# Periodic Properties of the Elements. Effective Nuclear Charge, Zeff

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Key Concepts: Periodic Properties of the Elements 1. Understand and be able to predict and explain trends in effective nuclear charge, Z eff. 2. Understand and be able to predict and explain the periodic trends in: 2.1. atom size 2.2. ion size 2.3. ionization energy 2.4. electron affinity 2.5. Properties of elements: Metals, nonmetals, groups (descriptive chemistry) Periodic Table: first proposed in 1869 separately by Dmitri Mendeleev in Russia and Lothar Meyer in Germany. The Periodic Table proposed by Mendeleev and Meyer was arranged in order of increasing atomic weight. Some elements seemed out of order though. The modern period table is arranged by rows and columns in order of increasing ATOMIC NUMBER. The properties of the elements tend to repeat, are periodic, from row to row. Larson-Foothill College 1 Effective Nuclear Charge, Zeff The splitting of the principle energy level into the s, p, d, and f energy sublevels is best explained by using the concept of effective nuclear charge, Z eff. An electron in a higher energy level is screened from seeing 100% (all the protons) of the nuclear charge by the electrons in lower energy levels. We usually talk about the valence electrons and how they are screened from experiencing the complete nuclear charge. This screening depends on the sublevel (orbital type) occupied by the electron being screened. The Effective Nuclear Charge is the NET NUCLEAR charge an electron experiences when other electrons screen the nuclear charge. An analogy is looking at a lightbulb that is covered by a frosted-glass lamp shade. The lampshade screens our eyes from the full brightness of the lightbulb. Larson-Foothill College 2

2 Z eff - Effective Nuclear Charge Sodium valence electron Z eff at 100% screening: Z eff = = +1 Lower energy (inner) electrons shield higher energy (outer) electrons from seeing a full nuclear charge. This screening is not 100%. Z eff = Z - S where Z is the atomic number (number of protons) and S is the screening constant. S is a positive number with a value that is dependent on the energy subshell. Electrons in the same valence shell screen each other very little, but do have a slight screening effect. For valance electrons, the the core electrons provide most of the shielding. Screening electron density from the core electrons: 1s, 2s, and 2p Actual Na atom 3s valence electron screening by core electrons: Z eff = = Larson-Foothill College 3 Trends in Effective Nuclear Charge Equation 7.1: Zeff = Z - S Notice: The Zeff experienced by the innermost electrons, those in the 1s subshell (red circles), closely tracks the increase in nuclear charge, Z (black line). The Zeff experienced by the outermost valence electrons (blue squares) not only is significantly smaller than Z, it does not evolve linearly with increasing atomic number; it varies periodically. Graph showing the variations in effective nuclear charge for period 2 and period 3 elements. Slater s Rules: A Closer Look, page Electrons for which the principle quantum number n is larger than the value of n for the electron of interest contribute zero to the value of s. 2. Electrons with the same value of n as the electron of interest contribute 0.35 to the value of S. (Note: The electron does not screen itself.) 3. Electrons for which n is one less than n for the electron of interest contribute 0.85 to the value of S, while those with even smaller values of n contribute Larson-Foothill College 4

3 Other Details: Splitting of Subshell Energies with the Same n Value Remember that for many electron atoms, the energies of orbitals with the same n value increase in the order ns < np < nd < nf. This can be explained by the following: In general, for a given n value: s electrons penetrate closer to the nucleus than p p electrons penetrate closer to the nucleus than d d electrons penetrate closer to the nucleus than f Thus, for a given n value, the attraction between the the electron and the nucleus decreases in the order: ns > np > nd > nf The result is that the ns orbitals are lower in energy then the (n-1)d orbitals. This is why we fill the 4s before the 3d, 5s before 4d, etc. Graphs showing the 2s and 2p radial probability functions. Larson-Foothill College 5 Atomic Radius Trends (Outer Valence e ) Atomic radii decrease along a row. Why? Zeff increases as we add electrons to the same energy level. The increase in nuclear charge as we move across a row is not completely screened by the additional valence electrons so Zeff becomes larger for each valence electron. (Atomic radii of transition metals decrease only slightly across a period.) Atomic radii increase down a column. Why? As we move down a column n increases for the valence electrons, hence the orbital size also increases. Zeff also increases SLIGHTLY, but the valence electrons spend more time further from the nucleus in the larger orbitals, 2s compared to 1s, etc. Larson-Foothill College 6

4 Atomic Radius - Predictions When two atoms bond covalently, the bonding atomic radius of the two atoms can be used to predict the covalent bond length (the distance between the two nuclei). Bonding atomic radii are shorter than nonbonding atomic radii due to the attractive forces that lead to the bond. Bonding Atomic Radii in Angstroms 1 Å = m Use the figure of bonding atomic radii to predict: 1. the largest diatomic covalent molecule bond distance. 2. if a N-S bond is longer or shorter than a P-O bond. Larson-Foothill College 7 Electron Configurations of Ions Main Group Elements: electrons are lost or gained so that the electron configuration of the ion matches that of the nearest Noble Gas. Metals lose electrons to become cations. Nonmetals gain electrons to become anions. We can use spdf notation to show this. 1. Al > Al e [Ne]3s 2 3p 1 > [Ne] + 3e (loses the 3s and 3p electrons) 2. Ca > Ca e [Ar]4s 2 > [Ar] + 2e (loses the 4s electrons) 3. O + 2e > O 2- [He]2s 2 2p 4 + 2e > [Ne] (gains two e to fill the 2p shell) In general, what type of orbitals are filled when nonmetals gain electrons? Transition metals (d-block) lose the (n+1)s electrons first! 1. Fe > Fe e [Ar]4s 2 3d 6 > [Ar]3d 6 + 2e (loses the 4s electrons) 2. Fe > Fe e [Ar]4s 2 3d 6 > [Ar]3d 5 + 3e (loses the 4s & a 3d electron) Write electron configurations for Li +, Zn 2+, Mn 4+, P 3, Sn 2+ and Sn 4+. Larson-Foothill College 8

5 Ions show a trend in ionic size as well. Ionic Size Trends Cations are smaller than the atoms they come from because they have lost outer electrons. Also, electron-electron repulsions are reduced. Anions are larger than the atoms they come from because of increased electron-electron repulsions. Also, Z eff decreases for added valence electrons. about 2x size about 1/2 size Larson-Foothill College 9 Period Trends - Comparison of Atomic and Ionic Radii (Units are angstroms: 1 Å = m) Grey: Neutral radius Pink: Cation radius Grey: Neutral radius Blue: Anion radius Larson-Foothill College 10

6 Isoelectronic Series - Same Valence Shell Electron Configuration Isoelectronic with [He] Isoelectronic with [Ne] Isoelectronic with [Ar] Isoelectronic with [Kr] Isoelectronic with [Xe] For isoelectronic series, what is the trend in size? Larson-Foothill College 11 Period Trends - Ionization Energy, IE Ionization Energy, IE, is the energy needed to remove an outer electron from an atom in the gas phase to make a positive ion. Each atom can have a series of ionizations to produce a multi-charged cation. For example consider the ionization of Mg(g): 1. First: Mg(g) > Mg + (g) + e IE 1 = +738 kj/mol 2. Second: Mg + (g) > Mg 2+ (g) + e IE 2 = kj/mol 3. Third: Mg 2+ (g) > Mg 3+ (g) + e IE 3 = kj/mol 1. Why the increase from IE 1 to IE 2? 2. Why the HUGE increase from IE 2 to IE 3? Larson-Foothill College 12

7 Periodic Trends - First Ionization Energy, IE 1 In general: first ionization energy increases across a row. Z eff increases across a row. As Z eff increases there is more attraction of the electrons to the nucleus thus more difficult to remove. In general first ionization energy decreases down a column. The outer electrons are in higher principle quantum shells and are further from the nucleus. Less attraction to the nucleus thus easier to remove. We see some exceptions however. For example, IE 1 of N is greater than IE 1 of O. Why? Half-filled p-sublevel for N is more stable than the partially filled p-sublevel for O. In N, we have no e - e repulsive pairing energy since all p-orbitals have only 1 e. In O we have a p-orbital with two electrons, the pairing energy in this p-orbital leads to a slightly less stable electron configuration and thus lower ionization energy. Larson-Foothill College 13 Periodic Trends - Electron Affinity, EA Electron affinity is the energy change when an electron is added to a neutral atom in the gas phase. For example: F(g) + e > F (g) Na(g) + e > Na (g) N(g) + e > N (g) EA = -328 kj/mol EA = -53 kj/mol EA > 0 kj/mol so N (g) is unstable All second electron affinities are positive. For example: O - (g) + e > O 2 (g) EA2 = +744 kj/mol Does this make sense? Larson-Foothill College 14

8 Periodic Trends - Electron Affinity, EA The trends are not as regular as for ionization energies. Larson-Foothill College 15 Increase Summary of Atomic Trends Increase Z eff The individual atomic properties of atoms can be related to the observed macroscopic behavior of the elements. The trends we observe across the periodic table help explain chemical behavior: Nonmetals have high electron affinities and tend to form (-) ions. Metals tend to have low ionization energies and form (+) ions. Compounds formed by a metal and a nonmetal tend to be ionic substances. Compounds formed by two nonmetals tend to be molecular substances. Larson-Foothill College 16

9 Metals Properties 1. Low ionization energies - oxidized easily 2. Metallic bonding in elemental form Chemistry 1. Metals and nonmetals react to form ionic compounds (salts): Metals + nonmetals > salts 2 Fe(s) + 3 Cl2(g) > 2 FeCl3(s) 2. Metal Oxides are basic since they contain a basic oxide ion: Soluble Metal oxide + water > metal hydroxide Na2O(s) + H2O(l) > 2 NaOH(aq) The oxide ion is basic in water: O 2- (aq) + H2O(l) > 2 OH (aq) 3. Metal oxides react with acids: Metal oxide + acid > salt + water Al2O3(s) + 6 HNO3(aq) > 2 Al(NO3)3(aq) + 3 H2O(l) Larson-Foothill College 17 Nonmetals Properties 1. Vary greatly in appearance 2. High electron affinities - tend to be reduced 3. Compounds of nonmetals are typically molecular substances (covalent bonding) Chemistry 1. Nonmetal Oxides are acidic in solution: Nonmetal oxide + water > acid CO2(g) + H2O(l) > H2CO3(aq) 2. Nonmetal oxides react with bases: Nonmetal oxide + base > salt + water SO3(g) + 2 NaOH(aq) > Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l) Larson-Foothill College 18

10 Questions: Trends in Properties of the Elements Compare B, Al, and C Which has the largest atomic radii? Which has the highest electron affinity? Rank them in order of INCREASING first ionization energy. Which has the most metallic Character? Which experiences the greatest effective nuclear charge, a 2p electron in F, a 2p electron in Ne, or a 2p electron in Na +? Text Question 7.36 Consider S, Cl and K and their most common ions. (a) List the atoms in order of increasing size. (b) List the ions in order of increasing size. (c) Explain any differences in the orders of the atomic and ionic sizes. Larson-Foothill College 19 Problems From Text 7.55 Consider the first ionization energy of neon and the electron affinity of fluorine. (a) Write equations, including electron configurations, for each process. (b) These two quantities will have opposite signs. Which will be positive and which will be negative? (c) Would you expect the magnitudes of these two quantities to be the same. If not, which one would you expect to be larger and why? 7.53 While the electron affinity of bromine is a negative quantity, it is positive for Kr. Use the electron configurations of the two elements to account for this observation. Larson-Foothill College 20

11 Problems From Text 7.95 (a) Use orbital diagrams to illustrate what happens when an oxygen atom gains two electrons. (b) Why does O 3 not exist in nature? Larson-Foothill College 21 Problems From Text Predict whether each of the following oxides is ionic or molecular: CO2 BaO SO3 Fe2O3 Li2O H 2 O 7.67 Write balanced chemical equations for the following reactions: (a) barium oxide with water (b) iron(iii) oxide with perchloric acid (c) sulfur trioxide gas with water (d) carbon dioxide gas with aqueous sodium hydroxide. Larson-Foothill College 22

12 Problems From Text (Time permitting) (a) Write the electron configuration for Li, and estimate the effective nuclear charge experienced by the valence electron. (b) The energy of an electron in a one-electron atom or ion equals where Z is the nuclear charge and n is the principal quantum number of the electron. Estimate the first ionization energy of Li. (c) Compare the result of your calculation with the value reported in Table 7.4, and explain the difference. (d) What value of the effective nuclear charge gives the proper value for the ionization energy? Does this agree with your explanation in (c)? Larson-Foothill College 23 Problems From Text (Time permitting) Consider the gas-phase transfer of an electron from a sodium atom to a chlorine atom: (a) Write this reaction as the sum of two reactions, one that relates to an ionization energy and one that relates to an electron affinity. (b) Use the result from part (a), data in this chapter, and Hess s law to calculate the enthalpy of the above reaction. Is the reaction exothermic or endothermic? (c) The reaction between sodium metal and chlorine gas is highly exothermic and produces NaCl(s), whose structure was discussed in Section 2.6. Comment on this observation relative to the calculated enthalpy for the aforementioned gas-phase reaction. Larson-Foothill College 24

13 Alkali Metals Very reactive because of low ionization energy. Easily oxidized. Very good reducing agents. Found only as compounds in nature. Low melting points and densities when pure. All will form metal hydrides: 2 Na(s) + H 2 (g) > 2 NaH(s) All will react with water to form hydroxides and H 2 : 2 Na(s) + 2 H 2 O(l) > 2 NaOH(aq) + H 2 (g) Reactivity increases down the column, why? (a) The reaction of lithium is evidenced by the bubbling of escaping hydrogen gas. (b) The reaction of sodium is more rapid and is so exothermic that the hydrogen gas produced burns in air. (c) Potassium reacts almost explosively. Larson-Foothill College 25 Alkaline Earth Metals Harder and more dense than alkali metals. Not as reactive. Generally don t form metal hydrides. All form stable oxides, their most common form in nature. Only Ca, Sr and Ba react with water at room temperature to form hydroxides: Ca(s) + 2 H 2 O(l) > Ca(OH) 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) Reactivity again increases down the column. Why? Calcium metal reacts with water to form hydrogen gas and aqueous calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2(aq). The colors of firework displays originate from the characteristic emissions of elements, including the alkaline earths. Strontium oxide, SrO(s) Larson-Foothill College 26

### 6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties

324 Chapter 6 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements 6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe and explain the observed trends

### Worksheet 11 - Periodic Trends

Worksheet 11 - Periodic Trends A number of physical and chemical properties of elements can be predicted from their position in the Periodic Table. Among these properties are Ionization Energy, Electron

### Unit 7 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Unit 7 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) In which set of elements would all members be expected to have very

### SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni

SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni Which metal in the list above has the most metallic character? Explain. Cesium as the

### TRENDS OF CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN PERIODIC TABLE

TRENDS OF CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN PERIODIC TABLE Sixth Course (General Chemistry) by Dr. Istadi 1 Trends in Atomic Size All physical and chemical behavior of the elements is based ultimately

### 3. What would you predict for the intensity and binding energy for the 3p orbital for that of sulfur?

PSI AP Chemistry Periodic Trends MC Review Name Periodic Law and the Quantum Model Use the PES spectrum of Phosphorus below to answer questions 1-3. 1. Which peak corresponds to the 1s orbital? (A) 1.06

### Copyrighted by Gabriel Tang B.Ed., B.Sc.

Chapter 8: The Periodic Table 8.1: Development of the Periodic Table Johann Dobereiner: - first to discover a pattern of a group of elements like Cl, Br, and I (called triads). John Newland: - suggested

### 1) is credited with developing the concept of atomic numbers.

Chemistry Chapter 14 Review Name answer key General Concept Questions 1) is credited with developing the concept of atomic numbers. A) Dmitri Mendeleev B) Lothar Meyer C) Henry Moseley D) Ernest Rutherford

### The Periodic Table: Chapter Problems Periodic Table Class Work Homework Special Groups Class Work Homework Periodic Families Class Work

The Periodic Table: Chapter Problems Periodic Table 1. As you move from left to right across the periodic table, how does atomic number change? 2. What element is located in period 3, group 13? 3. What

### Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements

Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements 1. Elements in the modern version of the periodic table are arranged in order of increasing. (a). oxidation number (b). atomic mass (c). average atomic mass

### Shielding effect. Coulomb s Law:

Shielding effect Effective nuclear charge, Z eff, experienced by an electron is less than the actual nuclear charge, Z Electrons in the outermost shell are repelled (shielded) by electrons in the inner

### Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity

Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity Orbital approximation: the e density of an isolated many-electron atom is approximated by the sum of the e densities of each of the individual e taken separately.

### Dr. Chris Kozak Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada. Contents

General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications Petrucci Harwood Herring 9 th Edition Chapter 9: The Periodic Table and Some Atomic Properties Dr. Chris Kozak Memorial University of Newfoundland,

### Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding 6.1 Organizing the Elements I. The Periodic Law A. The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers B. Elements

### ALE 7. Ionization Energies & Electron Affinities. (Reference: Sections Silberberg 5 th edition)

Answer Key ALE 7. Ionization Energies & Electron Affinities (Reference: Sections 8.4 - Silberberg 5 th edition) How can one use the Periodic Table to make predictions of atomic properties? The Model: First

### Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems

Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems 1. What are the SI units for a. Wavelength of light b. frequency of light c. speed of light Meter hertz (s -1 ) m s -1 (m/s) 2. T/F (correct

### The idea of arranging the elements in the periodic table according to their chemical and physical properties is attributed to. d) Ramsay.

Chemistry I PERIODIC TABLE PRACTICE QUIZ Mr. Scott Select the best answer. 1) The idea of arranging the elements in the periodic table according to their chemical and physical properties is attributed

### Development of Periodic Table

Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements Learning Outcomes: Explain the meaning of effective nuclear charge, Z eff, and how Z eff depends on nuclear charge and electron configuration. Predict the

### DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERIODIC TABLE Prior to the 1700s, relatively few element were known, and consisted mostly of metals used for coinage, jewelry and weapons. From early 1700s to mid-1800s, chemists discovered

### Chapter 6 The Periodic Table

Chapter 6 The Periodic Table Organizing the Periodic Table In a grocery store, the products are grouped according to similar characteristics. With a logical classification system, finding and comparing

### REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 8

Chemistry 101 ANSWER KEY REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 8 Use only a periodic table to answer the following questions. 1. Write complete electron configuration for each of the following elements: a) Aluminum

### 2. What happens to the number of protons and electrons in atoms across a period on the periodic table?

Name Period Date Honors Chemistry - Periodic Trends Check Your Understanding Answer the following, formulating responses in your own words. (This helps you better understand the concepts) 1. Define shielding

### Use the PES spectrum of Phosphorus below to answer questions 1-3.

Use the PES spectrum of Phosphorus below to answer questions 1-3. 1. Which peak corresponds to the 1s orbital? (A) 1.06 (B) 1.95 (C) 13.5 (D) 18.7 (E) 208 2. Which peak corresponds to the valence 3p orbital?

### Chapter 6. Periodic Relationships Among the Elements

Chapter 6. Periodic Relationships Among the Elements Student: 1. The nineteenth century chemists arranged elements in the periodic table according to increasing A. atomic number. B. number of electrons.

### TRENDS IN ATOMIC PROPERTIES: THE PERIODIC TABLE

TRENDS IN ATOMIC PROPERTIES: THE PERIODIC TABLE Electron configurations determine organization of the periodic table Next properties of elements and their periodic behavior Elemental properties determined

### UNIT-3 Classification of elements and periodicity in properties

UNIT-3 Classification of elements and periodicity in properties One mark questions:. For the triad of elements A, B and C if the atomic weights of A and C are 7 and 39. Predict the atomic weight of B..

### Electron Configurations continued:

Electron Configurations continued: Electrons in the outermost shell are called valence electrons. It is the valence electrons determine an atom s chemical properties. Electrons in the inner shells are

### Chapter 5, Section 5.1 History of the Periodic Table

i) Objectives Chapter 5, Section 5.1 History of the Periodic Table ii) Mendeleev and Chemical Periodicity iii) Moseley and the Periodic Law i) The Modern Periodic Table Objectives i) Explain the roles

### Periodic Table Questions

Periodic Table Questions 1. The elements characterized as nonmetals are located in the periodic table at the (1) far left; (2) bottom; (3) center; (4) top right. 2. An element that is a liquid at STP is

### CHM1 Review for Exam Which of the following elements has the highest electronegativity

The following are topics and sample questions for the first exam. Topics 1. Mendeleev and the first periodic Table 2. Information in the Periodic Table a. Groups (families) i. Alkali (group 1) ii. Alkaline

### Chapter 3 Atomic Structure and Properties

Chapter 3 Atomic Structure and Properties Introduction The nuclear atom and quantum theory are the accepted theories for the atom. In this chapter, we demonstrate their utility by using them to explain

### Chapter Two Periodic Table

Question (1) Chapter Two Periodic Table Choose the correct answer for each statement of the following:- 1- The elements of same vertical group are identical in the number of----------- a valence electrons

### Chapter 5. Chapter 5. Objectives. Table of Contents. Chapter 5. Chapter 5. Mendeleev and Chemical Periodicity

The Periodic Law of Contents and Periodic Properties Objectives Explain the roles of Mendeleev and Moseley in the development of the periodic table. Describe the modern periodic table. Explain how the

### Chapter 5. Chapter 5. Table of Contents. Objectives. Chapter 5. Chapter 5. Mendeleev and Chemical Periodicity

The Periodic Law of Contents and Periodic Properties Objectives Explain the roles of Mendeleev and Moseley in the development of the periodic table. Describe the modern periodic table. Explain how the

### A. Wanted to organize elements according to their. B. When elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic mass*, similarities in

Chemistry Unit 5- Periodic Table and Periodic Law Name: History of the Periodic Table I. Mendeleev and Chemical Periodicity A. Wanted to organize elements according to their B. When elements were arranged

### Chapter 5: The Periodic Law

Chapter 5: The Periodic Law Section 5.1: The History of the Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev (1869) first person to organize the elements in a chart Organized about 70 elements by increasing atomic mass

### Chapter 7. Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten

Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 7 John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Development of Table

### Periodic Table & Periodic Trends I. Importance of Classification II. History & Development law of octaves III. Periodic Law

Periodic Table & Periodic Trends I. Importance of Classification A. Makes large sums of information manageable. B. In chemistry, it reduces the number of reactions that need to be studied. II. History

### Name Date Class THE PERIODIC TABLE. SECTION 6.1 ORGANIZING THE ELEMENTS (pages )

6 THE PERIODIC TABLE SECTION 6.1 ORGANIZING THE ELEMENTS (pages 155 160) This section describes the development of the periodic table and explains the periodic law. It also describes the classification

### Find a pair of elements in the periodic table with atomic numbers less than 20 that are an exception to the original periodic law.

Example Exercise 6.1 Periodic Law Find the two elements in the fifth row of the periodic table that violate the original periodic law proposed by Mendeleev. Mendeleev proposed that elements be arranged

### Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Chapter 13 & 14 Assignment & Problem Set

Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table 2 Study Guide: Things You

### Chapter 7. Electron Structure of the Atom. Chapter 7 Topics

Chapter 7 Electron Structure of the Atom Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Chapter 7 Topics 1. Electromagnetic radiation 2. The Bohr model of

### Name. Worksheet: Periodic Trends. 11. Which sequence of elements is arranged in order of decreasing atomic radii?

1. Which statement best describes Group 2 elements as they are considered in order from top to bottom of the Periodic Table? (A) The number of principal energy levels increases, and the number of valence

### Transition metals: half-filled and fully-filled subshells have extra stability. d 5 s 1 d 10 s 1

Unusual electron configurations Transition metals: half-filled and fully-filled subshells have extra stability. d 5 s 1 d 10 s 1 Examples: Cr and Cu Transition metal ions: s and d energy levels change

### Metals and Nonmetals

The Periodic Table and Atomic Properties The periodic table originally came from the observation that when the elements are arranged by atomic mass, properties recur periodically. (Mendeleev) Now we understand

### Coincidence? I Think Not! 0 As you have realized, the Periodic Table provides a great deal more information than just atomic number and atomic mass!

Coincidence? I Think Not! 0 As you have realized, the Periodic Table provides a great deal more information than just atomic number and atomic mass! 0 Each period (row) corresponds to an energy level 0

### Chapter 8 (Essentials of General Chemistry, 2 nd Edition) (Ebbing and Gammon)

Chapter 8 (Essentials of General Chemistry, 2 nd Edition) (Ebbing and Gammon) Electron Configuration and Periodicity Electron Spin spin quantum number (m s ) -describes the spin orientation of an electron

### Chapter One (continued)

Slide 1 of 39 Chapter One (continued) Many Electron Atoms and The Periodic Table Slide 2 of 39 Multielectron Atoms In the hydrogen atom, all subshells of a principal shell are at the same energy level.

### PSI AP Chemistry Unit 2: Free Response CW/HW. The Periodic Law and Ionic Charge Classwork: 1. The PES spectrum for an element can be found below:

PSI AP Chemistry Unit 2: Free Response CW/HW Name The Periodic Law and Ionic Charge Classwork: 1. The PES spectrum for an element can be found below: Intensity 0.63 0.77 3.24 5.44 39.2 48.5 433 Binding

### CHAPTER 6: THE PERIODIC TABLE

CHAPTER 6: THE PERIODIC TABLE Problems to try in the textbook. Answers in Appendix I: 5,9,13,15,17,19,21,25,27,29,31,33,35,41,43,45,47,49,55abcde,57,59,61,63,65,67,69,71,73,75,89,91 6.1 CLASSIFICATION

### The Periodic Table; Chapter 5: Section 1 - History of the Periodic Table Objectives: Explain the roles of Mendeleev and Moseley in the development of

The Periodic Table; Chapter 5: Section 1 - History of the Periodic Table Objectives: Explain the roles of Mendeleev and Moseley in the development of the periodic table. Describe the modern periodic table.

### Organizing the Elements

The Periodic Table Organizing the Elements A few elements, such as gold and copper, have been known for thousands of years - since ancient times Yet, only about 13 had been identified by the year 1700.

### Directions: Multiple Choice For each of the following questions, choose the answer that best answers the question and place it on your answer sheet.

CHEMISTRY TEST: THE PERIODIC TABLE Directions: Multiple Choice For each of the following questions, choose the answer that best answers the question and place it on your answer sheet. 1. Which of the following

### Packet 3b: The Periodic Table

Click: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/physics/hunting-elements.html Periodic Table: Organizes and classifying the elements Dmitri Mendeleev: Russian chemist who arranged according to their increasing atomic.

### GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES SESSION 3: CHEMICAL BONDING. Key Concepts. X-planation

GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES SESSION 3: CHEMICAL BONDING Key Concepts In this session we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: Bonding Covalent bonding Electronegativity in covalent bonding

### CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS

CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS Long Answer Questions: ) Define first and second ionization potentials. Why is the second ionization potential greater than the first ionization potential? Discuss three factors

### UW Department of Chemistry Lab Lectures Online

Lab 5: Periodic Trends Part I: (Prelab) A Computer Study and Introduction to ChemDraw Part II: Acid-Base Properties of Period 3 and Group 5A Elemental Oxides Part III: Oxidizing Ability of the Elemental

### 2) Remember the Pauli exclusion principle. 3) Hund s rule of maximum multiplicity Energy

Building up the atoms in the periodic table 1) The Aufbau ( building up ) principle: lowest energy orbitals are filled first 1s, then 2s, then 2p, then 3s, then 3p, etc. 2) Remember the Pauli exclusion

### Bonds. Bond Length. Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy. Chapter 8. Bonding: General Concepts

Bonds hapter 8 Bonding: General oncepts Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy Bond Length It is the energy required to break a bond. The distance where

### GENERAL CHEMISTRY I CHEM-1030 INSTRUCTOR S LECTURE NOTES CHANG, CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 8

GENERAL CHEMISTRY I CHEM-1030 INSTRUCTOR S LECTURE NOTES CHANG, CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 8 Periodic Relationships Among the Elements Once an intriguing mystery. Similarities now know to be due to similar outer

### Chemistry 151 Final Exam

Chemistry 151 Final Exam Name: SSN: Exam Rules & Guidelines Show your work. No credit will be given for an answer unless your work is shown. Indicate your answer with a box or a circle. All paperwork must

### Page Which element is a noble gas? (1) krypton (3) antimony (2) chlorine (4) manganese

1. Which characteristics describe most nonmetals in the solid phase? (1) They are malleable and have metallic luster. (2) They are malleable and lack metallic luster. (3) They are brittle and have metallic

### Chapter 5 Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev: Russian Chemist credited with the discovery of the periodic table.

Chapter 5 Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev: Russian Chemist credited with the discovery of the periodic table. How did he organize the elements? According to similarities in their chemical and physical

### M. Prakash Academy Weekly workout 6

M. Prakash Academy Weekly workout 6 Periodic properties Q1. According to modern periodic law the properties of elements repeat at regular intervals when the elements are arranged in order of: (a) decreasing

### What other factor is explain by the presence of unpaired electrons found in the transitional element?

The Octet Rule Our discussion of valence electron configurations leads us to one of the cardinal tenets of chemical bonding, the octet rule. The octet rule states that atoms become especially stable when

### Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name

Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name HPS # date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The order of elements in the periodic table is based

### IONISATION ENERGY CONTENTS

IONISATION ENERGY IONISATION ENERGY CONTENTS What is Ionisation Energy? Definition of t Ionisation Energy What affects Ionisation Energy? General variation across periods Variation down groups Variation

### Ch. 14 The Periodic Table p. 390-406

Name Period PRE-AP 14-1 Development of the Periodic Table Ch. 14 The Periodic Table p. 390-406 Dmitri Mendeleev published the first periodic table in 1869. He organized the elements by atomic mass. He

### Ms. Campbell Ionic Bonding Practice Regents Chemistry

Name Student # Ms. Campbell Ionic Bonding Practice Regents Chemistry 1. Which element reacts with oxygen to form ionic bonds? 1) calcium 2) hydrogen 3) chlorine 4) nitrogen 2. Element X reacts with chlorine

### B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal

1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A) atomic mass B) atomic number C) molar mass D) oxidation number 2. Which list of elements consists of a metal, a metalloid, and

### Chapter 3, Elements, Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table

1. Which two scientists in 1869 arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic masses to form a precursor of the modern periodic table of elements? Ans. Mendeleev and Meyer 2. Who stated that the

### 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms. Chapter Outline. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties

11 Chemical Bonds The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter Outline 11.1 11.2 Lewis Structures of Atoms 11.3 The Ionic Bond Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another 11.4 Predicting Formulas of

### Answer Sheet Quarterly Review Questions

Answer Sheet Quarterly Review Questions 1. Compared to the charge and mass of a proton, an electron has a. the same charge and a smaller mass b. the same charge and the same mass c. an opposite charge

### CHAPTER 8 ELECTRON CONFIGURATION AND CHEMICAL PERIODICITY

CHAPTER 8 ELECTRON CONFIGURATION AND CHEMICAL PERIODICITY 8.1 Elements are listed in the periodic table in an ordered, systematic way that correlates with a periodicity of their chemical and physical properties.

### Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding 1. There are paired and unpaired electrons in the Lewis symbol for a phosphorus atom. (a). 4, 2 (b). 2, 4 (c). 4, 3 (d). 2, 3 Explanation: Read the question

### Unit 5 Elements and their Properties

Unit 5 Elements and their Properties 1. In 1871, Russian chemist Mendeleev created the forerunner of the modern periodic table. 2. The elements in Mendeleev's table were arranged in order of increasing

### Periodic Table Study Guide

Chemistry Periodic Table Name: Period: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Periodic Table Study Guide Directions: Please use this packet as practice and review. DO NOT try to answer these questions during presentations, take

### Science and technology 404

Name Date STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 1 ATOMS AND ELEMENTS 1) DESCRIBE THE RUTHERFORD-BOHR ATOMIC MODEL All matter is made of small particles called atoms. An atom is the smallest unit of matter that retains the

### What is an Atom? smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element

Date: Science 10 4.1 Atomic Theory & Bonding What is an Atom? smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element An atom = proton(s) + electron(s) + neutron(s) (PEN) Fun Fact:

### Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 2 - Cont. 30 January 2014

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 2 - Cont. 30 January 2014 The Structure of the Atom and the Periodic Table Element Information in the

### Chapter Test. Teacher Notes and Answers 5 The Periodic Law TEST A 1. b 2. d 3. b 4. b 5. d 6. a 7. b 8. b 9. b 10. a 11. c 12. a.

Assessment Chapter Test A Teacher Notes and Answers 5 The Periodic Law TEST A 1. b 2. d 3. b 4. b 5. d 6. a 7. b 8. b 9. b 10. a 11. c 12. a 13. c 14. d 15. c 16. b 17. d 18. a 19. d 20. c 21. d 22. a

### The Advanced Placement Examination in Chemistry. Part I Multiple Choice Questions Part II Free Response Questions Selected Questions from1970 to 2010

The Advanced Placement Examination in Chemistry Part I Multiple Choice Questions Part II Free Response Questions Selected Questions from1970 to 2010 Atomic Theory and Periodicity Part I 1984 1. Which of

### 8/19/2011. Periodic Trends and Lewis Dot Structures. Review PERIODIC Table

Periodic Trends and Lewis Dot Structures Chapter 11 Review PERIODIC Table Recall, Mendeleev and Meyer organized the ordering the periodic table based on a combination of three components: 1. Atomic Number

### CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS

Some Basic Concepts & Classification of Elements Test No. 15 Time: 2 Hrs. Total Marks: 311 Date: 07/07/2013 Name Batch: CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS Section A (Objective Question only one correct answer)

### Chapter 7 Electron Configurations and the Properties of Atoms

Chapter 7 Electron Configurations and the Properties of Atoms In this Chapter In the last chapter we introduced and explored the concept of orbitals, which define the shapes electrons take around the nucleus

### Chemistry. Unit II - Lecture 9. The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change. Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity

Unit II - Lecture 9 Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity 8.4 Trends in Three Key Atomic Properties Chemistry The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change Fifth Edition 8.5 Atomic Structure and

### Lecture 16 The Network

2P32 Principles of Inorganic Chemistry Dr. M. Pilkington Lecture 16 The Network 1. The periodic table - a group of interconnected organizing ideas that help make sense of inorganic chemical behavior. 2.

### The Periodic Table. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question:

Name: Class: Date:, ID: A The Periodic Table Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question: 1. What are the elements with atomic numbers from 58 to 71 called?

### CHAPTER 8 THE PERIODIC TABLE

CHAPTER 8 THE PERIODIC TABLE 8.1 Mendeleev s periodic table was a great improvement over previous efforts for two reasons. First, it grouped the elements together more accurately, according to their properties.

### Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity

Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity Name: per: Date:. 1. By what property did Mendeleev arrange the elements? 2. By what property did Moseley suggest that the periodic table be arranged? 3. What

### 10/17/11. Chapter 8. Electron Configuration and Chemical 8.3 The Quantum-Mechanical Model and the Periodic Table. The Fourth Quantum Number

Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity Chapter 8 8.1 Development of the Periodic Table 8.2 Characteristics of Many-Electron Atoms Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity 8.3 The Quantum-Mechanical

### SAI. Protons Electrons Neutrons Isotope Name. Isotope Symbol 131i S3 1. Atomic Number. Mass Number

ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 4 WORKSHEET PART A Given the following isotopes, determine the atomic number, the mass number, the number of protons, electrons and neutrons. Isotope Symbol

### 1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding

CHAPTER 1 1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding SECTION Chemical Bonding BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is chemical bonding? What are valence

### 6. Each column of the periodic table is

1. Atoms of elements that are in the same group have the same number of 5. Mendeleev left gaps in his periodic table because A. Protons B. Valence Electrons A. the table was too full B. no known elements

### Explain 'Dobereiner's Triads and its drawback.

CLASS: X NCERT (CBSE) Chemistry: For Class 10 Page : 1 Question 1: Explain 'Dobereiner's Triads and its drawback. Dobereiner classified elements into groups of three where the atomic weight of the middle

### Matter and the Periodic Table Chemical Families and Periodic Trends

Matter and the Periodic Table Purpose The purpose of this station is to reinforce students understanding of the organization and predictive power of the Periodic Table of the Elements and students ability

### Composition and Structure of the Atom. Protons: Positively charged, high mass particle. Neutrons: Neutral (no) charge, high mass

Composition and Structure of the Atom Atom: basic unit of an element; smallest unit that retains chemical properties of an element Subatomic particles: Small particles that are the building blocks from

### Slater s rules 1,2,3,4

Slater s rules 1,2,3,4 Slater s rules are a guideline for determining shielding and, therefore, Z eff. The rules are best used for atoms with n > 1. Remember, when we wish to determine or conceptualize