity of Ions in Solution ften it is necessary to calculate not only the concentration (in molarity) of a compound in aqueous solution but also the concentration of each ion in aqueous solution.

More information

CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS. 1. According to the Brønsted Lowry definition, which species can function both as an acid and as a base?

CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS. 1. According to the Brønsted Lowry definition, which species can function both as an acid and as a base? You might need to know the following K values: CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS CH 3 COOH K a = 1.8 x 10 5 Benzoic Acid K a = 6.5 x 10 5 HNO 2 K a = 4.5 x 10 4 NH 3 K b = 1.8 x 10 5 HF K a = 7.2 x 10 4

More information

CHEM 102: Sample Test 5

CHEM 102: Sample Test 5 CHEM 102: Sample Test 5 CHAPTER 17 1. When H 2 SO 4 is dissolved in water, which species would be found in the water at equilibrium in measurable amounts? a. H 2 SO 4 b. H 3 SO + 4 c. HSO 4 d. SO 2 4 e.

More information

Write the acid-base equilibria connecting all components in the aqueous solution. Now list all of the species present.

Write the acid-base equilibria connecting all components in the aqueous solution. Now list all of the species present. Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Concept Check 16.1 Chemists in the seventeenth century discovered that the substance that gives red ants their irritating bite is an acid with the formula HCHO 2. They called

More information

Monday, September 10th

Monday, September 10th Monday, September 10th Review Chapter 11 iclicker Quiz #1 Chapter 12 Chapter 13(maybe) Group assignment Keep checking the class webpage at www.bhsu.edu/danasunskis. Go to the course tab then CHEM107 Lecture

More information

Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory.

Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory. Acid-base A4 1 Acid-base theories ACIDS & BASES - IONIC EQUILIBRIA 1. LEWIS acid electron pair acceptor H, AlCl 3 base electron pair donor NH 3, H 2 O, C 2 H 5 OH, OH e.g. H 3 N: -> BF 3 > H 3 N BF 3 see

More information

C u ( O H ) 2. N i ( N O 3 ) 2. N a m e C a t i o n Cation A n i o n A n i o n

C u ( O H ) 2. N i ( N O 3 ) 2. N a m e C a t i o n Cation A n i o n A n i o n Name Exam 3 Page 1 AQUEUS SLUTINS 1. (8 points) Names, formulas, and water-solubility of compounds. N a m e F o r m u l a Soluble in Water? Ammonium chloride N H 4 C l y e s C u ( H N i ( N 3 Iron(III)

More information

AP Chemistry- Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases. Bases- originally defined as any substance that neutralized an acid

AP Chemistry- Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases. Bases- originally defined as any substance that neutralized an acid AP Chemistry Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases Acids Electrolyte Taste Litmus Phenolphthalein React with metals to give off H 2 gas H 2 SO 4 (aq) + Mg (s) MgSO 4 (aq) + H 2 (g) Ionize

More information

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Name Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Period When a substance undergoes a chemical reaction, chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. This results in one or more new substances, often

More information

Chapter 12 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur

Chapter 12 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur Chapter 12 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur 1 Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) that replaces a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached

More information

Properties of Alcohols and Phenols Experiment #3

Properties of Alcohols and Phenols Experiment #3 Properties of Alcohols and Phenols Experiment #3 Objectives: To observe the solubility of alcohols relative to their chemical structure, to perform chemical tests to distinguish primary, secondary and

More information

ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures miscible two liquids that and form a immiscible two liquids that form a e.g.

ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures miscible two liquids that and form a immiscible two liquids that form a e.g. Unit 7 Solutions, Acids & Bases Solution mixture + solvent - substance present in the amount solute - in the solvent solvent molecules solute particles ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures

More information

25.1 Acids, Bases, and ph

25.1 Acids, Bases, and ph In the Investigations, you measured several indicators of water quality, including the ph. You may remember that ph values range from 0 to 14. Low values (0 to 6) indicate that a solution is acidic whereas

More information

Q1. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2).

Q1. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2). Q. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2). (a) The diagrams represent molecules of hydrogen and chlorine. Draw a similar diagram to represent a molecule

More information

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry general characteristics of organic molecules introduction to hydrocarbons alkanes unsaturated hydrocarbons functional groups: alcohols and ethers compounds

More information

Chapter 17 Alcohols and Phenols

Chapter 17 Alcohols and Phenols John E. McMurry http://www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 17 Alcohols and Phenols Alcohols and Phenols Alcohols contain an OH group connected to a saturated C (sp 3 ) They are important solvents

More information

Assessment Schedule 2012 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of the properties of selected organic compounds (91165)

Assessment Schedule 2012 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of the properties of selected organic compounds (91165) NCEA Level 2 Chemistry (91165) 2012 page 1 of 6 Assessment Schedule 2012 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of the properties of selected organic compounds (91165) Assessment Criteria Achievement Achievement

More information

Chapter 4 Lecture Notes

Chapter 4 Lecture Notes Chapter 4 Lecture Notes Chapter 4 Educational Goals 1. Given the formula of a molecule, the student will be able to draw the line-bond (Lewis) structure. 2. Understand and construct condensed structural

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch14_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Compounds with the -OH group attached to a saturated alkane-like carbon are known as A)

More information

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Eleventh Edition

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Eleventh Edition 1 hapter 10 Introduction to Organic hemistry: Alkanes Organic hemistry and Organic ompounds 2 An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms has one or more atoms has many atoms may also contain

More information

23.7 ALKYLATION AND ACYLATION REACTIONS OF AMINES

23.7 ALKYLATION AND ACYLATION REACTIONS OF AMINES 3.7 ALKYLATIN AND ACYLATIN REACTIN F AMINE 1131 organic phase organic phase organic phase CH 3 (CH ) 6 CH Br CH 3 (CH ) 6 CH Br CH 3 (CH ) 6 CH CN R 4 P Br R 4 P CN R 4 P Br Na CN Na Br Na Br aqueous phase

More information

Nomenclature. Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation FOURTH EDITION by Steven S. Zumdahl University of Illinois. Common Names - Exceptions

Nomenclature. Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation FOURTH EDITION by Steven S. Zumdahl University of Illinois. Common Names - Exceptions Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation FOURTH EDITION by Steven S. Zumdahl University of Illinois Nomenclature Chapter 5 1 2 Common Names Exceptions H 2 O = water, steam, ice NH = ammonia CH 4 = methane

More information

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure.

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Nucleus- positively charged contains protons (p+), neutrons(n0),

More information

Arrhenius Theory of Acids

Arrhenius Theory of Acids Acids and Bases Chapter 17: 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 17, 18, 43, 67a-d, 71 Chapter 18: 5-9, 26, 27a-e, 32 Arrhenius Theory of Acids an acid-base reaction involves the reaction of hydrogen ions and hydroxide

More information

IDENTIFICATION OF ALCOHOLS

IDENTIFICATION OF ALCOHOLS IDENTIFICATION OF ALCOHOLS Alcohols are organic compounds that which considered as derivatives of water. One of the hydrogen atoms of water molecule (H-O-H) has been replaced by an alkyl or substituted

More information

Carboxylic Acid Derivatives and Nitriles

Carboxylic Acid Derivatives and Nitriles Carboxylic Acid Derivatives and itriles Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: There are really only four things to worry about under this heading; acid chlorides, anhydrides, esters and amides. We ll start with

More information

Chemistry 3202. Unit 2 Acids and Bases

Chemistry 3202. Unit 2 Acids and Bases Chemistry 3202 Unit 2 Acids and Bases Definitions of Acids and Bases An operational definition is one that is based on the observable properties, behaviours or uses of an entity. The earliest definitions

More information

Nomenclature: How to Name Chemicals

Nomenclature: How to Name Chemicals Nomenclature: How to Name Chemicals Introduction Many of the chemicals we use at home have common names. Baking soda is used as a rising agent in cookies. Bleach is used to whiten our clothes. Ammonia

More information

Chem101: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases

Chem101: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases : General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases I. Introduction A. In chemistry, and particularly biochemistry, water is the most common solvent 1. In studying acids and bases we are going to see that water

More information

Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions Acids

Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions Acids Lecture Presentation Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Julie Klare Fortis College Smyrna, GA Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions 9.2 Strong Acids and Bases 9.3 Chemical Equilibrium 9.4

More information

All Solutions: the ph will lie between 0 and 14

All Solutions: the ph will lie between 0 and 14 1 Do p in Your ead Every aqueous solution has a degree of acidity or of basicity; that is, every aqueous solution has a p. There are two factors that will determine the p of a solution. These are the acidic

More information